Poljot, is a brand of Soviet/Russian wristwatches, produced since 1964 by the First Moscow Watch Factory. The flagship brand of the USSR's watch industry, Poljot produced numerous historical watches used in many important space missions, including the world's first space watch worn by Yuri Gagarin. Founded in 1930 under orders from Joseph Stalin, the First State Watch Factory was the first large scale Soviet watch and mechanical movement manufacturer. Via its USA-based trading company Amtorg, the Soviet government bought the defunct Ansonia Clock Company of Brooklyn, New York in 1929, the Dueber-Hampden Watch Company of Canton, Ohio, it moved twenty-eight freight cars full of machinery and parts from the USA to Moscow in order to establish the factory. Twenty-one former Dueber-Hampden watchmakers and various other technicians helped to train the Russian workers in the art of watchmaking as part of the Soviet's first five-year plan; the movements of very-early products were still stamped "Dueber-Hampden, Ohio, USA".
In 1935 the factory was named after the murdered Soviet official Sergei Kirov. As the Germans closed in on Moscow in 1941, the factory was hurriedly evacuated to Zlatoust. By 1943 the Germans were in retreat, the factory moved back to Moscow, adopting the "First Moscow Watch Factory" name. In 1947 the first wristwatches under the brand name "Pobeda" and the first Marine Chronometers and Deck watches were produced. By 1951 the production of wristwatches had increased to 1.1 million. In 1975 new machinery and equipment for manufacturing complex watches was imported from Switzerland; the first chronograph "Okean" was produced for the space station "Sojuz-23." In 1990 production of watches and clocks reached 5 million pieces, in 1991 the international award "Golden Trophy for Quality" was awarded in Madrid. On 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space; the watch Gagarin wore was made by the First Moscow Watch Company under the name Sturmanskie, which translates to "Navigator". Today's owner of the brand, Volmax, is the only authorized company allowed to use Gagarin's name and likeness in watch production.
Gagarin received his 15-jewel watch with a manual-wind Poljot movement when he graduated from the Soviet air force flight school in 1957. The original watches were built for the Soviet Air Force and not available to the public. Publicly available versions of the model were not released until years later. At 36 mm in diameter, the original watch was small by today's standards; the watch performed flawlessly in space and is on display at the Moscow Museum of Cosmonauts. Commemorative editions produced today have a 17-jewel Poljot movement. In 1965 cosmonaut Alexei Leonov wore an FMWF Strela chronograph during his historic first space walk, thus cementing Poljot's place in space history; as with Gagarin's first flight, Leonov's watch was not specially commissioned. The Strela replaced the Shturmanskie as the standard issue pilots watch. In the late 1970s, the Strela itself was replaced by a new breed of chronographs based around the 3133 movement. Poljot 3133-based watches continued where their predecessors left off and were taken into space by cosmonauts from Russia, France and Ukraine.
On the wrist of cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov, a Poljot 3133-based watch set a space record for the longest space flight in history. During the Soviet era, Soviet watch brands including Poljot, but Raketa watches, were marketed in the United Kingdom under the brand "Sekonda". Today's Sekonda company, a British distributor of ubiquitous fashion watches, has no connection to any Russian watches. At the turn of the 21st century, the First Moscow Watch Factory began reproducing many of their most famous models as limited edition commemorative pieces. Replicas were made of the famous 1960s Shturmanskie worn by Yuri Gagarin, the 1940s Kirova pilots chronograph, the 1970s Ocean chronograph. All of the replicas became sought-after collectibles. In late 2003, rumours predicting the demise of the Poljot brand circulated on the Internet. According to the rumours, the First Moscow Watch Factory was to cease producing their own models and become a source of inexpensive movements for other European watch brands.
