Leyland Motors Limited was a British vehicle manufacturer of lorries and trolleybuses. The company diversified into car manufacturing with its acquisitions of Triumph and Rover in 1960 and 1967, respectively, it gave its name to the British Leyland Motor Corporation, formed when it merged with British Motor Holdings in 1968, to become British Leyland after being nationalised. British Leyland changed its name to BL in 1986 to Rover Group. Although the various car manufacturing businesses were divested or went defunct due to the troubled existence of BL and its successors, the original Leyland Trucks business still exists as a subsidiary of Paccar. Leyland Motors has a long history dating from 1896, when the Sumner and Spurrier families founded the Lancashire Steam Motor Company in the town of Leyland in North West England, their first products included steam powered lawn mowers. The company's first vehicle was a 1.5-ton-capacity steam powered van. This was followed by a number of undertype steam wagons using a vertical fire-tube boiler.
By 1905 they had begun to build petrol-engined wagons. The Lancashire Steam Motor Company was renamed Leyland Motors in 1907 when it took over Coulthards of Preston, making steam wagons since 1897, they built a second factory in the neighbouring town of Chorley which still remains today as the headquarters of the Lex Autolease and parts company. In 1920, Leyland Motors produced the Leyland Eight luxury touring car, a development of, driven by J. G. Parry-Thomas at Brooklands. Parry-Thomas was killed in an attempt on the land speed record when the car overturned. Rumours that a chain drive broke were found to be incorrect when the car was disinterred late in the 20th century as the chains were intact. At the other extreme, they produced the Trojan Utility Car in the Kingston upon Thames factory at Ham from 1922 to 1928. Three generations of Spurriers controlled Leyland Motors from its foundation until the retirement of Henry Spurrier in 1964. Spurrier inherited control of Leyland Motors from his father in 1942, guided its growth during the postwar years.
Whilst the Spurrier family were in control the company enjoyed excellent labour relations—reputedly never losing a day's production through industrial action. During World War II, Leyland Motors, along with most vehicle manufacturers, was involved in war production. Leyland built the Cromwell tank at its works from 1943 as well as medium/large trucks such as the Hippo and Retriever. After the war, Leyland Motors continued military manufacture with the Centurion tank. In 1946, AEC and Leyland Motors form British United Traction to build trolleybuses. In 1955, through an equity agreement, manufacture of commercial vehicles under licence from Leyland Motors commenced in Madras, India at the new Ashok factory; the products were branded as Ashok Leyland. On the other hand, Leyland Motors acquired other companies in the post war years: 1951: Albion Motors 1953: Collaboration with Danish Automobile Building, a bus manufacturer with a majority stake in the 1970s 1955: Scammell—military and specialist lorry manufacturer 1961: Standard Triumph, cars and some agricultural machinery interests Donald Stokes Sales Director, was appointed managing director of Leyland Motors Limited in September 1962.
A Leyland student apprentice he had grown up with the company. He became chairman in 1966. In 1968 Leyland Motors merged with British Motor Holdings to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation. BMH, the product of an earlier merger between the British Motor Corporation, the Pressed Steel Company and Jaguar, brought with it into the new organisation more famous British goods vehicle and bus and coach marques, including Daimler, Guy, BMC, Austin and Morris. Leyland diesel engines were used in Finnish Vanaja lorries and buses in 1960s. Chronologically, the growth of Leyland Motor Corporation was as follows: 1962: Leyland Motors aquires Associated Commercial Vehicles, which incorporated AEC, Park Royal Vehicles and Charles H Roe. 1962 a new group holding company was incorporated to own Leyland Motors Limited, ACV and new acquisitions 1965: Minority interests in Bristol Commercial Vehicles and Eastern Coach Works 1966: Rover cars and their Subsidiary, aero-engine and armoured fighting vehicle manufacturers Alvis 1967: Aveling-Barford was acquired This company made road rollers and dumper trucks.
