Sa'ir is a Palestinian town in the Hebron Governorate in the southern West Bank located 8 kilometers northeast of Hebron. Nearby localities include Beit Fajjar and al-Arroub to the north, Beit Ummar to the northwest, Halhul to the west and Beit Einun and ash-Shuyukh to the south; the Dead Sea is just east of Sa'ir's municipal borders. In the 2007 census Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of over 18,045, it has municipal jurisdiction over 117,000 dunams, 6,000 of, built-up area and 11,715 of, cultivated. The main economic activities in Sa'ir are agriculture and the Israeli labor market, although the latter has been adversely affected as a result of the Israeli restrictions following the Second Intifada in 2000-04. Olives are the major cash crop. According to the Applied Research Institute Jerusalem, Sa'ir "was established on the town of Saeer or Saiour", during the Roman era the town was known as "Sior"; the Book of Joshua mentions a town in this area called Tsi`or.
The Hebrew name is related to a root meaning "small". Byzantine ceramics have been found; the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, wrote that: "The tomb of El'Ais, south of the village, is in a chamber 37 feet east and west by 20 feet north and south, with a Mihrab on the south wall. The tomb is 12 feet long, 3 1/2 feet broad, 5 feet high, covered with a dark green cloth and a canopy above. An ostrich egg is hung near. North of the chamber is a vaulted room of equal size, to the east is an open court with a fig-tree, a second cenotaph rudely plastered, said to be that of Esau's slave. Rock-cut tombs exist south-west of this place." In 1596 Sa'ir appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as part of the nahiya of Halil in the Liwa of Quds. It had an Muslim population consisting of 72 households. Taxes were paid on wheat, summer crops, olive trees, goats and/or beehives; the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in the 1860s, found it having about 400 inhabitants. SWP described Sa'ir in 1883 as "a village of moderate size, in a valley surrounded with cultivated ground."
A maqam located in Sa'ir was believed by the local Muslims to house the tomb of Esau who they referred to as "Aisa." The SWP stated that Esau's tomb was in the Biblical Mount Seir. Under the name Sa'in, an Ottoman village list of about 1870 indicated 84 houses and a population of 186, though it is proposed that the population count included men, only. In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Sa'ir had a population of 1,477 inhabitants, all Muslim. In the 1931 census the population of Si'ir was a total of 1,967, still Muslim, in 388 inhabited houses. In the 1945 statistics the population of Si'ir was 2,710, all Muslims, who owned 92,423 dunams of land according to an official land and population survey. 2,483 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 10,671 for cereals, while 76 dunams were built-up land. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Sa'ir came under Jordanian rule. In 1961, the population of Si'ir was 2,511.
Sa'ir has been under Israeli occupation since the 1967 Six-Day War. The population in the 1967 census conducted by the Israeli authorities was 4,172. Following the 1993 Oslo Accords Sa'ir was designated within "Area B" giving the Palestinian National Authority control over the town's civil affairs while Israel maintained its control over security. In 1997, an elected 13-member municipal council was established by the PNA to administer Sa'ir, its municipal borders include a number of small villages, including al-Uddeisa, ad-Duwwara, Irqan Turad, Wadi ar-Rum and Ras at-Tawil. Principal families include Shlaldah, Jaradat, Mtur, al-Jabarin, al-Kawazbeh and al-Turweh. Hakim Shlaldah was elected mayor in the 2005 municipal elections. In January, 2013, Rafat Jaradat, 30 years old, from Sa'ir, died in jail five days after he was arrested by the Israelis. Israeli sources said his death was caused by "sudden heart attack while under interrogation", while Palestinian officials said that Jaradat had been tortured while in Israeli detention.
