The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Seleucus received Babylonia and from there expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories. At the height of its power, the Empire included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan; the Seleucid Empire became a major center of Hellenistic culture – it maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece halted abruptly in the early 2nd century BC after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Seleucid attempts to defeat their old enemy. Having come into conflict in the East with Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, Seleucus I entered into an agreement with Chandragupta whereby he ceded vast territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern-day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and offered his daughter in marriage to the Maurya Emperor to formalize the alliance.
Antiochus III the Great attempted to project Seleucid power and authority into Hellenistic Greece, but his attempts were thwarted by the Roman Republic and by Greek allies such as the Kingdom of Pergamon, culminating in a Seleucid defeat at the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains; the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast. However, the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great in 83 BC and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC. Contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom.
Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia. Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria, Lord of Asia, other designations, he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of Hellenised culture without an adult heir; the empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas, the territories were divided among Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon, all in that same year. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, "Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry" and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly.
Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The rise of Seleucus in Babylon threatened the eastern extent of Antigonus I territory in Asia. Antigonus, along with his son Demetrius I of Macedon, unsuccessfully led a campaign to annex Babylon; the victory of Seleucus ensured his claim of legitimacy. He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia, Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. In the region of Punjab, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha, relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.
Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by 317 BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9,000 war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian: He [Sel
Silifke is a town and district in south-central Mersin Province, Turkey, 80 km west of the city of Mersin, on the west end of Çukurova. Silifke is near the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the Göksu River, which flows from the nearby Taurus Mountains, surrounded by attractive countryside along the river banks. Silifke was called Seleucia on the Calycadnus — variously cited over the centuries as Seleucia Cilicia, Seleucia Isauria, Seleucia Trachea, Seleucia Tracheotis —; the city took its name from King Seleucus I Nicator. The ancient city of Olba was within the boundaries of modern-day Silifke; the modern name derives from the Latin Seleucia which comes from the Greek Σελεύκεια. Located a few miles from the mouth of the Göksu River, Seleucia was founded by Seleucus I Nicator in the early 3rd century BCE, one of several cities he named after himself, it is probable that there were towns called Olbia and Hyria and that Seleucus I united them giving them his name. The city grew to include the nearby settlement of Holmi, established earlier as an Ionian colony but being on the coast was vulnerable to raiders and pirates.
The new city up river was doubtless seen as safer against attacks from the sea so Seleucia achieved considerable commercial prosperity as a port for this corner of Cilicia, was a rival of Tarsus. Cilicia thrived as a province of the Romans, Seleucia became a religious center with a renowned 2nd century Temple of Jupiter, it was the site of a noted school of philosophy and literature, the birthplace of peripatetics Athenaeus and Xenarchus. The stone bridge was built by the governor L. Octavius Memor in 77 AD. Around 300 AD Isauria was established as an independent state with Seleucia as the capital. Early Christian bishops held a Council of Seleucia in 325, 359, 410. Seleucia was famous for the tomb of the virgin Saint Thecla of Iconium, converted by Saint Paul, who died at Seleucia, the tomb was one of the most celebrated in the Christian world and was restored several times, among others by the Emperor Zeno in the 5th century, today the ruins of the tomb and sanctuary are called Meriamlik. In the 5th century the imperial governor in residence at Seleucia had two legions at his disposal, the Legio II Isaura and the Legio III Isaura.
From this period, later, dates the Christian necropolis, west of the town, which contains many tombs of Christian soldiers. According to the Notitia Episcopatuum of the Patriarchate of Antioch, in the 6th century, the Metropolitan of Seleucia had twenty-four suffragan sees. In 705 Seleucia was recovered by the Byzantines, thus by 732 nearly all the ecclesiastical province of Isauria was incorporated into the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In the Notitiae of Leo VI the Wise Seleucia had 22 suffragan bishoprics. In 968 Antioch again fell into the power of the Byzantines, with the Province of Isauria, Seleucia was allocated to the Patriarchate of Antioch. We know of several metropolitans of this see, the first of whom, attended the Council of Nicaea in 325. No longer a residential see, Seleucia in Isauria has been included in the list of titular sees of the Catholic Church, which has made no new appointments of a titular bishop to this eastern see since the Second Vatican Council. In the 11th century, the city was captured by the Seljuk Turks.
