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Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses. As an executive function, self-control is a cognitive process, necessary for regulating one's behavior in order to achieve specific goals. A related concept in psychology is emotional self-regulation. Self-control is thought to be like a muscle. According to studies, self-regulation, whether emotional or behavioral, was proven to be a limited resource which functions like energy. In the short term, overuse of self-control will lead to depletion. However, in the long term, the use of self-control can improve over time. Self-control is a key concept in the general theory of crime, a major theory in criminology; the theory was developed by Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi in their book titled A General Theory of Crime, published in 1990. Gottfredson and Hirschi define self-control as the differential tendency of individuals to avoid criminal acts independent of the situations in which they find themselves.

Individuals with low self-control tend to be impulsive, insensitive towards others, risk takers, short-sighted, nonverbal. About 70% of the variance in questionaire data operationalizing one construct of Self-Control had been found to be genetic. Desire is an affectively charged motivation toward a certain object, person, or activity, but not limited to, that associated with pleasure or relief from displeasure. Desires vary in duration. A desire becomes a temptation when it impacts or enters the individual's area of self-control, if the behavior resulting from the desire conflicts with an individual's values or other self-regulatory goals. A limitation to research on desire is the issue of individuals desiring different things. New research looked at. Over one week, 7,827 self-reports of desires were collected and indicated significant differences in desire frequency and strength, degree of conflict between desires and other goals, the likelihood of resisting desire and success of the resistance.

The most common and experienced desires are those related to bodily needs like eating and sleeping. Desires that conflict with overarching goals or values are known as temptations. Self-control dilemmas occur when long-term values clash with short-term temptations. Counteractive Self-Control Theory states that when presented with such a dilemma, we lessen the significance of the instant rewards while momentarily increasing the importance of our overall values; when asked to rate the perceived appeal of different snacks before making a decision, people valued health bars over chocolate bars. However, when asked to do the rankings after having chosen a snack, there was no significant difference of appeal. Further, when college students completed a questionnaire prior to their course registration deadline, they ranked leisure activities as less important and enjoyable than when they filled out the survey after the deadline passed; the stronger and more available the temptation is, the harsher the devaluation will be.

One of the most common self-control dilemmas involves the desire for unhealthy or unneeded food consumption versus the desire to maintain long-term health. An indication of unneeded food could be over expenditure on certain types of consumption such as eating away from home. Not knowing how much to spend, or overspending one's budget on eating out can be a symptom of a lack of self control. Experiment participants rated a new snack as less healthy when it was described as tasty compared to when they heard it was just tasty. Without knowing anything else about a food, the mere suggestion of good taste triggers counteractive self-control and prompted them to devalue the temptation in the name of health. Further, when presented with the strong temptation of one large bowl of chips, participants both perceived the chips to be higher in calories and ate less of them than did participants who faced the weak temptation of three smaller chip bowls though both conditions represented the same amount of chips overall.

Weak temptations are falsely perceived to be less unhealthy, so self-control is not triggered and desirable actions are more engaged in, supporting the counteractive self-control theory. Weak temptations present more of a challenge to overcome than strong temptations, because they appear less to compromise long-term values; the decrease in an individual's liking of and desire for a substance following repeated consumption of that substance is known as satiation. Satiation rates when eating depend on interactions of trait self-control and healthiness of the food. After eating equal amounts of either healthy or unhealthy snack foods, people who scored higher on trait self-control tests reported feeling less desire to eat more of the unhealthy foods than they did the healthy foods; those with low trait self-control satiated at the same pace regardless of health value. Further, when reading a description emphasizing the sweet flavor of their snack, participants with higher trait self-control reported a decrease in desire faster than they did after hearing a description of the healthy benefits of their snack.