The BLMC group was difficult to manage because of the many companies under its control making similar products. This, other reasons, led to financial difficulties and in December 1974 British Leyland had to receive a guarantee from the British government. In 1975, after the publication of the Ryder Report and the company's bankruptcy, BLMC was nationalised as British Leyland and split into four divisions with the bus and truck production becoming the Leyland Truck & Bus division within the Land Rover Leyland Group; this division was split into Leyland Bus and Leyland Trucks in 1981. Leyland Trucks depended on British sales as well as export markets Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth markets; the early 1980s were hard, with export sales drying up in many places such as oil-dependent Nigeria. In 1986, BL changed its name to Rover Group; the equity stake in Ashok Leyland was controlled by Land Rover Leyland International Holdings, sold in 1987. At this point, while building about 10,000 trucks per annum, Leyland was more and more depending on outside engines as production of their own 98-series was declining.
The 1986 closure of Bedford's he
British Rail Class 03
The British Rail Class 03 locomotive was, together with the similar Class 04, one of British Rail's most successful 0-6-0 diesel-mechanical shunters. The class, numbering 230 examples, was built by British Railways' Swindon and Doncaster works in 1957-1962 and numbered D2000-D2199 and D2370-D2399. D2370 and D2371 were used as departmental locomotives and numbered 91 and 92 respectively. Like other shunters of this size, the Class 03 was built for light duties where a larger locomotive was not needed for shunting at locomotive and carriage depots and as station pilots, or where larger or heavier locomotives could not be used; the reduction over time in the demand for shunting locomotives meant that they were progressively withdrawn from 1968 onwards, many being sold to private industry. However, some remained in service much longer, with two examples on the Isle of Wight lasting until 1993. In 1998, one of the Isle of Wight locos, 03179, was reinstated by the West Anglia Great Northern for service at Hornsey depot.
It was named Clive after a depot employee It was not fitted with Train Protection & Warning System equipment and thus confined to the depot from 2002. It was operated subsequently by First Capital Connect until withdrawal in 2008. In 2016 it was sold by Govia Thameslink Railway to the Rushden and Wellingborough Railway; the engine is a Gardner 8-cylinder, 4-stroke 8L3 of 204 hp connected to a Wilson-Drewry CA5 R7, 5-speed epicyclic gearbox with RF11 spiral bevel reverse and final-drive unit. Drive is through a jackshaft mounted beneath the cab. During their life, some locomotives were fitted with dual brakes; these were 03059, 03063, 03073, 03078, 03084, 03086, 03089, 03094, 03112, 03152, 03158, 03162, 03179, 03180, 03371, 03397 and 03399. The Class 03s were deployed where their attributes of short wheelbase and light weight enabled them to operate where other shunters could not. On lines such as that to Ipswich docks, bridge weight restrictions prevented the ubiquitous Class 08s from operating.
Another common use was as station pilot coupled to a shunters' truck to ensure operation of track circuits which did not always register the passage of the 03 due to its short wheelbase. By 1979, Class 03s' operations included: Depot pilot duties at Hull Botanic Gardens DMU depot and Bradford Hammerton Street DMU depot Docks at Ipswich, Kings Lynn, Poplar Freight trips along the Team Valley branch and the Gwendraeth Valley line Shunting duties at Boston Yard, Ipswich Upper and Lower yards, Lincoln engineers' yard, Tweedmouth yard near Berwick-upon-Tweed Spare loco on standby at Boston and Kings Lynn Motive power on the Kirkley goods branch line in Lowestoft Station pilot duties at Bradford Exchange, Hull Paragon, Newcastle Central, Norwich Thorpe, Sunderland Despite the limited scope for the use of such a small locomotive on main line passenger duties, there were a number of duties rostered to the class. During the early 1970s Southern Region Class 03s worked Channel Island boat trains through the streets to the harbour along the Weymouth Quay tramway.
