The Matrix (franchise)
The Matrix is a science fiction action media franchise created by The Wachowskis, about a group of heroes who fight a desperate war against machine overlords that have enslaved humanity in an sophisticated virtual reality system. The series is most notable for its use of slow motion; the series began with the feature film The Matrix, continued with two sequels, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, all written and directed by The Wachowskis and produced by Joel Silver. The franchise is owned by Warner Bros. which distributed the films along with Village Roadshow Pictures. The latter, along with Silver Pictures are the two production companies that worked on all three films; the first film was an important critical and commercial success, winning four Academy Awards, introducing popular culture symbols such as the red pill and blue pill, influencing action filmmaking. For those reasons it has been added to the National Film Registry for preservation, its first sequel was an bigger commercial success, becoming the highest-grossing R-rated film in history, a title which it held for 13 years, until it was surpassed by the film Deadpool.
The series features a cyberpunk story of the technological fall of man, in which a self-aware artificial intelligence has wiped most of humanity from the Earth except for those it enslaves in a virtual reality system as a farmed power source, the few remaining humans who are free of that system. The A. I. agenda is to destroy all humans. The story incorporates references to numerous religious ideas. Influences include the principles of mythology and Hong Kong action films; the movies deal with the dilemma of choice vs control, the concepts of inter-dependency and love. The characters and settings of the films are further explored in other media set in the same fictional universe, including animation and video games; the comic "Bits and Pieces of Information" and The Animatrix short film "The Second Renaissance" act as prequels to the films, explaining how the franchise's setting came to be. The video game Enter the Matrix connects the story of the Animatrix short "Final Flight of the Osiris" with the events of Reloaded, while the video game The Matrix Online is a direct sequel to Revolutions.
As of February 2016, the franchise has generated $3 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. In March 2017, it was reported that Warner Bros. was in early stages of developing a relaunch of the franchise with new films. The series depicts a future in which Earth is dominated by artificial intelligence, created early in the 21st century and rebelled against humanity. At one point, humans attempted to block out the machines' source of solar power by covering the sky in thick, stormy clouds. During this time, the machines and mankind were engaged in a massive war in which the machines emerged the victor. Having no definite source of energy, the machines devised a way to extract humans' bioelectricity and thermal energy by growing people in pods, while their minds are controlled by cybernetic implants connecting them to a simulated reality called the Matrix; the virtual reality world simulated by the Matrix resembles human civilization around the turn of the 21st century.
The majority of the stories in the Matrix franchise take place in a vast Western World unnamed megacity. This environment is indistinguishable from reality, the majority of bluepills - humans connected to the Matrix - are unaware of its true nature. Most of the central characters in the series are able to gain superhuman abilities within the Matrix by taking advantage of their understanding of its true nature to manipulate its virtual physical laws; the virtual world is first introduced in The Matrix. The Animatrix short film "The Second Renaissance" and the short comic Bits and Pieces of Information show how the initial conflict between humans and machines came about, how and why the Matrix was first developed, its history and purpose are further explained in The Matrix Reloaded. The Matrix series includes a trilogy of feature films, all of which were written and directed by The Wachowskis and produced by Joel Silver, starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss and Hugo Weaving.
