click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Self-censorship

Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is practiced by film producers, film directors, news anchors, journalists and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media. In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralistic capitalist countries, repressive judicial lawmaking can cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of Western media. Self-censorship can occur in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers, customers, or the owners in order to protect their livelihood either directly or indirectly; this phenomenon is referred to as soft censorship.

Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of speech from all forms of censorship. Article 19 explicitly states that "everyone has the right to freedom of expression. People communicate to affirm one's identity and sense of belonging. People may express their opinions or withhold their opinions due to the fear of exclusion or unpopularity. Shared social norms and beliefs create a sense of belonging, but they can create a suppression of expression in order to comply or belong. People may adjust their opinions to go along with the majority attitude. There are different factors that contribute to self-censorship such as gender, education, political interests and media exposure. For some, the reason for their change in beliefs and opinions are rooted in fear of isolation and exclusion; the risk of negative reactions is greater than expressing one's true beliefs. According to the survey on self-censorship in Germany, conducted from May 3–16, 2019 by Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach for the newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 59% of respondents said they can express their views among friends, but only 18% believe the same is possible in public.

Only 17% of respondents express themselves on the Internet. Journalists censor themselves due to threats against them or their interests from another party, editorial instructions from their supervisor, perceived conflicts of interest with a media organization's economic sponsors, advertisers or shareholders, etc.). Self-censorship occurs when journalists deliberately manipulate their expression out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship of journalists is most pervasive in societies where governments have official media censorship policies and where journalists will be jailed, fined, or lose their job if they do not follow the censorship rules. Organizations such as have raised concerns about news broadcasting stations Fox News, censoring their own content to be less controversial when reporting on certain types of issues such as the War on Terror. In their book Manufacturing Consent, Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman argue that corporate ownership of news media strongly encourages systematic self-censorship owing to market forces.

In this argument with liberal media and self-censorship is evident in the selection and omission of news stories, the framing of acceptable discussion, in line with the interests of the corporations owning those media. The journalists have sought censorship advice from military authorities in order to prevent the inadvertent revelation of military secrets. In 2009, The New York Times succeeded in suppressing news of a reporter's abduction by militants in Afghanistan for seven months until his escape from captivity in order to'reduce danger to the reporter and other hostages'. Journalists have sometimes self-censored publications of news stories out of concern for the safety of people involved. Jean Pelletier, the Washington D. C. correspondent for the Montreal La Presse newspaper, uncovered a covert attempt by the Canadian government to smuggle US diplomats out of Iran during the Iranian Hostage Crisis before the "Canadian Caper" had reached its conclusion. In order to preserve the safety of those involved, he refused to allow the paper to publish the story until the hostages had left Iran, despite the considerable news value to the paper and writer.

Self-censorship became a quite frequent practice in Russia after 2000's government take-overs and consolidation of media, further deepened after 2014-2015 laws on'undesirable organisations'. As for Europe, threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in recent years. Journalists and whistleblowers have experienced threats. Self-censorship is one of the major consequences of such circumstances. A study published in 2017 by the Council of Europe found that in the period 2014-2016 that 40% of journalists involved in the survey experienced some kind of unwarranted interference, in particular psychological violence, including slandering and smear campaigning, cyberbulling. Other forms of unwarranted interference in

Atlas Losing Grip

Atlas Losing Grip was a punk rock band from Sweden, founded in 2005. The band was founded in 2005 by Gustav Burn. After some line-up changes and two demos in 2006 and 2007, the formation completed by Max Huddén and Julian Guedj was steady, before they entered the studio to record their first full-length record "Shut The World Out" in October 2007, released in July, 2008. An excessive European tour followed in the next 18 months; when in 2009 the worldwide respected Swedish icon Rodrigo Alfaro, in bands such as Satanic Surfers or Venerea, joined the band, Atlas Losing Grip became a five-piece. In 2009 the band stopped its concert-activities for that year with a tour in Greece, before they wrote and recorded the 5-Song-EP, released in the same year on Black Star Foundation Records. In early 2010 they started a headliner tour, which led through countries such as Slovenia, Switzerland, France, Netherlands before in Summer, they played a few well-chosen festivals and a short Scandinavian tour with Bad Religion.

In May the second album "State Of Unrest" was released, recorded by guitarist Gustav Burn and mastered at the legendary Blasting Room by Jason Livermore. The record earned perfect scores in press all over the world, so it was an easy thing to start their by most extensive and two-year lasting tour, that sent them for the first time to other continents than Europe, such as South America. Tours with bands like Millencolin, NOFX, ZSK, No Fun At All, or Billy Talent were completed at that time, as well as the recording of a 7" single that includes acoustic songs, only. In February 2013, the band entered a studio in Sweden to begin recording their 3rd album, but a few times they left to play festivals. A video-blog was released to summarize the work in the studio with interviews of the band members. On October 8, 2014, the band announced the release of their 3rd album, "Currents", four years after "State Of Unrest" in North America and Australia on January 16, 2015. On November 25, 2014 Atlas Losing Grip announced they had parted ways with Rodrigo and replaced him with Niklas Olsson.