In 1980 a class 03 at Ipswich was booked to shunt the 23:20 Peterborough - Liverpool Street onto the rear of the 23:45 Norwich - Liverpool Street. According to Mangapps Railway Museum, 03089 once hauled a Blackpool to Scarborough express along the York to Scarborough Line from Malton to Scarborough. Several examples were rebuilt with cut-down cabs for working on the Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Line, as there were several low bridges on the line that precluded the use of normal height locomotives; the modified examples were nos. 03119, 03120, 03141, 03142, 03144, 03145, 03151, 03152 and late addition 03382. Their duties included shunting, hauling full coal trains down from the valley's pits. For this latter duty they sometimes worked triple-headed, they were replaced by Class 08/9 locomotives, which were rebuilt to a reduced height. Several cut-down locomotives have been preserved; the Isle of Wight shunters, nos. 03079 and 03179, were rebuilt with cut-down cabs, to enable them to pass through a low tunnel in Ryde.
A large number of the class survive in preservation. Mainline and Replica each offered an OO gauge model. Mainline's original'split-chassis' tooling passed to Bachmann; when the company took the decision to produce the Class 04 in its place the tooling was altered, retaining the split chassis power arrangement. However, Bachmann announced that they would be re-introducing several new variations of the 03 in OO gauge, including special edition examples of the Isle of Wight prototypes. Graham Farish offers an N gauge model. Past models have included 03066 in BR blue livery. Hendry, R. Preston. Paddington to the Mersey: G. W. R's Forgotten Route from London to Birkenhead. OPC Railprint. ISBN 9780860934424. OCLC 24736274. Heavyside, Tom. "Birkenhead Class 03s". Back Track. Vol. 24 no. 4. Pendragon Publishing. ISSN 0955-5382. Nicolle, Barry. "Swindon's last 03". Rail Enthusiast. No. 56. Emap. pp. 9–11. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. "Readers' round-up". Rail Enthusiast. Emap National Publications. February–March 1982. P. 50.
ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. "Readers' round-up". Rail Enthusiast. Emap National Publications. June 1982. P. 50. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. "Readers' round-up". Rail Enthusiast. Emap National Publications. October 1982. P. 54. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. "Isle of Wight offers two Class 03 shunters for sale". Rail Magazine. No. 326. Emap Apex Publications. 11–24 March 1998. P. 64. ISSN 0953-4563
Armstrong Siddeley was a British engineering group that operated during the first half of the 20th century. It is best known for the production of luxury vehicles and aircraft engines; the company was created following the purchase by Armstrong Whitworth of Siddeley-Deasy, a manufacturer of fine motor cars, that were marketed to the top echelon of society. After the merge of companies this focus on quality continued throughout in the production of cars, aircraft engines, gearboxes for tanks and buses and torpedo motors, the development of railcars. Company mergers and takeovers with Hawker Aviation and Bristol Aero Engines saw the continuation of the car production but the production of cars ceased in August 1960; the company was absorbed into the Rolls-Royce conglomerate who were interested in the aircraft and aircraft engine business. The remaining spares and all motor car interests were sold to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd, who now own the patents, designs and trademarks, including the name Armstrong Siddeley.
The Siddeley Autocar Company, of Coventry, was founded by John Davenport Siddeley in 1902. Its products were based on Peugeots, using many of their parts but fitted with English-built bodies; this company made stately Wolseley-Siddeley motorcars. They were used by Queen Alexandra and the Duke of York King George V. In 1909 J. D. Siddeley resigned from Wolseley and took over the Deasy Motor Company, the company became known as Siddeley-Deasy. In 1912, the cars used the slogan "As silent as the Sphinx" and started to sport a Sphinx as a bonnet ornament, a symbol that became synonymous with descendent companies. During the Second World War the company produced trucks and staff cars. In 1915 airframes and aero-engines started to be produced as well. In April 1919 Siddeley-Deasy was bought out by Armstrong Whitworth Development Company of Newcastle upon Tyne and in May 1919 became Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd, a subsidiary with J. D. Siddeley as managing director. In 1927, Armstrong Whitworth merged its heavy engineering interests with Vickers to form Vickers-Armstrongs.