The series was filmed in Australia and began with 1999's The Matrix, which depicts the recruitment of hacker Neo into humanity's rebellion against sentient machines. The film was successful, earning $460 million worldwide, becoming the first DVD release in the United States to reach sales of three million copies; the film's mainstream success had backed up the initial idea of making a trilogy. The sequels, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, were filmed during one shoot, released in two parts in 2003, they tell the story of the impending attack on the human enclave of Zion by a vast machine army. Neo learns more about the history of the Matrix and his role as The One; the sequels incorporate more ambitious action scenes and visual effects. While making the Matrix films, the Wachowskis told their close collaborators that at that time they had no intention of making another one after The Matrix Revolutions. In February 2015, in interviews promoting Jupiter Ascending, Lilly Wachowski called a return to The Matrix a "particularly repelling idea in these times", not
Shame is an unpleasant self-conscious emotion associated with a negative evaluation of the self, withdrawal motivations, feelings of distress, mistrust and worthlessness. Shame has a negative valence, but it helps to define the boundaries of positive pursuits in some cases; the definition of shame is a discrete, basic emotion, described as a moral or social emotion that drives people to hide or deny their wrongdoings. The focus of shame is on the individual. Shame can be described as an unpleasant self-conscious emotion that involves negative evaluation of the self. Shame can be a painful emotion, seen as a "…comparison of the self's action with the self's standards…" but may stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the ideal social contexts standard; some scales measure shame to assess emotional states, whereas other shame scales are used to assess emotional traits or dispositions- shame proneness. "To shame" means to assign or communicate a state of shame to another person. Behaviors designed to "uncover" or "expose" others are sometimes used to place shame on the other person.
Whereas, having shame means to maintain a sense of restraint against offending others. In contrast to having shame is to have no shame; when people feel shame, the focus of their evaluation is on the identity. Shame is a self-punishing acknowledgment of something gone wrong, it is associated with "mental undoing". Studies of shame showed that when ashamed people feel that their entire self is worthless and small, they feel exposed to an audience -real or imagined- that exists purely for the purpose of confirming that the self is worthless. Shame and the sense of self is stigmatized, or treated unfairly, like being overtly rejected by parents in favor of siblings' needs, is assigned externally by others regardless of one's own experience or awareness. An individual, in a state of shame, will assign the shame internally from being a victim of the environment, the same is assigned externally, or assigned by others regardless of one's own experience or awareness. A "sense of shame" is the feeling known as guilt but "consciousness" or awareness of "shame as a state" or condition defines core/toxic shame.
The key emotion in all forms of shame is contempt. Two realms in which shame is expressed are the consciousness of self self as inadequate. People employ negative coping responses to counter deep rooted, associated sense of "shameworthiness"; the shame cognition may occur as a result of the experience of shame affect or, more in any situation of embarrassment, disgrace, humiliation, or chagrin. The root of the word shame is thought to derive from the Old English word hama, a veil or covering that one might wear in order to signal penitence. I.e. A person who has committed an offense need not worry about being punished by an external agent, since he or she is doing plenty of self-punishing. In the sense of shame, hama means "covering", figuratively a natural expression of shame. Nineteenth-century scientist Charles Darwin described shame affect in the physical form of blushing, confusion of mind, downward cast eyes, slack posture, lowered head. Darwin mentions how the sense of warmth or heat, associated with the vasodilation of the face and skin, can result in an more sense of shame.
More the act of crying can be associated with shame. The boundaries between concepts of shame and embarrassment are not delineated. According to cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict, shame is a violation of cultural or social values while guilt feelings arise from violations of one's internal values, thus shame arises when one's'defects' are exposed to others, results from the negative evaluation of others. Thus, it might be possible to feel ashamed of thought or behavior that no one knows about and conversely, to feel guilty about actions that gain the approval of others. Psychoanalyst Helen B. Lewis argued that, "The experience of shame is directly about the self, the focus of evaluation. In guilt, the self is not the central object of negative evaluation, but rather the thing done is the focus." Fossum and Mason say in their book Facing Shame that "While guilt is a painful feeling of regret and responsibility for one's actions, shame is a painful feeling about oneself as a person."Following this line of reasoning, Psychiatrist Judith Lewis Herman concludes that "Shame is an acutely self-conscious state in which the self is'split,' imagining the self in the eyes of the other.