However, Rodrigo's vocals were still used on "Currents". A few of the tracks were re-released with Niklas's vocals, including the band's official music videos; the album "Currents" was released on January 16, 2015. After 11 years of making music, on April 13, 2016 the band announced; the band combines the lightness of Melodic Punk with the heaviness and the technical playfulness of Heavy metal and Speed metal. Each musician takes his personal role in this. Julian Guedj includes a lot of chosen Heavy Metal elements into his drumming and uses, uncommon for a Punk-drummer, four tom-toms. Stefan Bratt uses the whole scale of his bass guitar's neck and plays a lot of challenging and high bass runs, while Gustav Burn and Max Huddén bring in technical double lead guitar harmony sounds, both, in solo and rhythm parts; the vocals of Rodrigo Alfaro are clean, most of the time. He sings Tenor and the majority of his lyrics deal with personal experiences, some of them are encoded. 2006 Demo 2007 Promo 2008 Shut the World Out 2009 Watching the Horizon 2011 State of Unrest 2015 Currents

Parasitoid wasp

Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, with all but the wood wasps being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita. As parasitoids, they lay their eggs on or in the bodies of other arthropods, sooner or causing the death of these hosts. Different species specialise in hosts from different insect orders, most Lepidoptera, though some select beetles, flies, or bugs. Parasitoid wasp species differ in which host life-stage they attack: eggs, pupae, or adults, they follow one of two major strategies within parasitism: either they are endoparasitic, developing inside the host, koinobiont, allowing the host to continue to feed and moult. Some endoparasitic wasps of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea have a mutualistic relationship with polydnaviruses, the viruses suppressing the host's immune defenses. Parasitoidism evolved only once in the Hymenoptera, during the Permian, leading to a single clade, but the parasitic lifestyle has secondarily been lost several times including among the ants and yellowjacket wasps.

As a result, the order Hymenoptera contains many families of parasitoids, intermixed with non-parasitoid groups. The parasitoid wasps include some large groups, some estimates giving the Chalcidoidea as many as 500,000 species, the Ichneumonidae 100,000 species, the Braconidae up to 50,000 species. Host insects have evolved a range of defences against parasitoid wasps, including hiding and camouflage markings. Many parasitoid wasps are considered beneficial to humans because they control agricultural pests; some are applied commercially in biological pest control, starting in the 1920s with Encarsia formosa to control whitefly in greenhouses. Parasitoidism in wasps influenced the thinking of Charles Darwin. Parasitoid wasps range from some of the smallest species of insects to wasps about an inch long. Most females have a long, sharp ovipositor at the tip of the abdomen, sometimes lacking venom glands, never modified into a sting. Parasitoids can be classified in a variety of ways, they can live within their host's body as endoparasitoids, or feed on it from outside as ectoparasitoids: both strategies are found among the wasps.

Parasitoids can be divided according to their effect on their hosts. Idiobionts prevent further development of the host after immobilizing it, while koinobionts allow the host to continue its development while they are feeding upon it. Most ectoparasitoid wasps are idiobiont, as the host could damage or dislodge the external parasitoid if allowed to move or moult. Most endoparasitoid wasps are koinobionts, giving them the advantage of a host that continues to grow larger and remains able to avoid predators. Many parasitoid wasps use larval Lepidoptera as hosts, but some groups parasitize different host life stages of nearly all other orders of insects Coleoptera, Diptera and other Hymenoptera; some attack arthropods other than insects: for instance, the Pompilidae specialise in catching spiders: these are quick and dangerous prey as large as the wasp itself, but the spider wasp is quicker, swiftly stinging her prey to immobilise it. Adult female wasps of most species oviposit into their hosts' eggs.

Some inject a mix of secretory products that paralyse the host or protect the egg from the host's immune system. If a polydnavirus is included, it infects the nuclei of host hemocytes and other cells, causing symptoms that benefit the parasite. Host size is important for the development of the parasitoid, as the host is its entire food supply until it emerges as an adult; some species preferentially lay female eggs in larger hosts and male eggs in smaller hosts, as the reproductive capabilities of males are limited less by smaller adult body size. Some parasitoid wasps mark the host with chemical signals to show; this may both deter rivals from ovipositing, signal to itself that no further egg is needed in that host reducing the chances that offspring will have to compete for food and increasing the offspring's survival. On or inside the host the parasitoid egg hatches into two or more larvae. Endoparasitoid eggs can absorb fluids from the host body and grow several times in size from when they were first laid before hatching.