At this point, J. D. Siddeley brought Armstrong Siddeley and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft into his control. In 1928, Armstrong Siddeley Holdings bought Avro from Crossley Motors; that year Siddeley partnered with Walter Gordon Wilson, inventor of the pre-selector gearbox, to create Improved Gears Ltd, which became Self-Changing Gears – the gearbox that should be credited with enabling the marketing tagline "Cars for the daughters of gentlemen". Armstrong Siddeley manufactured luxury cars, aircraft engines, aircraft. In 1935, J. D. Siddeley's interests were purchased for £2 million by aviation pioneer Tommy Sopwith, owner of Hawker Aircraft, to form – along with the Gloster Aircraft Company and Air Training Services – Hawker Siddeley, a famous name in British aircraft production. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft and Armstrong Siddeley Motors became subsidiaries of Hawker Siddeley, with Sopwith himself becoming the new chairman of Armstrong Siddeley Motors. Armstrong Siddeley was merged with the aircraft engine business of Bristol Aeroplane Company to form Bristol Siddeley as part of an ongoing rationalisation under government influence of the British aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturers.
Armstrong Siddeley produced their last cars in 1960. Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce merged in 1966, the latter subsuming the former which remained for a while as an aircraft engine division within Rolls-Royce. In June 1972, Rolls-Royce Ltd sold all the stock of spares plus all patents, drawings and the name of Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd; this meant that "Armstrong Siddeley" and "A-S Sphinx Logo" are trademarks and copyright of the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd. The "Siddeley" name survived a while longer in aviation, through Hawker Siddeley Aviation and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics. In 1977 they joined with others to become British Aerospace which with further mergers is now BAE Systems; the first car produced from the union was a massive machine, a 5-litre 30 hp. A smaller 18 hp appeared in 1922 and a 2-litre 14 hp was introduced in 1923. 1928 saw the company's first 15 hp six. This was a pioneering year for the marque, during which it first offered the Wilson preselector gearbox as an optional extra.
In 1930 the company marketed four models, of 12, 15, 20, 30 hp, the last costing £1450. The company's rather staid image was endorsed during the 1930s by the introduction of a range of six-cylinder cars with ohv engines, though a four-cylinder 12 hp was kept in production until 1936. In 1932 - or thereabouts, a line of special, rather more sporty designs was started which resulted in the Rally Tourer series; the aim was to help shake of the somewhat pedestrian image of what was in fact a rather advanced product. Of the 16 rally tourers built, many were used by the owners or senior directors, were entered into various rallies, achieving some good results and making for good publicity. Only one of those 16 special cars is now known to exist: a 1933, Long-15 Rally Tourer which, according to the records, shared the same body as the 20hp version. In 1933, the 5-litre six-cylinder Siddeley Special was announced, featuring a Hiduminium aluminium alloy engine. Car production continued at a reduced rate throughout 1940, a few were assembled in 1941.
The week that World War II ended in Europe, Armstrong Siddeley introduced its first post-war models.
A heritage railway is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Heritage railways are old railway lines preserved in a state depicting a period in the history of rail transport; the British Office of Rail and Road defines heritage railways as follows: "...'lines of local interest', museum railways or tourist railways that have retained or assumed the character and appearance and operating practices of railways of former times. Several lines that operate in isolation provide genuine transport facilities, providing community links. Most lines constitute tourist or educational attractions in their own right. Much of the rolling stock and other equipment used on these systems is original and is of historic value in its own right. Many systems aim to replicate both the look and operating practices of historic former railways companies." Heritage railway lines have historic rail infrastructure, substituted in modern rail systems. Historical installations, such as hand-operated points, water cranes, rails fastened with hand-hammered rail spikes, are characteristic features of heritage lines.