His body had bruises and broken ribs, which the Israelis said came from attempts to revive him, while his brother said it looked as if Jaradat had been beaten. Hamas candidates have won election to the town council, described in the Israeli press as "Hamas affiliated," and as "having close ties to Hamas."Between October 2015 and mid January 2016 eleven Sair residents were shot dead by the Israeli army in alleged attacks on Israeli soldiers. Half of them were killed at Beit Einun Junction where the IDF controls access to the town. Welcome To Sa'eer Sa’ir, Welcome to Palestine Survey of Western Palestine, Map 21: IAA, Wikimedia commons Sa'ir Town, Applied Research Institute–Jerusalem Sa'ir Town Profile, ARIJ Aerial Photo, ARIJ Needs for development in Sa'ir town based on the community and local authorities’ assessment, ARIJ Israeli Colonists set Olive Trees on Fire in Sa'ir Town 04, June, 2010, POICA Israeli Colonists Plough 20 Dunums of the Town of Sa’ir in Hebron Governorate. 01, January, 2011, ARIJ Israeli Colonists Level Tens of Dunums of Palestinian lands in Sa'ir town- Hebron Governorate 19, August, 2011, POICA Military Demolition Orders in Sa’ir Village northeast of Hebron City at the Southern parts of the West Bank 20, August, 2011, POICA
The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island and San Esteban Island were part of their traditional territory, they were seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures; the Seri people are not related culturally or linguistically to other groups that have lived in the area, such as the Opata, Yaqui, O'odham, or Cochimí. The Seri language is considered a language isolate. Beside the Apache and Yaqui, the Seri are best known as fierce warriors for their fierce resistance against subjugation by the Spanish and Mexicans; the name Seri is an exonym of uncertain origin. Their name for themselves is Comcaac; the Seri were divided into six bands.
They were: Xiica hai iicp coii or Xica hai iic coii known as Tepocas or Saliñeros, who inhabited a large area to the north of the other bands, along the coast between Puerto Lobos and Punta Tepopa and somewhat inland, constituting six subgroups with following camps: Zaah Hacáila, Pailc Haacöt, Xpano Hax, Haasíxp, Haxöl Ihom, Xapoyáh Xiica xnaai iicp coii or Xica xnai iic coii known as Tastioteños who inhabited the coast from Bahía Kino to Guaymas. Tahejöc comcaac or Tahéjöc comcáac known as the Seris or Tiburones, who inhabited the coasts of Tiburón Island, the coast of Mexico opposite it, north of the Xiica xnaai iicp coii. Constituting five subgroups with following camps: Hajháx, Sacpátix, Hatquísa, Taij It, Inóohcö Quixaz, Tacáta, Hast Hax, Soosni Itáaai, Xoxáacöl, Caail iti ctamcö, Hax Ipac Xoxáacöl Heeno comcaac or Heno comcáac, who inhabited the central valley of Tiburón Island. Xnaamotat or Xnaa motat known as Upanguaymas or Guaymas, who inhabited a small strip south of Guaymas between the Xiica hai iic coii and the Tahejöc comcaac.
Xiica hast ano coii or Xica hast ano coii, hast ano ctam, hast ano cmaam ), who inhabited San Esteban Island and the southern coast of Tiburón Island. Three of the bands were further subdivided. Relations between bands were not always friendly, internal conflict sometimes occurred; some bands were living on the Baja California Peninsula, they were called Hant Ihiini comcaac. It has been said that these groups spoke mutually intelligible dialects, it is thought that the first dialect was spoken by the Xiica hai iic coii, Xiica xnaai iic coii, Tahejöc comcaac and Heeno comcaac Bands and presently this variant is the only dialect spoken and is the ancestor of modern-day Seri. The second dialect was spoken by the Xnaamotat Band, but it is extinct and there was little data collected regarding this dialect; the third dialect is extinct and was spoken by the Xiica hast ano coii Band. Speakers sometimes make remarks regarding certain expressions being characteristic of particular Bands of the Xiica hast ano coii Band.
These communication differences were thought to have kept the groups from having much social interaction with each other. After the Seri population was reduced by conflicts with the Mexican government and the O'odham, epidemics of smallpox and measles, the remaining Seris grouped together and the band divisions were lost; the autoethnonym of the Seri people, was first recorded by United States Boundary Commissioner John Russell Bartlett, in the area for a short visit in early 1852. The word was included in the list of 180 words that Bartlett archived in the Bureau of American Ethnology, he recorded the word as "komkak". Other word lists, obtained by other people during the last half of the nineteenth century, confirm that pronunciation; the phonetic rule by which the consonant /m/ is pronounced as a velar nasal in this context may not have come about until sometime in the early twentieth century or researchers may have encountered slow-speech deliberate pronunciations for which the assimilation was held in abeyance.
