Juno and Argus
Juno and Argus is a 1610 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, showing Juno and Argus. It is now in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne,5, S.49 Ekkehard Mai, Mythologie in Bildern flämischer Meister, in, Kölner Museums-Bulletin 2000/3, S. 39–43, Abb.7 Robert Floetemeyer, Delacroix Bild des Menschen. Erkundungen vor dem Hintergrund der Kunst des Rubens, Mainz 1998, S. 142–144, Abbildung 40 Fiona Healy, Rubens, a question of choice, Brepols 1997, S.75, Abb. 98, S.283 Werner Telesko, Friedrich Schlegel und die Konzeption der Kunst als Reliquie der Göttlichen Offenbarung,40 Hans Vlieghe und Ekkehard Mai, Von Bruegel bis Rubens. Das goldene Jahrhundert der flämischen Malerei, Ausstellungskatalog Köln 1992, S.348, Farbabbildung S.349,44.5 Michael Jaffé, Catalogo completo Rubens, Milano 1989, mit Abbildung, Kat-Nr. 142 Ekkehard Mai, Flämische Malerei von 1550 bis 1650, = Wallraf-Richartz-Museum Köln,1, Köln 1987, S. 32–44, Farbabbildung 25 Wallraf-Richartz-Museum Köln, Von Stefan Lochner bis Paul Cézanne.
Abbildung 135 H. G. Evers, Peter Paul Rubens, München 1942, S. 116–121, Abbildung 61
Virgin and Child (Rubens)
The Virgin and Child is a painting by Rubens, commissioned in 1604 and completed between 1608 and 1621. It was seized by France in 1803 and is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts Tours and it was commissioned by Anne Antheunis, widow of Alexander I Goubau, grand almoner of Antwerp, shortly after her husbands death. She intended is as an ex voto for their joint funeral monument, in Italy, Rubens only began the work on his return to Flanders in 1608, including a posthumous portrait of Alexandre-Jean and one of Anne from life. It was complete by 1621, the date of Annes death
Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid)
For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and he first painted it in 1609 and gave it a major reworking between 1628 and 1629 during his second trip to Spain. It is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid and it is one of many works on the subject by Rubens - others include those of 1616-17 and 1624. Towards the end of 1608 Antwerp was preparing to receive the peace delegates negotiating an end to the war between Spain and the Dutch Republic and their negotiations were to be held in Antwerp City Hall between 28 March and 9 April 1609 and resulted in the Twelve Years Truce. He had returned to Antwerp and was already the citys most notable painter and he was paid 1,800 florins for the commission. The theme of the commission was an allusion to the benefits the city hoped to gain from peace, there is a study for the whole work in a private collection in London, which allows its original appearance to be reconstructed.
The town magistrates presented the painting to Calderón, but in 1621 he fell into disgrace and was executed, in 1623 Philip IV of Spain purchased the painting from the sale of Calderóns collection and installed it in his Royal Alcázar of Madrid. In September 1628 Rubens travelled to Spain for the second time and he had been summoned there to inform the king about his peace negotiations with Britain, but was able to rework the painting while he was there. Francisco Pacheco relates in his work El arte de la pintura changed some things in his painting of the Adoration of the Magi that was in the palace. This amounted to a complete re-working, with details modified, strips added to the top and right hand edges. It was installed in the Royal Palace of Madrid and he went to the Museo del Prado. In 2004, the painting underwent a complete restoration, catalogue entry Article on the painting in the Enciclopedia online del Prado. The painting in the Prados online gallery, Article on the painting on the Centro Virtual Cervantes.
The painting on the Prado website, El Siglo de Rubens en el Museo del Prado. Catálogo Razonado de Pintura Flamenca del Siglo XVII, barcelona / Madrid, Editorial Prensa Ibérica, S. A. / Museo Nacional del Prado. Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba.
Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga.
The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters
The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens)
The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of Paris
The Descent from the Cross (Rubens)
The Descent from the Cross is the central panel of a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens in 1612–1614. It is still in its place, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Belgium. The subject was one Rubens returned to again and again in his career and this particular work was commissioned on September 7,1611, by the Confraternity of the Arquebusiers, whose Patron Saint was St. Christopher. Although essentially Baroque, the oil on panel piece is rooted in the Venetian tradition, in its composition and use of light, the triptych recalls Caravaggios Roman period. One of Savior’s feet comes to rest on the shoulder of the Magdalene. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, placed midway on ladders so as to each other, form. The Virgin, standing at the foot of the tree, extends her arms towards her Son, kneeling. On the ground are seen the superscription and a basin where the crown of thorns. The crowd, always elated by the spectacle of torture, has departed from Golgotha as daylight fades, in 1794, Napoleon removed this painting and The Elevation of the Cross and sent them to the Louvre.
After his defeat, they were returned to the cathedral in 1815, in addition to the original work for Antwerp, Rubens painted two other versions exploring the same theme. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptych. Jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di Rubens, John R. Rubens, The Antwerp Altarpieces - The Raising of the Cross and the Descent from the Cross - Norton Critical Studies in Art History
Samson and Delilah (Rubens)
Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs.
The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting.
The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van Honthorst