Once again, those with low self-control satiated at the same rate regardless of health condition. Perceived unhealthiness of the food alone, regardless of actual health level, relates to faster satiation, but only for people with high trait self-control. Thinking, characterized by high construals, whenever individuals "are obliged to infer additional details of content, context, or meaning in the actions and outcomes that unfold around them", will view goals and values in a global, abstract

The Language

"The Language" is a song by Canadian rapper Drake from his third studio album Nothing Was the Same. "The Language" was produced by frequent collaborator Boi-1da, along with additional production by Allen Ritter and Vinylz. It features an outro from Cash Money Records founder Birdman; the song was serviced to mainstream urban radio on October 29, 2013 as the fourth single from the album in the US and has peaked at number 51 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. In the early months of 2013, there were rumors of a disconnection between Drake and Cash Money Records, which only caught more fire due to him not appearing on the compilation album Rich Gang. On "The Language" Drake addresses these rumors saying, "Cash Money Records forever, I'm always Big-Tyming, bitch/ I came up right under Stunna." In August 2013, Big Sean released "Control" featuring Kendrick Lamar, where Lamar called out a group of rappers he has collaborated with including Drake saying he would "murder" them lyrically on a track. That same month, Drake spoke to Billboard, where he responded saying, "It just sounded like an ambitious thought to me.

That's all. I know good and well that Kendrick's not murdering me, at all, in any platform." In a following interview he acted passively, putting down Lamar's verse as having no lasting significance."The Language" was produced by OVO Sound producer Boi-1da, co-produced by Boi-1da's frequent collaborators Allen Ritter and Vinylz. by In February 2013, the main producer of the song, Boi-1da contacted Ritter and Vinylz to come work on Nothing Was the Same with Drake and Boi-1da. While working with him they created, "No New Friends", "5AM in Toronto" and the instrumental for "The Language". Cash Money Records CEO Birdman appears on the outro of the song in the same way he appeared on, "We'll Be Fine" from Take Care. Drake's flow on the song was described as being similar to Migos, known for their hit song "Versace", whose remix featured Drake, it was rumored that Drake subliminally dissed Lamar in "The Language" when he raps, "Fuck any nigga that’s talkin’ that shit just to get a reaction / F*** going platinum, I looked at my wrist and it’s platinum / I am the kid with the motor mouth / I am the one you should worry about / I don't know who you're referring to, this nigga you heard about?"

Birdman appeared on MTV shortly after the album's release denying that the line was directed at Kendrick Lamar. Shortly after, Lamar responded in the BET Hip Hop Awards TDE cypher where he says, ""And nothing's been the same since they dropped Control, tucked a sensitive rapper back in his pajama clothes"." However, it was rumored Lamar's verse was directed towards Papoose. In a December 2013 interview with Vibe, Drake spoke on the rumor saying: ""It’s a commitment to go there.'The Language' is just energy. What it was inspired by, I’m sure that, other things. It’s just me talking my shit. I never once felt the need to respond to that record; the sentiment he was putting forth is. Of course you wanna be the best. Where it became an issue is that I was rolling out an album while that verse was still bubbling, so my album rollout became about this thing. What am I supposed to say?'Nah, we’ll be buddy-buddy?' Mind you, I never once said. I think he’s a fucking genius in his own right, but I stood my ground as I should."

"The Language" was met with positive reviews from music critics. Nick Cutucci of Entertainment Weekly named the song, along with "Hold On, We're Going Home" as the album's best songs. Of Billboard credited Drake with arrogantly reinstating his spot in the rap game with the song. William E. Ketchum of HipHopDX stated, that Drake "reuses the precise staccato flow from Drizzy’s verse on Migos' "Versace" to stunt on competition." David Drake of Complex described the song as, "unexpected bursts of blunt honesty that suggest, strangely, a rhetorical maturity, if not a personal one."Andrew Unterberger of PopDust said, "The Language" might not as rich as some of Drake’s more emo tracks, but it’s necessary to keep the balance for Drake, who would become overbearing if all he sang about was Facebook stalking girls from high school. Plus, it’s fun to hear Drake engage his more caddish self every once in a while–he does sleazy a lot better than he does angry anyway." In a more negative review Thomas Britt of PopMatters said, "“The Language” is a showcase for Drake’s relentless flow, but he does himself no favors by failing to explore any interesting lyrical territory.