The singular form, was first recorded by French explorer and philologist Alphonse Pinart in 1879. He recorded the word as "kmike", which must have reflected the pronunciation of the word at that time; the phonetic rule by which the consonant /m/ is pronounced as a nasalized velar approximant in this context may not have come about until sometime in the mid t
Mount Seir, today known in Arabic as Jibāl ash-Sharāh, is the ancient, as well as biblical, name for a mountainous region stretching between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, demarcating the southeastern border of Edom with Judah. It may have marked the older historical limit of Egypt in Canaan. A place called "Seir, in the land of Shasu", thought to be near Petra, Jordan, is listed in the temple of Amenhotep III at Soleb; the Hebrew Bible mentions two distinct geographical areas named Seir: a'land of Seir' and'Mount Seir' in the South, bordered by the Arabah to the west. Mount Seir was named for Seir the Horite, whose offspring had inhabited the area; the children of Esau destroyed them. It is noted as the place where Esau made his home; the prophet Balaam, predicting Israelite victories over the Trans-Jordanian nations at the end of their Exodus from Egypt, stated "Edom shall be a possession. Mount Seir is given as the location where the remnants "of the Amalekites that had escaped" were annihilated by five hundred Simeonites.
In 2 Chronicles 20:22-23, the "inhabitants of Mt. Seir", i.e. the Edomites, came along with the Ammonites and Moabites against Jehoshaphat of Judah, however "Yahweh set ambushments" against them, causing their forces to annihilate one another. Mount Seir is referenced in the prophetic books as a term for Edom, as in Isaiah 21:11, Ezekiel 25:8, 35:10. There is another Seir mountain near Hebron, allotted to Judah in Joshua 15:10, near the modern town of Sa'ir in the West Bank of the Palestinian territories. Al-Sharat
The Horites, were a people mentioned in the Torah inhabiting areas around Mount Seir in Canaan. According to Archibald Sayce, the Horites have been identified with references in Egyptian inscriptions to Khar, which concern a southern region of Canaan. More recent scholarship has associated them with the Hurrians, with the biblical name "Hivite" being a reference to this same group; the first mention of the Horites in the Torah was when they were defeated by a coalition of Eastern kings led by Kedorlaomer of Elam. These kings had come through the Horite territory to subdue a rebellion by a coalition of other'kings' of peoples whom they had ruled for twelve years, who were living near the Dead Sea and Sodom and Gomorrah. According to Genesis 36, the Horites co-existed and inter-married with the family of Esau, grandson of Abraham through Isaac, they were brought under the rule of the descendants of Esau then known as Edom. The ancestry of Seir the Horite is not specified. Pre-Edomite Horite chiefs, descendants of Seir, are listed in the Book of 1 Chronicles.
One of these chiefs, Zibeon, is described as a Hivite. Esau's wife Oholibamah was his granddaughter, their three sons all became'chiefs,' although unlike other sons of Esau, they are not called chiefs "in Edom". This may indicate a transition time; the chiefs who descended from Esau are listed in Genesis 36:40-43. Two of these chiefs would appear to have been female - Oholibamah. At some time, certain of these leaders rose to the level of'kings' over the other chiefs, the Horite land became known as Edom rather than the land of Seir. One example of these kings is Jobab, son of Zerah, a son of Esau and his wife Basemath, Ishmael's daughter. Another is Husham, a descendant of Esau's son, Teman. None of these kings' sons became kings. There was no familial royal line whereby sons of these post-Horite kings succeeded to the throne, but rather, some other system was in place by which kings were either chosen or won the right to rule. By the time governance of these peoples had been consolidated under kings instead of chiefs, Horites are no longer mentioned as such.
The land of Seir had become known as Edom
In Egyptian mythology, Sah was the "Father of the gods", in turn the anthropomorphic representation of a large egyptian constellation that today is represented by the modern myths of Orion and Lepus constellations, therefore was the egyptian counterpart of the Babylonian "Good Shepherd of Anu" or "Loyal Shepherd of Heaven". His consort was the goddess of the star Sirius. Sah came to be associated with a more important deity and Sopdet with Osiris's consort Isis. Sah was mentioned as "the Father of Gods" in the Old Kingdom Pyramid texts. Pharaoh was thought to travel to Orion after his death
Osiris is the god of the afterlife, the underworld, rebirth in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, holding a symbolic crook and flail. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son, he was associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Through syncretism with Iah, he is the god of the Moon. Osiris was considered the brother of Isis, Set and Horus the Elder, father of Horus the Younger; the first evidence of the worship of Osiris was found in the middle of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt, although it is that he was worshiped much earlier.