The first instar larvae is highly mobile and may have strong mandibles or other structures to compete with other parasitoid larvae. The following instars are more grub-like. Parasitoid larvae have incomplete digestive systems with no rear opening; this prevents the hosts from being contaminated by their wastes. The larva feeds on the host's tissues until ready to pupate. A meconium, or the accumulated wastes from the larva is cast out as the larva transitions to a prepupa. Depending on its species, the parasitoid may eat its way out of the host or remain in the more or less empty skin. In either case it generally spins a cocoon and pupates; as adults, parasitoid wasps feed on nectar from flowers. Females of some species will drink hemolymph from hosts to gain additional nutrients for egg production. Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses that have a mutualistic relationship with some parasitic wasps; the polydnavirus replicates in the oviducts of an adult female parasitoid wasp. The wasp benefits from this relationship be

Santiago CastaƱo

Santiago Castaño is an American professional soccer player who plays as a goalkeeper for New York Cosmos. Santiago Castaño joined the Red Bulls Academy in September 2008 and played for New York’s U-14, U-15, U-16, U-18 teams, he trained with the first team as an academy player before signing his first professional contract in 2012. During his first two years with the club he served as the teams third goalkeeper. Castaño made his professional debut at the age of 19 playing for New York Red Bulls II, the affiliate of his team, on March 28, 2015 in a 0-0 draw against Rochester Rhinos. Castaño was named to the USL Team of the Week for his performance for NYRBII on August 22, 2015 in a 2-0 victory over Toronto FC II, a match in which he made six saves and recorded his fourth clean sheet of the season. Castaño was released by New York on January 25, 2016. After leaving Red Bulls, Castaño left for Colombia, joining Socrates Valencia F. C in the Colombian Third Division. On December 7, 2017 he scored from the penalty spot to help his club to a 2-1 victory over Fantasías Nueva York in the Copa Ciudad Pereira.

He scored three goals with the club during the 2017 season. For the 2017-18 season he was on the roster of TSF FC of the National Premier Soccer League. On January 28, 2019, Castaño joined the New York Cosmos for the 2019 season. Castaño has represented the United States at various youth levels, in 2014 he appeared in 4 matches for the United States men's national under-20 soccer team. In December 2014 he accepted a call to join the Colombia national under-20 football team camp

The 5 O'Clock Show

The 5 O'Clock Show is a daytime television chat show on Channel 4, replacing The Paul O'Grady Show. The format was along the same lines as O'Grady's show and consisted of a mixture of celebrity guests, comic stunts and musical performances. Monday to Wednesday's shows tended to be broadcast live, while Thursday and Friday were recorded on Tuesday and Wednesday; the show was broadcast from Studio 3 of The London Studios. The show was axed by Channel 4 on 7 September 2010. Peter Andre was supposed to be the full-time presenter, but due to other commitments he was unable to fill all the slots. Channel 4 decided to have a range of guest hosts filling in. Starting with Lenny Henry's stint, the show's title was altered to Presenter's 5 O'Clock Show; each week the show was hosted by guest presenters. The 5 O'Clock Show with was sponsored by Anglian Windows.'The 5 O'Clock Show' at Channel 4 The 5 O'Clock Show on IMDb http://www.lostintv.com

Use Once and Destroy Me

Use Once and Destroy Me is a DVD filmed on the 2003 tour of Europe and the United States by Mondo Generator. It was released on September 2004 by Tornado Records, it is being distributed by Cargo Records Germany. "Six Shooter" - Amsterdam, Holland "Here We Come" - Los Angeles, US "Ode to Clarissa" - Birmingham, England "Shawnette" - Hamburg "I Want You to Die" - Glasgow, Scotland "Scottish Girl" - Glasgow, Scotland "Detroit" - Manchester, England "F. Y. I. F." - Glasgow, Scotland "Jr. High Love" - Manchester, England "Backstage" - Hamburg "Allen's Wrench" - Hamburg & London "Do the Headright" - Hamburg "Unless I Can Kill" - Berlin, Germany "So High, So Low" - Manchester, England "13th Floor" - Berlin & Hamburg "Open Up and Bleed for Me" - Hamburg "Simple Exploding Man" - Hamburg "Backstage" - London, England Credits "Miss Mary" - Portland, Oregon "So High, So Low" - Dallas, Texas "Ya Me Voy" - Hamburg "Ode to Clarissa" - Los Angeles Nick Oliveri - vocals Brant Bjork - drums Dave Catching - guitars Molly McGuire - bass guitar Deborah Viereck - photography and video John Leamy - cover design Bob Sexton - "Ode To Clarissa" bonus video