He rhymes “platinum” with “platinum”. Such laziness might be acceptable were the song not about language." American rapper Young Thug remixed the song and changed the title to "The Blanguage"

Straight Ahead (band)

Straight Ahead was an American straight edge hardcore punk band formed in Queens, New York in 1984, by drummer and vocalist Tommy Carroll, guitarist Gordon Ancis and bassist Tony Marc Shimkin. Straight Ahead were formed by former-Assault guitarist and bassist Gordon Ancis and Tony Marc Shimkin along with drummer and vocalist Tommy Carroll, who had played in Corrupt, in 1984, the band would change their name to "N. Y. C. Mayhem" in 1985, release their debut demo tape "Mayhemic Destruction" and replace Shimkin with Craig Setari. Late-1985 saw the release of their debut EP "We Stand" and the band's first breakup, in which Carrol and Setari would join Youth of Today. N. Y. C. Mayhem reformed in 1986, back under their previous moniker "Straight Ahead", this time with Rob Echeverria on guitar, instead of Gordon Ancis; this lineup would record a 7-inch as a three-piece, before recruiting Armand Majidi on drums, having Carroll move over to only vocals. They played their final gig on 3 May 1987, playing one reunion gig in 1988 at the "For Pete's Sake" benefit, after which Carroll was seen, if ever.

Straight Ahead are considered a hardcore punk band, more their work as N. Y. C. Mayhem has been categorised as the subgenre thrashcore and some of their songs as an early form of death metal. Whereas their post-1986 work is considered crossover thrash, they were one of the earliest bands to blur the lines between punk rock and heavy metal, with their style being just as much indebted to extreme metal bands like Venom and Slayer as it was to Void and Negative Approach. The band have been cited as referring to their own music as "deathcore" as early as 1985. Bernard Doe of Metal Forces magazine referred to them as "the fastest band around". Straight Ahead was a significant influence on Stormtroopers of Death, as well as the genres of death metal and black metal due to early use of death growls and heavy riffing on tracks from 1985's "We Stand" such as "Necropolis" and "Deathwish". Jeffrey Walker of English band Carcass has cited N. Y. C. Mayhem as a major influence on the band's early grindcore sound, Shane Embury and Mitch Dickinson's band Warhammer were influenced by N.

Y. C. Mayhem's early demo tapes, according to Matt Olivo of grindcore band Repulsion, N. Y. C. Mayhem were one the bands that inspired them to play at the speed they did and American grindcore band Brutal Truth covered Straight Ahead's song "White Clam Sauce" on their 2011 album "End Time". Charlie Benante of Anthrax has said that the first time that he heard blast beats was from one of N. Y. C. Mayhem's demo tapes, inspiring him to learn the technique himself. Heavy metal band Prong played their first gig on 23 November 1986 in support of Straight Ahead and Nausea. Tom Capone, guitarist of Quicksand, has cited N. Y. C. Mayhem as one of his favorite bands in the world. Original bass player Tony Marc Shimkin has worked with artists such as Madonna, on her 1992 album Erotica; the band's vocalist, Tommy Carroll, went on to be the drummer in Youth of Today and vocalist of Irate. Original guitarist Gordon Ancis went on to found pioneering death metal band Hellhouse in 1985, as well as Zero Hour, which included ex-Whiplash guitarist Tony Scaglione, Massacre guitarist Rob Goodwin and Deathrash bassist Pat Burns.

Ancis played in New York crossover thrash band Leeway and hardcore punk band Agnostic Front. Bassist Craig Setari has played bass for New York hardcore punk band Sick of It All since 1992, along with drummer Armand Majidi. Setari has played with Youth of Today, Agnostic Front and Cro-Mags. Guitarist Rob Echeverria joined Helmet and Biohzard. Echeverria and Setari all played in hardcore punk band Rest in Pieces. Final line-upTommy Carroll – lead vocals, drums Rob Echeverria – guitar Craig Setari – bass Armand Majidi – drums Past membersGordon Ancis – guitar Tony Marc Shimkin – bass Timeline EPsWe Stand Breakaway DemosMayhemic Destruction Violence Live demosCBGB 3/16/86 Albany 6/22/86 CBGB 7/20/86 CBGB 3/21/87 CBGB 5/3/87 CompilationsThe Metal Days / The Crossover Days For Real

Barbados–Nigeria relations

Barbadian–Nigerian relations are foreign relations between Barbados and Nigeria. Barbados and Nigeria formally established diplomatic relations on 24 April 1970. Nigeria is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain; the Barbadian Government does not have foreign accreditation for Nigeria, however the Nigerian Government has said that it was desirous of Barbados establishing an embassy directly to Nigeria. In 2006 the Governor Otunba Gbenga Daniel of the Nigerian state of Ogun announced that Barbadians would be given free land if they wished to move to Nigeria. Nigeria has pushed for more investment from Barbadian companies and investors and in 2008 for the establishment of direct flights between both nations. In 2006 Barbadian solar company Aqua Sol Components Ltd. formed a 50-50 joint venture partnership with the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom. The partnership makes use of Barbados' experience with solar energy given its high usage of solar hot water heaters across the island. Through the venture, Akwa Ibom hopes to raise the level of solar usage in Nigeria.