These rumours never came to fruition. Instead, in the late 2000s, the company was bought by the businessman Sergeï Pugachev, becoming one of the companies of his new luxury group, including: Hédiard, the channel Luxe TV; the physical remnants of First Moscow Watch Factory were purchased by a group of former Poljot employees, forming the basis for a new company, Volmax. Volmax marketed watches under the Aviator and Shturmanskie brands using movements produced by another Russian firm, MakTime; as of 2012, the status of the Poljot brand is unclear. MakTime, the company utilizing old Poljot equipment to manufacture mechanical movements, went bankrupt, Volmax, the successor company to First Moscow Watch Factory relocated to Switzerland. Present models from the Volmax company are Swiss-made, using design cues from vintage Russian models. Raketa watch factory in Saint Petersburg, Russia Russian watches Pobeda Vostok Watch Makers, Inc Documentary
Luch is a watch brand produced by the OJSC Minsk Watch Plant, the only watch plant in Belarus. The decision to build the plant was taken in 1953, from 1955 watches were produced in Minsk, including the brands Luch and Vympel. Famous wearers include Leonid Brezhnev, Andrei Gromyko, Mikhail Suslov. Since 2010 the Minsk Watch Plant is owned by the Swiss company Franck Muller; the plant has kept the full cycle of watch production. As of 2018, OJSC Minsk Watch Plant makes its own mechanical movement, 1801, in some models the quartz movement 2356 is used. All other quartz movements are Swiss; as of 2018, the OJSC Minsk Watch Plant is owned. 19,97% of its shares are as state share in Charter Fund, 80% are owned by Franck Muller. Luch has produced the following collections: "One hand watch" — watch with only one hand; as of 2018 in Belarus there are 14 brand stores of Luch. The OJSC Minsk Watch Plant produces equipment for technical industrial purposes, among which are quartz car clocks and printed circuit boards.
A number of certificates were received for the products of the OJSC Minsk Watch Plant: For manufacturing of products of the enterprise the certificate of conformity on quality management system according to requirements of the international standard ISO 9001-2001 No. ВY/112 05.01.003 0030 is received. Mechanical and quartz wrist- and pocket watches have received certificates of state hygienic registration No. 08-33-9.62541. In accordance with the decree of State Standard of the Republic of Belarus No. 23 dated 28.07.2000 "On mandatory certification of watches" and resolution No. 4 dated 04.01.2003 the company's products are certified in "the National system of certification of the Republic of Belarus" — STB 5.1.04-96. All products of the enterprise are certified in "the Russian system of certification". Official website Watch-Wiki on Luch Russian Ultra-Thin 2209 Movement page which includes Luch watches
Ice Hockey Superleague
The British Ice Hockey Superleague was a professional ice hockey league in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2003. Devised in 1995, it replaced the premier division of the British Hockey League at the end of 1995–1996 season, it was replaced by the Elite Ice Hockey League. Unlike its North American counterparts, the Superleague was not divided into conferences; the Ice Hockey Superleague Ltd was established on 1 November 1995 and held its first season in 1996-97 with eight founding clubs – Ayr Scottish Eagles, Basingstoke Bison, Bracknell Bees, Cardiff Devils, Manchester Storm, Newcastle Cobras, Nottingham Panthers, Sheffield Steelers. Several competitions fell under the jurisdiction of the Superleague; the Superleague ran a total of four competitions: the League, the Play-offs, the Express Cup and the Benson and Hedges Cup. The league consisted of a single division, each team playing three home games and three away games against the other teams in the league. Two points were awarded for one point for an overtime defeat.
Overtime consisted of 10 minutes of sudden death. The team that had most points after all fixtures were completed were declared Superleague champions. After the regular season was complete, the teams would be entered into the play-offs, the winner of which won the British Championship; the teams were entered into two groups, Group A and Group B, each team playing three home games and three away games against the other teams in the group. Two points were awarded for one point for an overtime defeat. Overtime consisted of 10 minutes of sudden death; the top two teams in each group qualified for the semi-finals, which were straight knockout matches. Both the semi finals and final took place over the course of a weekend; the Superleague was governed by a board of directors who were the owners of the participating teams with Martin Weddell as Chairman. The chief executive Ian Taylor from 1996–02 was replaced by the league's former secretary, Brian Storey in what would be the leagues final season of 2003.
A system of promotion and relegation was not operated by the Superleague. The trophy, awarded to the winners of the superleague, was called the Ice hockey superleague trophy, it was a silver replica of a George III Monteith Bowl. In the inaugural season, the trophy was taken around the arenas of the superleague teams and publicly displayed on the following dates: The trophy itself resembled a Monteith bowl used to cool wine glasses that are suspended by their feet through the scallop-edged rim of the bowl; the bowl itself was made of silver, was 14 inches in diameter and 12 inches tall with a mahogany plinth. In 1998, the Superleague secured a major sponsorship deal with Sekonda. Sekonda remained the title sponsor until 2002, during which time the league was known as the Sekonda Ice Hockey Superleague. During this time, the man of the match awards were presented with a Sekonda watch; each month one of the man of the match winners would be selected. At the end of each season the Sekonda Superleague Player of the Year would be selected from the Sekonda Face to Watch winners by a panel of journalists — except for the season 2001-02 when Sekonda's sponsorship finished part way through the season.