Most information available on the myths of Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty New Kingdom source documents such as the Shabaka Stone and the Contending of Horus and Seth, much in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus. Osiris was the judge of the dead and the underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River, he was described as "He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the "Lord of Silence". The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death – as Osiris rose from the dead so would they in union with him, inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius at the start of the new year.
Osiris was worshipped until the decline of ancient Egyptian religion during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Osiris is a Latin transliteration of the Ancient Greek Ὄσιρις IPA:, which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the original name in the Egyptian language. In Egyptian hieroglyphs the name appears as wsjr, which some Egyptologists instead choose to transliterate ꜣsjr or jsjrj. Since hieroglyphic writing lacks vowels, Egyptologists have vocalized the name in various ways, such as Asar, Ausir, Usir, or Usire. Several proposals have been made for the meaning of the original name. Most take wsjr as the accepted transliteration, following Adolf Erman: John Gwyn Griffiths, "bearing in mind Erman's emphasis on the fact that the name must begin with an w", proposes a derivation from wsr with an original meaning of "The Mighty One". Moreover, one of the oldest attestations of the god Osiris appears in the mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser. Kurt Sethe proposes a compound st-jrt, meaning "seat of the eye", in a hypothetical earlier form *wst-jrt.
David Lorton takes up this same compound but explains st-jrt as signifying "product, something made", Osiris representing the product of the ritual mummification process. Wolfhart Westendorf proposes an etymology from wꜣst-jrt "she who bears the eye". Mark J. Smith makes no definitive proposals but asserts that the second element must be a form of jrj; however alternative transliterations have been proposed: Yoshi Muchiki reexamines Erman's evidence that the throne hieroglyph in the word is to be read ws and finds it unconvincing, suggesting instead that the name should be read ꜣsjr on the basis of Aramaic and Old South Arabian transcriptions, readings of the throne sign in other words, comparison with ꜣst. James P. Allen reads the word as jsjrt but revises the reading to jsjrj and derives it from js-jrj, meaning "engendering principle". Osiris is represented in his most developed form of iconography wearing the Atef crown, similar to the White crown of Upper Egypt, but with the addition of two curling ostrich feathers at each side.
He carries the crook and flail. The crook is thought to represent Osiris as a shepherd god; the symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds whip, fly-whisk, or association with the god Andjety of the ninth nome of Lower Egypt proposed. He was depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either green or black in mummiform; the Pyramid Texts describe early conceptions of an afterlife in terms of eternal travelling with the sun god amongst the stars. Amongst these mortuary texts, at the beginning of the 4th dynasty, is found: "An offering the king gives and Anubis". By the end of the 5th dynasty, the formula in all tombs becomes "An offering the king gives and Osiris". Osiris is the mythological father of the god Horus, whose conception is described in the Osiris myth; the myth describes Osiris as having been killed by his brother, Set
Southeast Indian Ridge
The Southeast Indian Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge in the southern Indian Ocean. A divergent tectonic plate boundary stretching 6,000 km between the Rodrigues Triple Junction in the Indian Ocean and the Macquarie Triple Junction in the Pacific Ocean, the SEIR forms the plate boundary between the Australian and Antarctic plates since the Oligocene; the SEIR is the spreading centre closest to the Amsterdam -- Saint-Paul hotspot. The SEIR has an intermediate full spreading rate of 65 mm/yr, because Antarctica is stationary, this results in a northward ridge migration of half that rate. Spreading rates along the SEIR varies from 69 mm/yr near 88°E to 75 mm/yr near 120°E. During the past 1 Ma the Amsterdam–St. Paul hotspot has produced a 150×200 km plateau straddling on the SEIR; the ASP Plateau covers and area of 30,000 km2 and rises 500 m above the surrounding seafloor. Both Amsterdam and St. Paul are located on the Antarctic side within 40 km of the SEIR. North-east of the ASP Plateau a string of submarine volcanoes, 1−3 km-high and 40 km-wide, mark the track of the ASP hotspot across the Australian Plate.
