The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai means "large", myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history; the backgrounds of daimyō varied considerably. The term daimyō sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans called "Lord", it was though not from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as few could afford to pay samurai in money; the daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The shugo daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō.
They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held not only military and police powers, but economic power within a province, they accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu; the greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they appointed relatives or retainers, called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces; some of these in turn came to reside in Kyoto, appointing deputies in the provinces. The Ōnin War was a major uprising. During this and other wars of the time, kuni ikki, or provincial uprisings, took place as locally powerful warriors sought independence from the shugo-daimyō; the deputies of the shugo-daimyō, living in the provinces, seized the opportunity to strengthen their position. At the end of the fifteenth century, those shugo-daimyō who succeeded remained in power.
Those who had failed to exert control over their deputies fell from power and were replaced by a new class, the sengoku-daimyō, who arose from the ranks of the shugodai and ji-samurai. Among the sengoku daimyō were many, shugo-daimyō, such as the Satake, Takeda, Rokkaku, Ōuchi, Shimazu. New to the ranks of the daimyō were the Asakura, Nagao, Miyoshi, Chōsokabe, Jimbō, Hatano and Matsunaga; these came from the ranks of their deputies. Additional sengoku-daimyō such as the Mōri, Ryūzōji arose from the ji-samurai; the lower officials of the shogunate and rōnin, provincial officials, kuge gave rise to sengoku-daimyō. The Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1600 marked the beginning of the Edo period. Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized 200 daimyō and their territories into han, which were assessed by rice production; those heading han assessed at 10,000 koku or more were considered daimyō. Ieyasu categorized the daimyō according to their relation to the ruling Tokugawa family: the shinpan were related to the Tokugawa.
The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. A few fudai daimyō, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han; the shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Many fudai daimyō took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū; the fact that fudai daimyō could hold government positions while tozama in general, could not was a main difference between the two. Tozama daimyō held large fiefs far away from the capital, with e.g. the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, the Hachisuka of Awa; the Tokugawa regarded them as rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin-kōtai, resulted in peaceful relations.
Daimyō were required to maintain residences in Edo as well as their fiefs, to move periodically between Edo and their fiefs spending alternate years in each place, in a practice called sankin-kōtai. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyō, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus ending the daimyō era in Japan. In the wake of this change, many daimyō remained in control of their lands, being appointed as prefectural governors. Despite this, members of former daimyō families remained prominent in government and society, in some cases continue to re
In traditional Japanese architecture, a shōji is a door, window or room divider consisting of translucent paper over a frame of wood which holds together a lattice of wood or bamboo. While washi is the traditional paper, shōji may be made of paper made by modern manufacturing processes. Shōji doors are designed to slide open, thus conserve space that would be required by a swinging door, they are used in traditional houses as well as Western-style housing in the washitsu. In modern construction, the shōji does not form the exterior surface of the building. In his book on Japanese aesthetics and architecture, In Praise of Shadows, the Japanese writer Jun'ichirō Tanizaki comments on the role of shōji in the interaction of light and shadows; the word shōji was used to refer to both fusuma, formally known as karagami shōji, shōji, referred to as akari shōji. Higashiyama period Sukiya Living Magazine article about shōji screens "Shōji". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Maeda Nariyasu was an Edo period Japanese samurai, the 12th daimyō of Kaga Domain in the Hokuriku region of Japan. He was the 13th hereditary chieftain of the Kanazawa Maeda clan. Nariyasu was born in Kanazawa in the 2nd son of the Kaga daimyō, Maeda Narinaga, his childhood name was Katsuchiyo Katsumaru and become Inuchiyo. His father retired in 1822. Rather notably, Nariyasu became the first Kaga daimyō since Toshitsune to hold the high level court title of chūnagon. After his father's death, Nariyasu took personal control of Kaga's government, implemented a policy of domainal reform, he was supportive of a conservative policy. As part of this policy, he founded the Nanao Shipyard. Nariyasu was involved in much of the Kyoto-centered politics of the Bakumatsu period, he had entrusted a portion of the Kaga military to his son Maeda Yoshiyasu, who took part in the defense of the imperial palace during the Kinmon Incident of 1864. However, Yoshiyasu did not put up a committed fight, in defeat, chose to flee Kyoto.
Nariyasu, placed Yoshiyasu under solitary confinement, ordered the seppuku of the two Kaga domain elders, Matsudaira Daini and Ōnoki Nakasaburō. Working with the castle warden Honda Masahito, he confined the activities of the pro-sonnō jōi samurai in the Kanazawa. Nariyasu retired in 1866, was succeeded by his son Yoshiyasu. Under Nariyasu's leadership, Kaga sided with the imperial side during the Boshin War, took part in the imperial army's military action in the Echigo Campaign. Nariyasu died in 1884, at age 72. Father: Maeda Narinaga Mother: Oyae no Kata Eiyou’in Wife: Tokugawa Yōhime, daughter of 11th shōgun Tokugawa Ienari Concubines: Okisa no Kata Omie no Kata Shunsen’in Otsu no Kata Meikyoin Ochisa no Kata Oiku no Kata Children: Maeda Yoshiyasu by Yōhime Senjiro by Yōhime Maeda Toshinori by Okisa no Kata Maeda Toshimichi by Okisa no Kata Ikeda Yoshitaka by Yo-hime Manhime by Okisa no Kata Junrokuro by Omie no Kata Maeda Toshika by Otsu no Kata Maeda Naoyori by Otsu no Kata Ryomaro by Ochisa no Kata Kannosuke by Oiku no Kata Maeda Toshiatsu by Oiku no Kata Hatsuko by Oiku no Kata Hiroko married Nijō Motohiro by Oiku no Kata Maeda Toshitake by Oiku no Kata Ikuko married Asano Nagamichi married Okabe Nagamoto by Oiku no Kata Kanazawa domain genealogy "Visiting the graves of the Maeda house" Maeda Nariyasu on Nekhet's "World Nobility" site Sarugaku menhai ron 申樂免廢論.