Unlike tourist railways, which carry tourists and have modern installations and vehicles, heritage-line infrastructure creates views and soundscapes of the past in operation. Due to a lack of modern technology or the desire for historical accuracy, railway operations can be handled with traditional practices such as the use of tokens. Heritage infrastructure and operations require the assignment of roles, based on historical occupations, to the railway staff. Some, or all and volunteers, including Station masters and signalmen, sometimes wearing period-appropriate attire, can be seen on some heritage railways. Most heritage railways use heritage rolling stock, although modern rail vehicles can be used to showcase railway scenes with historical-line infrastructure. While some heritage railways are profitable tourist attractions, many are not-for-profit entities. Still other heritage railways offer a viable public-transit option, can maintain operations with revenue from regular riders or government subsidies.
Children's railways are extracurricular educational institutions where children and teenagers learn about railway work. The railways developed in the USSR during the Soviet era. Many were called "Pioneer railways", after the youth organisation of that name; the first children's railway opened in Moscow in 1932 and, at the breakup of the USSR, 52 children's railways existed in the country. Although the fall of communist governments has led to the closure of some, preserved children's railways are still functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries. Many children's railways were built on parkland in urban areas. Unlike many industrial areas served by a narrow-gauge railway, parks were free of redevelopment. Child volunteers and socialist fiscal policy enabled the existence of many of these railways. Children's railways which still carry traffic have retained their original infrastructure and rolling stock, including vintage steam locomotives. Examples of children's railways with steam locomotives include the Dresden Park Railway in Germany.
Creating passages for trains up steep hills and through mountain regions offers many obstacles which call for technical solutions. Steep grade railway technologies and extensive tunneling may be employed; the use of narrow gauge allows tighter curves in the track, offers a smaller structure gauge and tunnel size. At high altitudes and logistical difficulties, limited urban development and demand for transport and special rolling-stock requirements have left many mountain railways unmodernized; the engineering feats of past railway builders and views of pristine mountain scenes have made many railways in mountainous areas profitable tourist attractions. Pit railways have been in operation in underground mines all over the world. Small rail vehicles transport ore, waste rock, workers through narrow tunnels. Sometimes trains were the sole mode of transport in the passages between the work sites and the mine entrance; the railway's loading gauge dictated the cross-section of passages to be dug. At many mining sites, pit railways have been abandoned due to mine closure or adoption of new transportation equipment.
Some show mines offer mantrip rides into the mine. The Metro 1, built from 1894 to 1896, is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro system and the second-oldest underground railway in the world; the M1 underwent major reconstruction during the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 now serves eight original stations whose original appearance has been preserved. In 2002, the line was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the Deák Ferenc Square concourse's Millennium Underground Museum, many other artifacts of the metro's early history may be seen; the first heritage railway to be rescued and run by volunteers was the Talyllyn Railway in Wales. This narrow-gauge line, taken over by a group of enthusiasts in 1950, was the beginning of the preservation movement worldwide. In Britain, heritage railways are railway lines which
John Siddeley, 1st Baron Kenilworth
John Davenport Siddeley, 1st Baron Kenilworth, was a pioneer of the motor industry in the United Kingdom manufacturing aero engines and air frames as well as motor vehicles. The eldest son of William Siddeley and his wife born Elizabeth Davenport, J D Siddeley was born in Longsight, Manchester in 1866 and first worked for his father as an apprentice hosier but took night classes in draughting. In 1892, the young bicycle racer and designer was hired as a draughtsman by the Humber Cycle Company; the managing director of Dunlop picked him out at Humber and hired Siddeley as Dunlop's Belfast sales manager. In 1900 as managing director of Dunlop's Midlands subsidiary Clipper Tyre Company he gained prominence in the motor industry by driving a 6 hp Daimler car through England's Thousand Miles Trial with marked success; this followed cycling from Land's End to John o' Groats to publicise the new pneumatic tyre. He married Sarah Mabel Goodier, daughter of James Goodier of Macclesfield, in 1893 and they lived in Belfast for a short time but by August 1894, they were living in Meriden, Coventry where eldest son, was born.