During this period of struggle between Armenians, Byzantines and Turks, a stronghold was built on the heights overlooking the city. On June 10, 1190, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was drowned trying to cross the Calycadnus, near Seleucia during the Third Crusade. In the 13th century Seleucia was in the possession of the Hospitallers, who lost it to the Karamanid Principality in the second half of the 13th century, it ended up in the hands of the Ottomans under general Gedik Ahmet Pasha in 1471; until 1933, Silifke was the capital of İçel Province, but İçel and Mersin provinces were merged. The merged province took the name of İçel but with its administrative centre at Mersin. In 2002 the name of İçel was replaced with that of Mersin; the economy of the district depends on agriculture and raising livestock. The town of Silifke is as a market for the coastal plain, which produces beans, sesame, orange, cotton, lentils, olives and canned fruits and vegetables. An irrigation project located at Silifke supplies the fertile Göksu delta.
In recent years there has been a large investment in glasshouses for producing strawberries and other fruit and vegetables in the winter season. Silifke is an industrial town, well-connected with other urban areas and producing beverages, clothes, glass, plastics and textiles. Silifke has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters. Akdere Arkum Atakent Atayurt N
Abila, distinguished as Abila in the Decapolis, known for a time as Seleucia, ancient Raphana, was a city in the Decapolis. Tell in Arabic means only "hill." The archaeological connotation of "hill of accumulated debris" in this case does not apply. The city was built over two natural hills on the left bank of Wadi Qweilibeh, which is, in fact, delineated by hills and escarpments; the natural stone of the Transjordan region is beds of limestone and chalky limestone laid down in marine deposits in the Eocene and raised above sea level as the Belqa Group in the middle Eocene. Their soft stone is extensively transected by eroded wadis and is covered by meters of erosional soil termed terra rossa The Abila site is covered by a meter of another related soil, Rendzina. Both soils are fertile, contributing to the arboriculture of the area. Tell Umm al-Amad is termed Khirbit Umm al-Amad, where Khirbit is "ruined settlement." As the wadi is aligned north-south at that location, Tell Umm al-Amad is dubbed "the south tell."
The unit of north and south tells create a defensible elevation similar to an acropolis surrounded on three sides by wadis. The presence of a city wall first constructed in the Iron Age and enhanced under the Macedonians and Romans defined the defensible part of the settlement. In shape the walled city at its peak was an elongated rectangle beginning on the stream-facing slope of Tell Abila and slanting across the depression between the two hills to end at the summit of the south hill, its name, Umm al-Amad, "Mother of Columns,", suggests that the settlement there was than the settlement on the north hill. The archaeology bears out. Most of the city was in the saddle-shaped surface between the two hills; the slopes were overcome by terracing the saddle. However defensible, a city on a hill could not exist without native food supplies; the name "Abila" is derived from the Semitic word Abel. The largest site is located amidst verdant agricultural fields near the modern Ain Quweilbeh spring. Roman temples, Byzantine churches and early mosques lie amidst olive groves and wheat fields.
The site was submitted to the list of tentative World Heritage sites under criteria I, III and IV on June 18, 2001, by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities. The first known European to visit the site was Ulrich Jasper Seetzen in 1806; the ruins have been described in published literature as early as 1889 by Guy Le Strange. The site has been extensively excavated since 1980; the excavations have shown habitation at Abila from c. 4000 BC to 1500 AD, have yielded numerous artifacts, unearthed remains of city walls, a theater, a sixth-century church. Megalithic columns can be found at Umm al-Amad; the site was in use from the Neolithic period until the Abbasid/Fatimid and Ayyubid/Mamluk periods, though its use in these periods was limited. It appears in one of the 14th century BC Amarna letters as Ia-bi-li-ma. While several of its ancient structures have been excavated including aqueducts, tombs and public buildings, much of it remains unexcavated, yet visible of the surface of the ground. Archaeological evidence suggests that a temple at the site was used to worship Herakles and Athena.
Further evidence has shown that the site was used for Christian worship from at least the seventh- to eighth-century A. D. Abila was a Christian episcopal see and, since it was part of the late Roman province of Palaestina Secunda, it is distinguished from another town and bishopric of the same name in the province of Phoenicia by being called Abila in Palaestina; the names of three of its bishops are given in extant contemporary documents. In 518, Solomon signed the synodal letter of Patriarch John of Jerusalem Severus of Antioch. Nicostratus signed the acts of the synod of the three Palestine provinces that Patriarch Peter called in 536 against Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople. Alexander was deposed in 553 for refusing to sign the decisions of a council of Jerusalem against the Origenists. No longer a residential bishopric, Abila is today listed by the Catholic Church; the main threats to the site have been identified as development pressures, insufficient management, unsustainable tourism, water erosion.