Tokyo: Ishiguro Bunkichi 石黒文吉, 1934. Papinot, Edmond.. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan. New York: Overbeck Co. Ishikawa kenritsu rekishi hakubutsukan 石川県立歴史博物館. Kaga hanshu Maeda Nariyasu 加賀藩主前田斉泰. Kanazawa: Ishikawa Kenritsu Rekishi Hakubutsukan
Kanazawa is a city located in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 January 2018, the city had an estimated population of 466,029 in 203,271 households, a population density of 990 persons per km²; the total area of the city was 468.64 square kilometres. It is the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture. Kanazawa is located in north-western Ishikawa Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Japan and is bordered by the Sea of Japan to the west and Toyama Prefecture to the east; the city sits between the Asano rivers. The eastern portion of the city is dominated by the Japanese Alps. Parts of the city are within the borders of the Hakusan National Park. Ishikawa Prefecture Hakusan Nonoichi Uchinada Tsubata Toyama Prefecture Oyabe Nanto Per Japanese census data, the population of Kanazawa has grown over the past 40 years. Kanazawa has a humid continental climate characterized by hot and humid summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall. Average temperatures are cooler than those of Tokyo, with means 4 °C in January, 12 °C in April, 27 °C in August, 17 °C in October, 7 °C in December.
The lowest temperature on record was −9.4 °C on January 27, 1904, with a maximum of 38.5 °C standing as a record since September 8, 1902. The city is distinctly wet, with 193 rainy days in an average year. Precipitation is highest in the winter; the area around Kanazawa was part of ancient Kaga Province. The name "Kanazawa", which means "marsh of gold", is said to derive from the legend of the peasant Imohori Togoro, digging for potatoes when flakes of gold washed up; the well in the grounds of Kenroku-en known as'Kinjo Reitaku' to acknowledge these roots. The area where Kanazawa is was known as Ishiura, whose name is preserved at the Ishiura Shrine near the Kenrokuen. During the Muromachi period, as the powers of the central shōguns in Kyoto was waning, Kaga Province came under the control of the Ikkō-ikki, followers of the teachings of priest Rennyo, of the Jōdo Shinshū sect, who displaced the official governors of the province, the Togashi clan, established a kind of theocratic republic known as "The Peasants' Kingdom".
Their principal stronghold was the Kanazawa Gobo, on the tip of the Kodatsuno Ridge. Backed by high hills and flanked on two sides by rivers, it was a natural fortress, around which a castle town developed; this was the start of. In 1580, during the Sengoku period, Oda Nobunaga sent Shibata Katsuie, his general Sakuma Morimasa, to conquer the Kaga Ikko-ikki. After overthrowing the "Peasant's Kingdom", Morimasa was awarded the province as his fief. However, after the assignation of Oda Nobunaga, he was displaced by Maeda Toshiie, who founded Kaga Domain. At the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, he sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu and thus was able to further enlarge his holdings to a massive 1.2 million koku — by far the largest feudal domain within the Tokugawa shogunate. The Maeda clan continued to rule Kaga Domain from Kanazawa Castle through the end of the Edo period. Maede Toshiie and his successors enlarged Kanazawa Castle and planned the layout of the surrounding jōkamachi to meet strategic and defensive concerns.
On April 14, 1631, a fire consumed much of the city, including the castle. In 1632 Maeda Toshitsune ordered the construction of a canal to bring water from the upper Sai River to the castle to alleviate a water shortage problem. Water was drawn from far upstream, channeled through kilometres of canals and pipes laid at a 750:1 slope for about 3.3 kilometres to the castle. The water was fed to the castle under the moat that lay between it and what is now Kenrokuen by an artesian well; the large lake in Kenrokuen, Kasumi-ga-Ike, acted as an emergency supply. Local legend has it that the lake has a plug, which could be pulled to increase the water in the moats; the series of moats were laid out in the early seventeenth century. They were dry, but connected to the rivers; the Inner Moat was dug in only 27 days, averaged about four to five feet wide. The Outer Moat took a bit longer, averages some six to nine feet in width. Though much of the Inner Moat has been filled in, large sections of the Outer Moat remain.
The earth removed from the moat was piled into ridges along the inner side, as an added defence measure. Before the Maeda clan arrived in Kanazawa, the town had a population of only 5,000. However, thanks to Maeda efforts, that number rose quickly. By 1700, Kanazawa rivaled Rome and Madrid in size with its population of over 100,000; the Maeda summoned samurai retainers to live in Kanazawa and offered a set of incentives to attract the artisans and merchants needed to support the samurai population. Chartered merchants and artisans received economic and political privileges in exchange for moving to the city: they were guaranteed business, exempt from certain taxes, given pieces of land for shops and residences; these merchants and artisans were at the top of the chōnin, or townsman, social class. Other merchants and artisans, who made up the rest of the chōnin, came without such promises; some were first hired as servants for samurai or wealthy merchant families and decided to stay in the city after their contracts expired, though most moved to Kanazawa for no reason other than the commercial opportunities the city presented.
The government further facilitated growth by responding to t