They were to have two daughters. Siddeley founded his Siddeley Autocar Company in 1902 to manufacture cars to Peugeot designs, he had Peugeot-based demonstration cars at the Crystal Palace in 1903. By 1905, the company had a dozen models for sale and some of them were built for him at Vickers' Crayford, Kent factory. During 1905 Wolseley—which dominated the UK car market—purchased the goodwill and patent rights of his Siddeley Autocar Company business and appointed Siddeley London sales manager of Herbert Austin's The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company Limited owned by Vickers and Maxim. A few months Herbert Austin left Wolseley to found his own Austin Motor Company and Siddeley was appointed manager of Wolseley in his place and, without authority, added Siddeley to the badge on the Wolseley cars, he resigned from Wolseley in 1909 to go into partnership with H P P Deasy and manage the Deasy Motor Company of Coventry. By 1912, when Deasy resigned because of his ill-health, Siddeley had added his name to the Deasy product's radiator.
In November 1912 Deasy's business became—by popular vote of the shareholders—Siddeley-Deasy. During World War I it grew producing aircraft engines and airframes with the assistance of distinguished staff from the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough as well as motor vehicles including ambulances using Rover chassis and Daimler and Aster engines and employed around 5,000 workers, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1918 New Year Honours for his efforts during the First World War. In 1918 John Siddeley and his family moved to Kenilworth; the same building became St Joseph's School and is now Crackley Hall School. Siddeley arranged a takeover of Siddeley-Deasy's motorcar, aircraft engine and aircraft business by Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth and Co Ltd and its amalgamation with the Armstrong Whitworth motor department in 1919, they renamed their new entity Armstrong Siddeley Motors. It was to continue until 1960. Siddeley's new holding company established Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft in July 1920.
Next Siddeley took advantage of parent companies Armstrong's and Vickers' financial difficulties of the mid 1920s and by 1927 he had gained control of all three Siddeley businesses. He remained their chairman until 1935 when, at the age of 70, he arranged his last takeover with Hawker Aircraft who formed Hawker Siddeley though the Siddeley businesses kept their identities. From this arrangement he received "£1 million and numerous benefits". Siddeley was knighted in 1932. Sir John Siddeley was elected president of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders for 1937-1938 - the highest honour the British Motor Industry could bestow; that same year he was raised to the peerage as Baron Kenilworth, of Kenilworth in the County of Warwick. He was elected president of the Society of British Aircraft Constructors for 1932-1933—now Society of British Aerospace Companies— and elected president of the Engineering and Allied Employers' National Federation for 1935-1936. On his retirement he gave to the nation the historic Kenilworth Castle.
To commemorate the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937, Lord Kenilworth made a gift of £100,000 to Fairbridge Farm Schools, a charity to offer opportunities and education abroad to young people from broken homes. After his retirement he moved to Jersey where he died a few days after his wife in November 1953, aged 87, a voluntary tax exile and a rich man, he was succeeded in the barony by his son Cyril
A switcher or shunter is a small railroad locomotive intended not for moving trains over long distances but rather for assembling trains ready for a road locomotive to take over, disassembling a train, brought in, moving railroad cars around – a process known as switching or shunting. They do this in classification yards. Switchers may make short transfer runs and be the only motive power on branch lines and switching and terminal railroads; the term can be used to describe the workers operating these engines or engaged in directing shunting operations. The typical switcher is optimised for its job, being low-powered but with a high starting tractive effort for getting heavy cars rolling quickly. Switchers are geared to produce high torque but are restricted to low top speeds and have small diameter driving wheels. Switchers are rail analogs to tugboats. US switchers tend to be larger, with bogies to allow them to be used on tight radiuses. European shunters tend to be smaller and more have fixed axles.