This track leads to the intersection of the Broken Ninety East Ridge west of Australia. The ASP hotspot ceased to produce these volcanoes some 10−5 Ma when the SEIR started to interact with it and the hotspot started to build the shallow plateau; the Kerguelen hotspot, located more than 1,000 km from the SEIR influences the MORB composition of the SEIR near the ASP Plateau. Furthermore, there is an active submarine volcano, the 1100 m-high Boomerang Seamount, 18 km north of Amsterdam Island near the SEIR. Analyses of the isotope composition of basalts recovered from its caldera support that the ASP hotspot contributed to the formation of the Ninety East Ridge. Trending east-west between Australia and Antarctica, the SEIR traverses the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, a morphologically complex region overlying an area of mantle down-welling. Located midway between the ASP-Kerguelen and the Balleny-Tasmantid hotspots, the AAD overlies a region where cooler mantle temperatures have produced a thin oceanic crust and a rough topography with deep valleys.
Between the AAD and the Amsterdam and St. Paul islands, spreading rate is constant at 69–75 mm/yr while axial depth increases by more than 2300 m; this has been interpreted as an eastward decrease in mantle temperature of 100 °C caused by a magma flow from the Kerguelen–ASP hotspots to the AAD'cold spot' at 120–128°E. Located at 126°E, the AAD would thus mark the 40 km-long transition between Indian Ocean and Pacific MORBs, a boundary, migrating westward during the past tens of million years. Between 102°E and the AAD, where the spreading rate is constant, the left-stepping transform faults suggest the presence of oblique extensional forces while the presence of a long, elevated ridge near the 96°E right-stepping transform suggests a compressional force is active. Together these features indicate the two tectonic plate made a recent counter-clockwise change in relative motion. Between 88°E and 118°E there are nine transform faults offsetting the SEIR 21–135 km or an age of 0.5–3.6 Ma, accompanied by eight first-order segments and five east-migrating rifts.
These transform faults and migrating rifts are located were the SEIR reaches its maximum axial depths. The first-order transform faults are off-set 2–17 km by 19 non-transform discontinuities, resulting in 18–180 km-long second-order segments; the flanks of the SEIR are dominated by fracture zones perpendicular to the ridge and gravitational lineations oblique to the spreading direction and sometimes zigzag-shaped. This suggests that the SEIR evolves within the framework of the stable transform faults. Australia and Antarctica were neighbours before the break-up of Gondwana in the Cretaceous and several conjugate structures exist on either side of the SEIR. In south-western Australia the Albany-Fraser Orogen formed during the Mesoproterozoic collision between the Australian Yilgarn and Antarctic Mawson cratons; the continental basement of the submarine Naturaliste Plateau is associated with this orogeny. The Darling Fault on the Australian west coast has a possible continuation beneath the Antarctic Denman Glacier.
Archaean and Paleoproterzoic rocks in the Kalinjala Mylonite Zone of the Eyre Peninsula, match those found in Terre Adelie in Eastern Wilkes Land, Antarctica. Faults in Tasmania–Victoria and Northern Victoria Land have been identified as Cambrian remains of the west-dipping subduction zone along the eastern margin of Gondwana. Australia and Antarctica broke-up around 110 Ma but spreading in the SEIR first began during the Eocene when the Kerguelen hotspot separated Broken Ridge from the rest of the Kerguelen Plateau; the SEIR is now located 1400 km from the Kerguelen hotspot. The ASP hotspot was located beneath Australia and a chain of seamounts connecting it to the southern end of the Ninety East Ridge, i.e. the ASP hotspot track, indicate it contributed to the formation of the Ninety East Ridge before the SEIR opened. The opening of the Southern Ocean began west of Australia around 100 Ma from where it propagated eastward at about 2 cm/yr; this rifting was not the direct product of hotspot interaction as it occurred over a cooler than normal mantle.
Spreading was slow, a half rate of 2–6 mm/yr during the period 96–45 Ma after which it accelerated to 30–35 mm/yr. The SEIR divides the channel between Australia and Antarctica into the South Indian Basin to the south and the South Australian and Tasman basins to the north; the AAD forms a saddle across the channel while al