The deal was facilitated through Commission for Pan-African Affairs within the Barbados Prime Minister's office. Foreign relations of Barbados Foreign relations of Nigeria

Church of the Intercession on the Nerl

The Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Nerl River is an Orthodox church and a symbol of medieval Russia. The church is situated at the confluence of Nerl and Klyazma Rivers in Bogolyubovo, Suzdalsky District, Vladimir Oblast, 13 km north-east of the ancient capital of Vladimir; the church was commissioned by Andrei Bogolyubsky. According to some sources, it was built to commemorate Andrei's victory over the Bulgars and his son Izyaslav, slain in the battle; the exact construction date of the church is unknown. The monument is built in white stone, has one dome and four columns in the interior, its proportions are elongated on purpose to make its outline seem more slender, although this architectural solution restricts its use for holding services. For centuries, the memorial church greeted everyone approaching the palace at Bogolyubovo. In spring, the area would be flooded, the church appeared as if floating on water; the church itself has not been touched by generations. The walls are still covered with 12th-century stonecarvings.

In 1992, the church was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List as part of the site White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal. Media related to Church of the Intercession on the Nerl at Wikimedia Commons Views of the church Panoramic Views of the Church

XVIII Corps (German Empire)

The XVIII Army Corps / XVIII AK was a corps level command of the German Army before and during World War I. As the German Army expanded in the latter part of the 19th century, the XVIII Army Corps was set up on 1 April 1899 in Frankfurt am Main as the Generalkommando for the district of Wiesbaden and the Grand Duchy of Hesse, it took over command of 21st Division from XI Corps and the separate 25th Division. It was assigned to the VII Army Inspectorate, but joined the 4th Army at the start of the First World War, it was still in existence at the end of the war, serving in the 17th Army, Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht on the Western Front. The 25 peacetime Corps of the German Army had a reasonably standardised organisation; each consisted of two divisions with two infantry brigades, one field artillery brigade and a cavalry brigade each. Each brigade consisted of two regiments of the appropriate type, so each Corps commanded 8 infantry, 4 field artillery and 4 cavalry regiments. There were exceptions to this rule: V, VI, VII, IX and XIV Corps each had a 5th infantry brigade II, XIII, XVIII and XXI Corps had a 9th infantry regiment I, VI and XVI Corps had a 3rd cavalry brigade the Guards Corps had 11 infantry regiments and 8 cavalry regiments.

Each Corps directly controlled a number of other units. This could include one or more Foot Artillery Regiment Jäger Battalion Pioneer Battalion Train Battalion On mobilization, on 2 August 1914, the Corps was restructured; the 25th Cavalry Brigade was withdrawn to form part of the 3rd Cavalry Division and the 21st Cavalry Brigade was broken up and its regiments assigned to the divisions as reconnaissance units. The 168th Infantry Regiment was assigned to the 25th Reserve Division in XVIII Reserve Corps. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, XVIII Corps mobilised with 24 infantry battalions, 8 machine gun companies, 8 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries, 4 heavy artillery batteries, 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment. On mobilisation, XVIII Corps was assigned to the 4th Army forming part of the centre of the forces for the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914, it was still in existence at the end of the war, serving in the 17th Army, Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht on the Western Front.

The XVIII Corps had the following commanders during its existence: German Army order of battle German Army order of battle, Western Front List of Imperial German infantry regiments List of Imperial German artillery regiments List of Imperial German cavalry regiments XVIII. Armeekorps Claus von Bredow, bearb. Historische Rang- und Stammliste des deuschen Heeres Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815–1939. Bd. 1 Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914–18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. Haythornthwaite, Philip J.. The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7. Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919; the London Stamp Exchange Ltd. 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3; the German Forces in the Field.

Imperial War Museum and The Battery Press, Inc. 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X