They often maintained coupling rods for longer than other locomotive types, although bogie types have long been used where heavy loads are involved, such as at steelworks. Switching is hard work, used switch engines wear out from the abuse of constant hard contacts with cars and frequent starting and stopping.. Some types have been remarkably long-lived. Diesel switchers tend to have a high cab and lower and/or narrower hoods containing the diesel engines, for all round visibility. Slugs are used because they allow greater tractive effort to be applied. Nearly all slugs used for switching are of cabless variety. Good visibility in both directions is critical, because a switcher may be running in either direction; some earlier diesel switchers used cow-calf configurations of two powered units in order to provide greater power. The vast majority of modern switchers are diesels, but countries with near-total electrification, like Switzerland, use electric switchers. Prior to the introduction of diesel-electric locomotives, electric shunting locomotives were used to an extent in Great Britain where heavy trains needed to be started on steep gradients.
The steeply-graded Quayside Branch in Newcastle upon Tyne was electrified by the North Eastern Railway in 1905, two steeplecab locomotives were built to handle all traffic on the line. One of these, No. 1, resides at Locomotion in Shildon. On the opposite side of the Tyne, the electrified lines owned by the Harton Coal Company in South Shields for the movement of coal and colliery waste to shipping facilities on the river was one of the more extensive industrial networks. A number of the early German locomotives built for use on these lines have been preserved. Electric locomotives were extensively employed for moving the coke cars at cokeworks, obtaining power from a side wire, as third rail or overhead line electrification would have been impractical; these specialised locomotives were tall steeple-cab types not seen anywhere else, operated on a short length of track between the ovens and the quenching tower. Despite their ubiquity few have survived into preservation as there is little scope of operating them due to their unique means of obtaining power, slow speed and the fact they exceed the loading gauge of most railway lines.
One example built by Greenwood and Batley in Armley, Leeds is preserved at the Middleton Railway, not far from where it was built. Small industrial shunters are sometimes of the battery-electric type. An early battery-electric shunting locomotive is shown here; the Tyne and Wear Metro has three battery electric shunters built by Hunslet, which are used to haul engineering trains when the overhead supply is switched off. New Zealand Railways imported and manufactured locally battery-electric shunters in the 1920s: the EB class and the E class Flywheel energy storage was used experimentally by Sentinel; the "GE three-power boxcab locomotive" was a type of switcher developed in the USA in the 1920s. It was a diesel-electric locomotive which could alternatively run on batteries or from a third rail or overhead supply, it was a type of electro-diesel locomotive. Steam shunter/switchers are now of historical interest. Steam switchers were either tank locomotives or had special tenders, with narrow coal bunkers and/or sloped tender decks to increase rearward visibility.
Headlights, where carried, were mounted on both ends. Most were either side-tank or saddle-tank types, however in the usual departure from its neighbours' practice, the Great Western Railway used pannier tanks for shunting and branch line work, a practice which the Western Region of BR perpetuated until steam traction was phased out, with several examples joining a 9F as banking engines to assist locomotives on the notoriously arduous ascent of the Lickey Incline, replacing the LMS "Jinties" which had carried out the task alongside "Big Emma"; as diesel shunters began to appear in ever-increasing numbers, attempts were made by companies such as Sentinel to adapt the vertical boilers from their steam powered road vehicles for use in shunting locomotives, in order to compete with the newcomers. Although these were found to be equal in power and efficiency to most of the early diesel designs, their development came too late to have any real impact. Outwardly, they bear more resemblance to diesels than steam l
The Vulcan Foundry Limited was an English locomotive builder sited at Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire. The Vulcan Foundry opened in 1832 as the Charles Tayleur and Company to produce girders for bridges and crossings, other ironwork following the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; because of the distance from the locomotive works in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, it seemed preferable to build and support them locally. In 1832, Robert Stephenson became a partner for a few years; the company had become The Vulcan Foundry Company in 1847 and acquired limited liability in 1864. From the beginning of 1898, the name changed again to The Vulcan Foundry Limited, dropping the word'company.' The site had its own railway station, Vulcan Halt, on the former Warrington and Newton Railway line from Earlestown to Warrington Bank Quay. The wooden-platformed halt was opened on 1 November 1916 by the London and North Western Railway, closed on 12 June 1965. Details of the earliest locomotives are not known despite an "official" list concocted in the 1890s which contains a lot of guesswork and invention, with many quite fictitious locomotives, for the period before 1845.