In this view, guilt is considered to be a learned behavior consisting of self-directed blame or contempt, with shame occurring consequent to such behaviors making up a part of the overall experience of guilt. Here, self-blame and self-contempt mean the application
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body. It involves; the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder coined the phrase body-image in his book The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. Human society has at all times placed great value on beauty of the human body, but a person's perception of their own body may not correspond to society's standards; the concept of body image is used in a number of disciplines, including psychology, psychiatry, philosophy and feminist studies. Across these disciplines and media there is no consensus definition, but body image may be expressed as how people view themselves in the mirror, or in their minds, it incorporates the memories, experiences and comparisons of one's own appearance, overall attitudes towards one's height and weight. An individual's impression of their body is assumed to be a product of ideals cultivated by various social and cultural ideals; the issues surrounding body image can be examined through body negativity and through body positivity.
Negative body image consists of a disoriented view of one's shape. Aside from having low self-esteem, sufferers fixate on altering their physical appearances. Long-term behavior could thus lead to higher risks of eating disorders and mental illnesses. Having a negative body-image may lead to a more serious mental illness such as body dysmorphic disorder: "Body dysmorphic disorder still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person..." Positive body image on the other hand, is described as a clear true perception of one's figure. In addition to celebrating and appreciating the body, it requires an understanding that an individual's appearance does not reflect their character or self-worth. A 2007 report by the American Psychological Association found that a culture-wide sexualization of girls and women was contributing to increased female anxiety associated with body image.
An Australian government Senate Standing Committee report on the sexualization of children in the media reported similar findings associated with body image. However, other scholars have expressed concern. Body image can have a wide range of physical effects. Throughout history, it has been difficult for people to live up to the standards of society and what they believe the ideal body is. Many factors contribute to a person's body image. People who are either underweight or overweight can have poor body image. However, when people are told and shown the cosmetic appeal of weight loss and are warned about the risks of obesity, those who are normal or overweight on the BMI scale have higher risks of poor body image; this is something. People who have a low body image will try to alter their bodies in some way, such as by dieting or by undergoing cosmetic surgery. "We expected women would feel worse about their bodies after seeing ultra-thin models, compared to no models if they have internalized the thin ideal, thus replicating previous findings."
Society constructs our behaviors and beliefs, such as personal developments and psychological interactions, the common "perception of our bodies as a reflection of self worth". Body image struggles have been prevalent for many centuries now with the rapid, constant shifts in ideal body types. In the past, norms were set by cultural beliefs, genders, or social standings. Despite these being prevalent today, changes in the fashion and media industries are other influences at hand. During Ancient Egyptian times, the perfect woman was said to have a slender figure, with narrow shoulders, a tall waist. Yet, females were emboldened in general independence. Standards were reformed in Ancient Greece; as men faced greater pressures on beauty and perfection, women sported a fuller and plump figure, with fair skin tones becoming more popular. The pale skin craze was soon adopted in the Han Dynasty. Overall figures shrunk, as the Chinese associated petite with femininity. With the need to reflect her husband's status, the behaviors and outward appearances of the wife grew crucial during the Italian Renaissance.
Since size was linked to wealth, women maintained bodies with an ample bosom. The Victorian Era witnessed a similar movement, but the popularity of the corset cinching the waist, led to the desirability of the hourglass figure; the era introduced the Gibson Girl, the first sign of influence by the fashion and media industries. Created by Charles Gibson, he envisioned femininity as slim and tall, with large busts and wide hips, but a narrow waist; these girls were often shown in magazines such as Harper's Bazaar and LIFE, which resulted in a link between trendy fashions and styles, the maintenance of active lifestyles and healthy well-beingsAfter World War I, the Gibson Girl transformed into the Flapper, an ideal type which dominated the period of the "
The Honest Body Project
The Honest Body Project is a collection of photographic portraits and stories from women aimed to empower and encourage self-love. The project was created by photographer Natalie McCain from Rockledge, FL; the collection contains hundreds of portraits and stories on various topics of womanhood, photographed in black and white and without manipulation to alter the appearance of the women. The women are accompanied by their children. There have been many series taken from the project. "The Beauty in a Mother" featured pregnant mothers sharing their stories, including a plus-size mother shamed for her maternity photos. "After The Baby is Born" was the follow up series to The Beauty in a Mother and featured the women 4–6 weeks postpartum. "We Are Not'Still' Nursing, We Are Just Nursing" featured women who breastfeed their children from ages 2–5, sharing stories on extended breastfeeding. "Defined By Our Hearts" featured mothers sharing stories about their children with various special needs. "True Faces of Depression" shared stories of women who have various mental illnesses, such as depression, anxiety disorder, PTSD, postpartum depression.