Cardiff Devils and Newcastle Jesters pulled out of the league in 2001, reducing the membership of the Superleague to seven clubs. Manchester Storm and Scottish Eagles both folded within a week of one another during the early stages of the 2002-03 season, leaving just five teams remaining. To make matters worse, in December 2002 Bracknell Bees announced their intention to resign from the league to join the BNL at the end of the season, uncertainty arose surrounding the future of London Knights and their London Arena home at this time. Owing a large debt to Ice Hockey UK and facing the prospect of having only three member clubs, the Superleague placed itself into liquidation on 30 April 2003; the Elite Ice Hockey League was formed by the remaining three clubs and played their first season on 12 September 2003. The Elite league is seen as the successor league to the Ice Hockey Superleague; the superleague was formed with eight founding clubs, with nine participating at any one time at its peak.
Ten clubs have played in the Superleague. * Denotes founding member † Club folded in the 2002-03 season. There were two main areas of criticism of the Superleague, it was regarded that the league was too reliant on imported players, illustrated by the participation of only four British trained players in the 2003 season. The financial situation of the league was unsustainable due to a high salary cap at £400k. Smaller teams such as Bracknell couldn't compete with the larger arena teams who had higher revenues. British ice hockey league champions
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Raketa wristwatches, have been manufactured since 1961 by the Petrodvorets Watch Factory in Saint Petersburg. The Petrodvorets Watch Factory is Russia's oldest factory, founded by Peter the Great in 1721. Raketa watches have been produced for the Red Army, the Soviet Navy, for North Pole expeditions, as well as for civilians. Today, Raketa is one of a handful of global watch brands that produces its own movements from start to finish. On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin made the first manned flight in outer space on the rocket, Vostok 1. In honor of this achievement, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory named its watches "Rocket". At the height of the Cold War, the name "Raketa" was perceived negatively in the West, as the word was associated with the latest generation of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles, the R-16. During Soviet times it became one of the most produced watch brands in the world. In the 1970s the factory produced about five million mechanical watches per year. In 2014, a high-end Raketa collection based on the new in-house Raketa-Avtomat movement was released including the following models: "Petrodvorets Classic Avtomat".
Since "Raketa" is one of the rare manufacturers capable of producing its watches, including movements and escapements in-house, its parent firm, Petrodvorets Watch Factory, is beginning to supply some Swiss watch brands having difficulty acquiring Swiss ETA movements. Over the years, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory has produced more than two dozen versions of Raketa movements; some have been equipped with features such as automatic winding, calendars, 24-hour models for polar explorers, anti-magnetic watches, as well as watches for the military. Mechanical Raketa watches were exported to many Eastern Bloc and communist countries and are considered one of the most durable and reliable movements in the world. By the 1980s Raketa was producing five million watches a year. Being one of the few watch brands in the world producing its own movements, the factory has created its own watchmaking school, the Petrodvorets Watchmaking School, to ensure the transmission of watchmaking expertise to future generations.
The only one left in the schooling program has been established in collaboration with the Saint Petersburg Technical institute. The Petrodvorets Watch Factory Raketa, is one of only five watch brands in the world producing their movements in-house from start to finish, including hairsprings and escapements. Most watch brands globally do not produce their own hairsprings, they order them from Nivarox, a subsidiary of Swatch Group; this enables the Russian military industry to be independent from western suppliers for producing hairsprings needed in the military aviation industry. Built in 2014 on Moscow's Lubyanka Square in the main atrium of the Central Children's Store on Lubyanka, the Raketa Monumental Clock is the world's largest clock movement, it weighs 5 measures 13 meters high by 8 meters wide. Built and assembled in a record six months, it has become a major tourist attraction in Moscow; the Mayor of Moscow, Sergey Sobyanin inaugurated the clock in January 2015. Raketa is only one of the brands produced by the Petrodvorets Watch Factory, albeit its most famous brand.