Both urban and agricultural development pressures are increasing in the area, due to its fertile soil, gentle climate and water availability. Tourism is unmonitored and there are little interpretation and no facilities provided for tourists; the site is not expected to be a large tourism draw given its proximity to the more popular Umm Qais site. List of titular sees David. "Abila Archaeological Project". Neathery Fuller and Michael Fuller. "Abila of the Decapolis". With photos and excavation details
Samandağ known as Süveydiye, is a town and district in Hatay Province of southern Turkey, at the mouth of the Asi River on the Mediterranean coast, near Turkey's border with Syria, 25 km from the city of Antakya. The mayor is ÖDP candidate. Samandağ was known as Süveydiye, Yukarı Alevışık and Levşiye was named Samandağ in 1948. Samandağ lies near the site of the ancient Seleucia Pieria, founded in 300 BC by Seleucus Nicator, a general of Alexander the Great, in the Seleucid era that followed Alexander's demise. Seleucia Pieria became a major Mediterranean port of the Hellenistic and Roman eras, the port of Antioch, but it was subject to silting and an earthquake in 526 completed its demise as a port. Samandağ called St Symeon, became the port of Antioch, played an important role in the capture of the city by the Crusaders in 1098. Samandağ itself is a small town of 35,000 people, close to the city of Antakya; the local economy depends on fishing and agriculture citrus fruits, Samandağ has the air of a country market town, with young men buzzing through the streets on mopeds.
Around the midtown of Çevlik, there is a long sandy coastline popular with daytrippers from Antakya, although the sea can be stormy. This is an important nesting area of the endangered sea turtle Caretta caretta; the vast majority of the population is composed of Arabic speakers who adhere to the Alawite sect of Shia Islam. There are Sunni Arabs and Turkmens. There are Armenian and Antiochian Greek Christian communities in the district, with around 2,000 people; the village of Vakıflı is Turkey's only remaining rural Armenian community. Politically Samandağ is traditionally left-leaning. In the 2009 local elections and Solidarity Party candidate Mithat Nehir was elected mayor of the ilçe with 34.20% of the votes he was the sole victorious ÖDP candidate in the entire republic. In September 2013, he joined the CHP under which banner he contested the next 2014 local elections; the tunnel of Vespasian-Titus, in the village of Kapısuyu, built as a water channel in the 2nd century. The tomb of the Muslim saint Hızır.
Vakıflı, the only remaining Armenian village in Turkey. Monastery of St Symeon Latakia All About of Samandag Governorship of Samandag photo album of Samandağ info on Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Pieria
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator was one of the Diadochi. Having served as an infantry general under Alexander the Great, he assumed the title of basileus and established the Seleucid Empire over much of the territory in the Near East which Alexander had conquered. After the death of Alexander in June 323 BC, Seleucus supported Perdiccas, the regent of Alexander's empire, was appointed Commander of the Companions and chiliarch at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC. However, after the outbreak of the Wars of the Diadochi in 322, Perdiccas' military failures against Ptolemy in Egypt led to the mutiny of his troops in Pelusium. Perdiccas was betrayed and assassinated in a conspiracy by Seleucus and Antigenes in Pelusium sometime in either 321 or 320 BC. At the Partition of Triparadisus in 321 BC, Seleucus was appointed Satrap of Babylon under the new regent Antipater, but immediately, the wars between the Diadochi resumed and Antigonus forced Seleucus to flee Babylon. Seleucus was only able to return to Babylon in 312 BC with the support of Ptolemy.
From 312 BC, Seleucus ruthlessly expanded his dominions and conquered the Persian and Median lands. Seleucus ruled not only the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire. Seleucus' wars took him as far as India, after two years of war, he was defeated by the armies of the Maurya Empire and made peace by marrying his daughter to king Chandragupta, whereupon he was rewarded a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which would play a decisive role against Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and against Lysimachus at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. Seleucus' victories against Antigonus and Lysimachus left the Seleucid dynasty unopposed in Asia and in Anatolia. However, Seleucus hoped to take control of Lysimachus' European territories Thrace and Macedon itself, but upon arriving in Thrace in 281 BC, Seleucus was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court with his sister Lysandra. The assassination of Seleucus destroyed Seleucid prospects in Thrace and Macedon, paved the way for Ptolemy Ceraunus to absorb much of Lysimachus' former power in Macedon.
Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus I as ruler of the Seleucid empire. Seleucus founded a number of new cities during his reign, including Antioch and in particular Seleucia on the Tigris, the new capital of the Seleucid Empire, a foundation that depopulated Babylon. Seleucus was the son of Antiochus. Historian Junianus Justinus claims that Antiochus was one of Philip II of Macedon's generals, but no such general is mentioned in any other sources, nothing is known of his supposed career under Philip, it is possible. Seleucus' mother was called Laodice, but nothing else is known of her. Seleucus named a number of cities after his parents. Seleucus was born in Europos, located in the northern part of Macedonia. Just a year before his birth, the Paeonians invaded the region. Philip defeated the invaders and only a few years utterly subdued them under Macedonian rule. Seleucus' year of birth is unclear. Justin claims he was 77 years old during the battle of Corupedium, which would place his year of birth at 358 BC.
Appianus tells us Seleucus was 73 years old during the battle, which means 354 BC would be the year of birth. Eusebius of Caesarea, mentions the age of 75, thus the year 356 BC, making Seleucus the same age as Alexander the Great; this is most propaganda on Seleucus' part to make him seem comparable to Alexander. As a teenager, Seleucus was chosen to serve as the king's page, it was customary for all male offspring of noble families to first serve in this position and as officers in the king's army. A number of legends, similar to those told of Alexander the Great, were told of Seleucus, it was said Antiochus told his son before he left to battle the Persians with Alexander that his real father was the god Apollo. The god had left a ring with a picture of an anchor as a gift to Laodice. Seleucus had a birthmark shaped like an anchor, it was told that Seleucus' sons and grandsons had similar birthmarks. The story is similar to the one told about Alexander. Most the story is propaganda by Seleucus, who invented the story to present himself as the natural successor of Alexander.
John Malalas tells us Seleucus had a sister called Didymeia, who had sons called Nicanor and Nicomedes. It is most the sons are fictitious. Didymeia might refer to the oracle of Apollo in Didyma near Miletus, it has been suggested that Ptolemy was the uncle of Seleucus. In spring 334 BC, as a young man of about twenty-three, Seleucus accompanied Alexander into Asia. By the time of the Indian campaigns beginning in late in 327 BC, he had risen to the command of the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army, the "Shield-bearers", it is said by Arrian that when Alexander crossed the Hydaspes river on a boat, he was accompanied by Perdiccas, Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus. During the subsequent Battle of the Hydaspes, Seleucus led his troops against the elephants of King Porus, it is that Seleucus had no role in the actual planning of the battle. He is not mentioned as holding any major independent position during the battle, for example, Hephaistion and Leonnatus – each of whom had sizable detachments under his control.
Seleucus' Royal Hypaspist
Seleucia was an ancient Greek city on the Mediterranean coast of Pamphylia, in Anatolia 15 km northeast of Side. It is situated on a hilltop with steep escarpments on several sides making a strong defensive position; the track from the village has been clearfelled but the main site is still within a mature pine forest. The German researcher Johannes Nollé has suggested, that the remains at this location are not those of Seleucia but rather those of Lyrba. A proof that this alternative name "Lyrbe" is accepted by the authorities can be found on a sign photographed in the same year the picture illustrating this subject was taken. A picture of the notice is followed by a gallery of what seems to be more properly called Lyrbe, There are remains of an agora containing a row of two-storey and three-storey building façades, a gate, a mausoleum, a Roman bath, a necropolis, in addition to several temples and churches; because of its remote location,the site has not been plundered for building materials and the area is littered with columns and other items like large grindstones for flour making.