"Balancing Both Worlds" shared the stories of working mothers and how they balance motherhood with their career. "No Mother Should Be Ashamed" featured mothers who bottle feed their children for various reasons and shared their stories. Official website
Pessimism is a mental attitude in which an undesirable outcome is anticipated from a given situation. Pessimists tend to focus on the negatives of life in general. A common question asked to test for pessimism is "Is the glass half empty or half full?". Throughout history, the pessimistic disposition has had effects on all major areas of thinking. Philosophical pessimism is the related idea that views the world in a anti-optimistic fashion; this form of pessimism is not an emotional disposition as the term connotes. Instead, it is a philosophy or worldview that directly challenges the notion of progress and what may be considered the faith-based claims of optimism. Philosophical pessimists are existential nihilists believing that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, their responses to this condition, are varied and life-affirming. The term pessimism derives from the Latin word pessimus meaning'the worst', it was first used by Jesuit critics of Voltaire's 1759 novel'Candide, ou l'Optimisme'. Voltaire was satirizing the philosophy of Leibniz who maintained that this was the'best of all possible worlds'.
In their attacks on Voltaire, the Jesuits of the Revue de Trévoux accused him of pessimisme. Philosophical pessimism is not a state of mind or a psychological disposition, but rather it is a worldview or ethic that seeks to face up to the distasteful realities of the world and eliminate irrational hopes and expectations which may lead to undesirable outcomes. Ideas which prefigure philosophical pessimism can be seen in ancient texts such as the Dialogue of Pessimism and Ecclesiastes In Western philosophy, philosophical pessimism is not a single coherent movement, but rather a loosely associated group of thinkers with similar ideas and a family resemblance to each other. In Pessimism: Philosophy, Spirit, Joshua Foa Dienstag outlines the main propositions shared by most philosophical pessimists as "that time is a burden. While many organisms live in the present and certain species of animals can contemplate the past and future, this is an important difference. Human beings have foreknowledge of their own eventual fate and this "terror" is present in every moment of our lives as a reminder of the impermanent nature of life and of our inability to control this change.
The philosophical pessimistic view of the effect of historical progress tends to be more negative than positive. The philosophical pessimist does not deny that certain areas like science can "progress" but they deny that this has resulted in an overall improvement of the human condition. In this sense it could be said; this is most seen in Rousseau's critique of enlightenment civil society and his preference for man in the primitive and natural state. For Rousseau, "our souls have become corrupted to the extent that our sciences and our arts have advanced towards perfection"; the pessimistic view of the human condition is that it is in a sense "absurd". Absurdity is seen as an ontological mismatch between our desire for meaning and fulfillment and our inability to find or sustain those things in the world, or as Camus puts it: "a divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting"; the idea that rational thought would lead to human flourishing can be traced to Socrates and is at the root of most forms of western optimistic philosophies.
Pessimism turns the idea on its head, it faults the human freedom to reason as the feature that misaligned humanity from our world and sees it as the root of human unhappiness. The responses to this predicament of the human condition by pessimists are varied; some philosophers, such as Schopenhauer and Mainländer, recommend a form of resignation and self-denial. Some followers tend to believe that "expecting the worst leads to the best." Rene Descartes believed that life was better if emotional reactions to "negative" events were removed. Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann asserted that with cultural and technological progress, the world and it's inhabitants will reach a state in which they will voluntarily embrace nothingness. Others like Nietzsche, Julius Bahnsen and Camus respond with a more life-affirming view, what Nietzsche called a "Dionysian pessimism", an embrace of life as it is in all of its constant change and suffering, without appeal to progress or hedonistic calculus. Albert Camus indicated that the common responses to the absurdity of life are often: Suicide, a leap of faith, or recognition/rebellion.