Other Petrodvorets brands include Talberg among others. Before the Russian Revolution, the factory produced objects made of precious and semi-precious stones for the Tsar and his family, it began to produce goods for military manufacturers as well as "jewels" for the watch industry. In 1949, the factory released the first wristwatches under the names Pobeda; the factory's own watches, sold under the brand name Raketa, first appeared in 1961. Gold medal at the World Leipzig Fair for the watch «Raketa Record». In 2009, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory employed three ranked Swiss watchmakers to help the factory adapt its production to modern standards; these watchmakers had worked for Rolex and Hautlence. In 2011, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory announced that the super-model Natalia Vodianova offered to design a new watch model. Vodianova’s model is based on a vintage Raketa design from 1974. A portion of the sales of this “Raketa by Vodianova” will be contributed to Vodianova’s Naked Heart Foundation.
In 2012, Jean-Claude Quenet, former director of Rolex's escapement department and of production at Franck Muller, joined the Russian factory. In 2013 Prince Rostislav Rostislavovich Romanov became advisor to the creative department of the factory and a member of its board of directors, he created a special new design of watches commemorating the 400-year jubilee of the Romanov Dynasty. In 2014, a Swiss mechanical engineer, Florian Schlumpf, was appointed head of engineering and construction of monumental clocks. Fersman, A. E. and N. I. Vlodavec: State Peterhof Lapidary Works in past, future. Published: USSR 1922 Sukhorukova, A. E.: Watchmaker: The Story of one Factory. Published: USSR 1983. - 108 p. Tyutenkova, A. G.: Checking Time. Published: Lenizdat, 1986. - 181 p. Raketa official site Russian State TV documentary 2003 about the 300 years of History of the factory Snob Mag. About Vodianova working for Raketa
Vostok Watch Makers, Inc. is a Russian watchmaker based in Chistopol, Russia. The company produces rugged military and amfibia mechanical watches, it makes clocks and watch movements for other watch brands. The Vostok Watch Makers company was founded in 1942 when one of the Moscow watch-making plants of the First Moscow Watch Factory was evacuated to Chistopol, a small town located on the Kama River in Tatarstan. Only defence equipment was produced during the war years, but as soon as the war was over the company started making mechanical wrist watches. However, the company did not begin using the "Vostok" brand name until the 1960s; the "Vostok" brand was named after the Vostok space programme, as were some other soviet watch brands, namely Poljot and Raketa. The company was appointed an official supplier of watches for the Ministry of Defence of the Soviet Union in 1965; this year marks the creation of the well known Komandirskie watch. The experience gained through development of the army watch led to the Amphibia, a stainless-steel diving watch able to withstand a 200-metre depth.
By 1980, Vostok Watch Makers was producing 4.5 million timepieces per year. Watches sold to the military were marked "ЗАКАЗ МО СССР", meaning "Ordered by the Ministry of Defence of the USSR"; these models were sold through Voentorg stores, which catered to military personnel with identification only. Today, these models have become sought-after collectibles. At turn of the 21st century, Vostok launched a line of 1940s-style replicas called the Kirovskie K-43 collection. Vostok began producing a "luxury" line of watches called Kremlevskie. Both lines are made of stainless steel, produced in limited quantities, aimed toward a more affluent consumer. In 2004, Vostok Watch Makers began supplying movements to the Koliz Company of Lithuania, makers of the Vostok Europe brand of timepieces. In 2006, Vostok Watch Makers began marketing another line of watches branded "Amphibia"; this brand, like most other Vostok products, features the familiar 31-jewel automatic movement. These watches feature "diver" styling with polyurethane or stainless steel bands.
An updated version of the Komandirskie debuted in summer 2007, a special anniversary edition of the Amphibia appeared in early 2008. Despite the introduction of the new lines of Komandirskie and Amphibia, the "classic" models of these lines were still in production. In early 2010, Vostok Watch Factory filed for bankruptcy and their official website was disabled; the factory resumed the production of watches and movements. Vostok produces its own mechanical movements; the company owns "Briolet", which specializes in the production of technical ruby-jewels. Vostok supplies models for other watch makers like Vostok Europe, Moscow Classic and Poljot International; the models produced. Movement codes are based on the standard Soviet-era system. Amfibia Poljot Raketa Pobeda Vostok Europe Official Vostok site
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t