Blue Guide, The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts, p. 496. Hazlitt, Classical Gazetteer
Patriarchal Province of Seleucia-Ctesiphon
The Patriarchal Province of Seleucia-Ctesiphon was an ecclesiastical province of the Church of the East, with see in Seleucia-Ctesiphon. It was attested between the thirteenth centuries; as its name entails, it was the province of the church's Patriarch. The province consisted of a number of dioceses in the region of Beth Aramaye, between Basra and Kirkuk, which were placed under the patriarch's direct supervision at the synod of Yahballaha I in 420, it was not normal for the head of an eastern church to administer an ecclesiastical province in addition to his many other duties, but circumstances made it necessary for the patriarch Yahballaha I to assume responsibility for a number of dioceses in Beth Aramaye. The dioceses of Kashkar, Hirta, Beth Daraye and Dasqarta d’Malka, doubtless because of their antiquity or their proximity to the capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon, were reluctant to be placed under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan, it was felt necessary to treat them tactfully. A special relationship between the diocese of Kashkar and the diocese of Seleucia-Ctesiphon was defined in Canon XXI of the synod of 410:'The first and chief seat is that of Seleucia and Ctesiphon.
The bishop of Kashkar is placed under the jurisdiction of this metropolitan. Although their bishops were admonished in the acts of these synods, they persisted in their intransigence, in 420 Yahballaha I placed them under his direct supervision; this ad hoc arrangement was formalised by the creation of a'province of the patriarch'. Kashkar, by tradition an apostolic foundation, was the highest ranking diocese in the province, its bishops enjoyed the privilege of guarding the patriarchal throne during the interregnum between one patriarch’s death and the election of his successor; the diocese of Dasqarta d’Malka is not mentioned again after 424, but bishops of the other dioceses were present at most of the fifth- and sixth-century synods. Three more dioceses in Beth Aramaye are mentioned in the acts of the synods: Piroz Shabur. All three dioceses were to have a long history. According to Eliya of Damascus, there were thirteen dioceses in the province of the patriarch in 893: Kashkar, al-Tirhan, Dair Hazql, al-Hira, al-Anbar, al-Sin, ʿUkbara, al-Radhan, Nifr, al-Qasra,'Ba Daraya and Ba Kusaya', ʿAbdasi and al-Buwazikh.
Eight of these dioceses existed in the Sassanian period, but the diocese of Beth Waziq is first mentioned in the second half of the seventh century, the dioceses of ʿUkbara, Radhan and Qasr were founded in the ninth century. The diocese of Nahargur was in the province of Maishan during the Sassanian period, it is not known when or why it was transferred to the diocese of the patriarch; the first bishop of ʿUkbara whose name has been recorded, was consecrated by the patriarch Sargis around 870, bishops of Qasr and Nifr are first mentioned in the tenth century. A bishop of'Qasr and Nahrawan' became patriarch in 963, consecrated bishops for Radhan and for'Nifr and Nil'. Eliya's list helps to confirm the impression given by the literary sources, that the East Syrian communities in Beth Aramaye were at their most prosperous in the tenth century. A partial list of bishops present at the consecration of the patriarch Yohannan IV in 900 included several bishops from the province of the patriarch, including the bishops of Zabe and Beth Daraye and the bishops Ishoʿzkha of'the Gubeans', Hnanishoʿ of Delasar, Quriaqos of Meskene and Yohannan'of the Jews'.
The last four dioceses can not be satisfactorily localised. In the eleventh century decline began to set in; the diocese of Hirta came to an end, four other dioceses were combined into two: Nifr and al-Nil with Zabe, Beth Waziq with Shenna d'Beth Ramman. Three more dioceses ceased to exist in the twelfth century; the dioceses of Piroz Shabur and Qasr and Nahrawan are last mentioned in 1111, the senior diocese of Kashkar in 1176. In 1139, at the consecration ceremony of the patriarch ʿAbdishoʿ III, a bishop from the province of Nisibis was required to proclaim the new patriarch's name,'because all the bishops of the grand eparchy had died and their thrones were vacant. By the patriarchal election of 1222 the guardianship of the vacant patriarchal throne, the traditional privilege of the bishop of Kashkar, had passed to the metropolitans of ʿIlam; the trend of decline continued in the thirteenth century. The diocese of Zabe and Nil is last mentioned during the reign of Yahballaha II, the diocese of ʿUkbara in 1222.
Only three dioceses are known to have been still in existence at the end of the thirteenth century: Beth Waziq and Shenna, Beth Daron and Tirhan. However, East Syrian communities may have persisted in districts which no longer had bishops: a manuscript of 1276 was copied by a monk named Giwargis at the monastery of Mar Yonan'on the Euphrates, near Piroz Shabur, Anbar', nearly a century and a half after the last mention of a bishop of Anbar. For much of their history the patriarchs of the Church of the East sat at Seleucia-Ctesiphon