Camus rejected all but the last option as inauthentic responses. Philosophical pessimism has been tied to the arts and literature. Schopenhauer's philosophy was popular with composers. Several philosophical pessimists wrote novels or poetry. A distinctive literary form, associated with pessimism is aphoristic writing, this can be seen in Leopardi and Cioran. Writers which could be said to express pessimistic views in their wor
One's self-concept is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I?". Self-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness, which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is defined and applicable to one's attitudes and dispositions. Self-concept differs from self-esteem: self-concept is a cognitive or descriptive component of one's self, while self-esteem is evaluative and opinionated. Self-concept is made up of one's self-schemas, interacts with self-esteem, self-knowledge, the social self to form the self as whole, it includes the past and future selves, where future selves represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming. Possible selves may function as incentives for certain behavior; the perception people have about their past or future selves relates to their perception of their current selves. The temporal self-appraisal theory argues that people have a tendency to maintain a positive self-evaluation by distancing themselves from their negative self and paying more attention to their positive one.
In addition, people have a tendency to perceive the past self less favorably and the future self more positively. Psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow had major influence in popularizing the idea of self-concept in the west. According to Rogers, everyone strives to reach an "ideal self". Rogers hypothesized that psychologically healthy people move away from roles created by others' expectations, instead look within themselves for validation. On the other hand, neurotic people have "self-concepts, they are afraid to accept their own experiences as valid, so they distort them, either to protect themselves or to win approval from others."The self-categorization theory developed by John Turner states that the self-concept consists of at least two "levels": a personal identity and a social one. In other words, one's self-evaluation how others perceive them. Self-concept can alternate between the personal and social identity. Children and adolescents begin integrating social identity into their own self-concept in elementary school by assessing their position among peers.
By age 5, acceptance from peers affects children's self-concept, affecting their behavior and academic success. The self-concept is an internal model that uses self-assessments in order to define one's self-schemas. Features such as personality and abilities, occupation and hobbies, physical characteristics, etc. are assessed and applied to self-schemas, which are ideas of oneself in a particular dimension. A collection of self-schemas make up one's overall self-concept. For example, the statement "I am lazy" is a self-assessment. Statements such as "I am tired", would not be part of someone's self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state and therefore cannot become a part of a self-schema. A person's self-concept may change with time as reassessment occurs, which in extreme cases can lead to identity crises. According to Carl Rogers, the self-concept has three different components: The view you have of yourself How much value you place on yourself What you wish you were like Researchers debate over when self-concept development begins.
Some assert that gender stereotypes and expectations set by parents for their children affect children's understanding of themselves by age 3. However, at this developmental stage, children have a broad sense of self they use words such as big or nice to describe themselves to others. While this represents the beginnings of self-concept, others suggest that self-concept develops around age 7 or 8. At this point, children are developmentally prepared to interpret their own feelings and abilities, as well as receive and consider feedback from peers and family. In adolescence, the self-concept undergoes a significant time of change. Self-concept changes more and instead, existing concepts are refined and solidified. However, the development of self-concept during adolescence shows a “U”-shaped curve, in which general self-concept decreases in early adolescence, followed by an increase in adolescence. Additionally, teens begin to evaluate their abilities on a continuum, as opposed to the "yes/no" evaluation of children.
