SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Self-esteem

Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair and shame. Smith and Mackie defined it by saying "The self-concept is. Self-esteem can apply to a specific attribute or globally. Psychologists regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic, though normal, short-term variations exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include many things: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, self-integrity; the concept of self-esteem has its origins in the 18th century, first expressed in the writings of David Hume, the Scottish enlightenment thinker, shows the idea that it is important to value and think well of yourself because it serves as a motivational function that enables people to explore their full potential. The identification of self-esteem as a distinct psychological construct has its origins in the work of philosopher and psychologist, anthropologist William James.

James identified multiple dimensions of the self, with two levels of hierarchy: processes of knowing and the resulting knowledge about the self. The observation about the self and storage of those observations by the I-self creates three types of knowledge, which collectively account for the Me-self, according to James; these are the material self, social self, spiritual self. The social self comes closest to self-esteem; the material self consists of representations of the body and possessions and the spiritual self of descriptive representations and evaluative dispositions regarding the self. This view of self-esteem as the collection of an individual's attitudes toward oneself remains today. In the mid-1960s, social psychologist Morris Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a feeling of self-worth and developed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, which became the most-widely used scale to measure self-esteem in the social sciences. In the early 20th century, the behaviorist movement minimized introspective study of mental processes and feelings, replacing introspection with objective study through experiments on behaviors observed in relation with the environment.

Behaviorism viewed the human being as an animal subject to reinforcements, suggested placing psychology as an experimental science, similar to chemistry or biology. As a consequence, clinical trials on self-esteem were overlooked, since behaviorists considered the idea less liable to rigorous measurement. In the mid-20th century, the rise of phenomenology and humanistic psychology led to renewed interest in self-esteem. Self-esteem took a central role in personal self-actualization and in the treatment of psychic disorders. Psychologists started to consider the relationship between psychotherapy and the personal satisfaction of persons with high self-esteem as useful to the field; this led to new elements being introduced to the concept of self-esteem, including the reasons why people tend to feel less worthy and why people become discouraged or unable to meet challenges by themselves. In 1992 the political scientist Francis Fukuyama associated self-esteem with what Plato called thymos - the "spiritedness" part of the Platonic soul.

As of 1997 the core self-evaluations approach included self-esteem as one of four dimensions that comprise one's fundamental appraisal of oneself - along with locus of control and self-efficacy. The concept of core self-evaluations as first examined by Judge and Durham, has since proven to have the ability to predict job satisfaction and job performance. Self-esteem may be essential to self-evaluation; the importance of self-esteem gained endorsement from some government and non-government groups starting around the 1970s, such that one can speak of a self-esteem movement. This movement can be used as an example of promising evidence that psychological research can have an effect on forming public policy; the underlying idea of the movement was that low self-esteem was the root of the problem for individuals, making it the root of societal problems and dysfunctions. A leading figure of the movement, psychologist Nathaniel Branden, stated: " cannot think of a single psychological problem – from anxiety and depression, to fear of intimacy or of success, to spouse battery or child molestation –, not traced back to the problem of low self-esteem".

Self-esteem was believed to be a cultural phenomenon of Western individualistic societies since low self-esteem was not found in collectivist countries such as Japan. Concern about low self-esteem and its many presumed negative consequences led California assemblyman John Vasconcellos to work to set up and fund the Task Force on Self-Esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility in California in 1986. Vasconcellos argued that this task force could combat many of the state's problems - from crime and teen pregnancy to school underachievement and pollution, he compared increasing self-esteem to giving out a vaccine for a disease: it could help protect people from being overwhelmed by life's challenges. The task force set up committees in many California counties and formed a committee of scholars to re

Henry County Library System

The Henry County Library System is a public library system consisting of five branches in Henry County, Georgia. The five branches are located in the towns of Stockbridge, Locust Grove, McDonough. HCLS is a member of PINES, a program of the Georgia Public Library Service that covers 53 library systems in 143 counties of Georgia. Any resident in a PINES supported library system has access to over 10.6 million books in the system's circulation. The library is serviced by GALILEO, a program of the University System of Georgia which stands for "GeorgiA LIbrary LEarning Online"; this program offers residents in supported libraries access to over 100 databases indexing thousands of periodicals and scholarly journals. It boasts over 10,000 journal titles in full text; the library has an agreement with Gordon State College to combine resources to better serve the students at the school. The McDonough branch additionally allows access to classroom space and other resource assistance on an as needed basis for the students.

DeKalb County Public Library to the north. Conyers-Rockdale Library System to the north east. Newton County Library System to the east. Flint River Regional Library System to the south. Clayton County Library System to the west. PINES Catalog

Wallace's tarsier

Wallace's tarsier, Tarsius wallacei is a described species of tarsier. It is found in the forests of Central Sulawesi, it is a small brown arboreal mammal less than 15 cm long. Wallace's tarsier was first described as T. wallacei by Stefan Merker et al. in 2010, the type locality being about 9 km south of Palu, the capital of Central Sulawesi, near the village of Uwemanje. There are two separate populations which are morphologically similar but differ in the size of the animal; the new species was named in honour of Alfred Russel Wallace. Wallace's tarsier is similar in size and appearance to other lowland tarsiers and has a head-and-body length of between 10 and 15 cm, it is larger than the pygmy tarsier. It has large eyes, a defined facial-mask, white spots behind its ears and a long tail with a large bushy tail-tuft, its fur is yellowish-brown and its throat is copper-coloured. Although morphologically similar to other species of tarsier found on Sulawesi, it has a distinctive duetting call, genetic analysis shows that its mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA sequences, its microsatellite allele frequencies, are unique.

Wallace's tarsier is endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. There are two separate populations separated by Palu Bay, the capital city and the south part of the Isthmus of Palu; the southern population occupies an area of 50 km2. This tarsier is found in both primary and secondary forest and in degraded areas. Wallace's tarsier has a limited range the southern form; the total population is unknown but is thought to be decreasing as forest is cleared to make way for plantation crops. The International Union for Conservation of Nature does not have enough information to assess the conservation status of this tarsier, so it has rated it as "data deficient"; the northern population includes the Gunung Sojol Nature Reserve within its range. However, the southern population has such a small range that any setback to the population could have a high impact