This list claims that the first two locomotives were 0-4-0 Tayleur and Stephenson built in 1833 for "Mr Hargreaves, Bolton", but this seems unlikely. The earliest authenticated products were 0-4-0 Titan and Orion, similar to Stephenson's design, delivered in September and October 1834 to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. Other early orders came from the Leicester and Swannington Railway and there were some 4-2-0s for America which were among the first British'bogie' locomotives. From 1835 the company was selling to Belgium, in 1836 to Austria and Russia, the beginnings of an export trade, maintained throughout the life of the company; the company's locomotives had a strong Stephenson influence, many during the following decade being of the "long boiler" design. In 1852 the first locomotives to run in India were supplied to the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. A number of Fairlie locomotives were built, including Taliesin for the Ffestiniog Railway and Josephine one of the NZR E class. During 1870 the company supplied the first locomotives to run in Japan, a flangeless 0-4-0T for a steelworks in Tredegar, still using angle rails.
A number of Matthew Kirtley's double-framed goods engines were produced for the Midland Railway. The healthy export trade continued to India and South America, continued after World War I. Following the formation of the London and Scottish Railway in 1923 some large orders were received, including over a hundred LMS Fowler Class 3F 0-6-0T engines and seventy-five LMS Compound 4-4-0 locomotives; the most notable design manufactured for an overseas railway during this period was the large 4-8-4 built for the Chinese National Railways in 1934-35. These fine locomotives were equipped with a mechanical stoker and six of them were fitted with booster engines on the tender, providing an extra 7670 lbs tractive effort. Of the 24 exported, one is preserved at the National Railway Museum in York. Through the 1930s the company survived the trade recessions with the aid of more orders from India, some from Tanganyika and Argentina, a large order in 1934 from the LMS for 4-6-0 "Black Fives" and 2-8-0 Stanier-designed locomotives.
During 1953-54 the company built sixty J class 2-8-0 locomotives for the Victorian Railways in Australia. From 1939 the works was concerned with the war effort, becoming involved in the development and production of the Matilda II tank. From 1943 large orders were received from the Ministry of Supply for locomotives, 390 Austerity 2-8-0s and fifty Austerity 0-6-0 saddle tanks. In 1944 the Vulcan Foundry acquired Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns and in 1945 received an order for 120 "Liberation" 2-8-0 locomotives for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in Europe; the war had left India's railways in a parlous state and in 1947, with foreign aid, embarked on a massive rebuilding plan. The Vulcan Foundry benefited from orders for XE, XD, YD 2-8-2s. Not only was the competition fierce from other countries, but India had developed the ability to build its own locomotives; the company had experience of both diesel and electric locomotives, having built thirty-one so-called "Crocodile" 2600 hp 1,500 V DC electric banking locomotives in 1929 for India.
India's National Rail Museum, New Delhi exhibits an electric locomotive from the Vulcan foundry. In 1931, the company supplied the first experimental diesel shunter to the London and Scottish Railway. In 1936 Vulcan, a diesel-mechanical 0-6-0 shunter with a Vulcan-Frichs 6-cylinder 275 hp diesel engine was loaned to the LMS. Following the end of World War II, it found industrial use in Yugoslavia. In 1938 ten diesel railcars were ordered by the NZR RM class, they were supplied in 1940. In 1948 it supplied 10 Class 15 Diesel Electric shunters to Malayan Railways, as well as twenty Class 20 Diesel Electric locomotives for the same company nine years later; the works has produced many locomotives for both foreign railways. It was a major supplier of diesel-electrics to British Railways notably the Class 55 Deltic; the works developed a prototype gas turbine locomotive, the British Rail GT3. Other classes of diesel locomotives to be built for British Railways at the Vulcan Foundry included: Class 20, Class 37, Class 40 and Class 50.