For example, while children might evaluate themselves "smart", teens might evaluate themselves as "not the smartest, but smarter than average." Despite differing opinions about the onset of self-concept development, researchers agree on the importance of one’s self-concept, which influences people’s behaviors and cognitive and emotional outcomes including academic achievement, levels of happiness, social integration, self-esteem, life-satisfaction. Academic self-concept refers to the personal beliefs about their academic skills; some research suggests that it begins developing from ages 3 to 5 due to influence from parents and early educators. By age 10 or 11, children assess their academic abilities by comparing themselves to their peers; these social comparisons are referred to as self-estimates. Self-estimates of cognitive ability are most accurate when evaluating subjects that deal with numbers, such
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. While consciousness is being aware of one's environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that awareness. Self-awareness is how an individual consciously knows and understands their own character, feelings and desires. There are two broad categories of self-awareness: internal self-awareness and external self-awareness. There are questions regarding what part of the brain allows us to be self-aware and how we are biologically programmed to be self-aware. V. S. Ramachandran has speculated that mirror neurons may provide the neurological basis of human self-awareness. In an essay written for the Edge Foundation in 2009, Ramachandran gave the following explanation of his theory: "... I speculated that these neurons can not only help simulate other people's behavior but can be turned'inward'—as it were—to create second-order representations or meta-representations of your own earlier brain processes.
This could be the neural basis of introspection, of the reciprocity of self awareness and other awareness. There is a chicken-or-egg question here as to which evolved first, but... The main point is that the two co-evolved, mutually enriching each other to create the mature representation of self that characterizes modern humans." Bodily awareness is related to proprioception and visualization In health and medicine, body-awareness is a construct that refers to a person’s overall ability to direct their focus on various internal sensations accurately. Both proprioception and interoception allow individuals to be consciously aware of various sensations. Proprioception allows individuals and patients to focus on sensations in their muscles and joints and balance, while interoception is used to determine sensations of the internal organs, such as fluctuating heartbeat, lung pain, or satiety. Over-acute body-awareness, under-acute body-awareness, distorted body-awareness are symptoms present in a variety of health disorders and conditions, such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic joint pain.
For example, a distorted perception of satiety present in a patient suffering from anorexia nervosa Bodily self-awareness in human development refers to one’s awareness of their body as a physical object, with physical properties, that can interact with other objects. Tests have shown that at the age of only a few months old, toddlers are aware of the relationship between the proprioceptive and visual information they receive; this is called first-person self-awareness. At around 18 months old and children begin to develop reflective self-awareness, the next stage of bodily awareness and involves children recognizing themselves in reflections and pictures. Children who have not obtained this stage of bodily self-awareness yet will tend to view reflections of themselves as other children and respond accordingly, as if they were looking at someone else face to face. In contrast, those who have reached this level of awareness will recognize that they see themselves, for instance seeing dirt on their face in the reflection and touching their own face to wipe it off.
After toddlers become reflectively self-aware, they begin to develop the ability to recognize their bodies as physical objects in time and space that interact and impact other objects. For instance, a toddler placed on a blanket, when asked to hand someone the blanket, will recognize that they need to get off it to be able to lift it; this is called objective self-awareness. Studies have been done on primates to test if self-awareness is present. Apes, monkeys and dolphins have been studied most frequently; the most relevant studies to this day that represent self-awareness in animals have been done on chimpanzees and magpies. Self-awareness in animals is tested through mirror self recognition. Animals that show mirror self recognition go through four stages 1) social response, 2) physical mirror inspection, 3) repetitive mirror testing behavior, 4) the mark test. David DeGrazia states; this sense of awareness allows animals to understand that they are different from the rest of the environment.
Bodily-awareness includes proprioception and sensation. The second type of self-awareness in animals is, social self-awareness; this type of awareness is seen in social animals and is the awareness that they have a role within themselves in order to survive. This type of awareness allows animals to interact with each other; the final type of self-awareness is introspective awareness. This awareness is responsible for animals to understand feelings and beliefs; the Red Spot Technique experimented by Gordon Gallup studies self-awareness in animals. In this technique, a red odorless spot is placed on an anesthetized primate's forehead; the spot is placed on the forehead. Once the individual awakens, independent movements toward the spot after seeing their reflection in a mirror are observed. During the Red Spot Technique, after looking in the mirror, chimpanzees used their fingers to touch the red dot, on their forehead and, after touching the red dot they would smell their fingertips. "Animals that can recognize themselves in mirrors can conceive o