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Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical or similar copy of itself. Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During cell division, DNA can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction. Biological viruses can replicate, but only by commandeering the reproductive machinery of cells through a process of infection. Harmful prion proteins can replicate by converting normal proteins into rogue forms. Computer viruses reproduce using the hardware and software present on computers. Self-replication in robotics has been an area of research and a subject of interest in science fiction. Any self-replicating mechanism which does not make a perfect copy will experience genetic variation and will create variants of itself; these variants will be subject to natural selection, since some will be better at surviving in their current environment than others and will out-breed them. Early research by John von Neumann established that replicators have several parts: A coded representation of the replicator A mechanism to copy the coded representation A mechanism for effecting construction within the host environment of the replicatorExceptions to this pattern may be possible, although none have yet been achieved.

For example, scientists have come close to constructing RNA that can be copied in an "environment", a solution of RNA monomers and transcriptase. In this case, the body is the genome, the specialized copy mechanisms are external; the requirement for an outside copy mechanism has not yet been overcome, such systems are more characterized as "assisted replication" than "self-replication". However, the simplest possible case is. Without some specification of the self-reproducing steps, a genome-only system is better characterized as something like a crystal. Recent research has begun to categorize replicators based on the amount of support they require. Natural replicators have most of their design from nonhuman sources; such systems include natural life forms. Autotrophic replicators can reproduce themselves "in the wild", they mine their own materials. It is conjectured that non-biological autotrophic replicators could be designed by humans, could accept specifications for human products. Self-reproductive systems are conjectured systems which would produce copies of themselves from industrial feedstocks such as metal bar and wire.

Self-assembling systems assemble copies of themselves from delivered parts. Simple examples of such systems have been demonstrated at the macro scale; the design space for machine replicators is broad. A comprehensive study to date by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle has identified 137 design dimensions grouped into a dozen separate categories, including: Replication Control, Replication Information, Replication Substrate, Replicator Structure, Passive Parts, Active Subunits, Replicator Energetics, Replicator Kinematics, Replication Process, Replicator Performance, Product Structure, Evolvability. In computer science a quine is a self-reproducing computer program that, when executed, outputs its own code. For example, a quine in the Python programming language is: a='a=%r. In this case the program is treated as both executable code, as data to be manipulated; this approach is common in most self-replicating systems, including biological life, is simpler as it does not require the program to contain a complete description of itself.

In many programming languages an empty program is legal, executes without producing errors or other output. The output is thus the same as the source code, so the program is trivially self-reproducing. In geometry a self-replicating tiling is a tiling pattern in which several congruent tiles may be joined together to form a larger tile, similar to the original; this is an aspect of the field of study known as tessellation. The "sphinx" hexiamond is the only known self-replicating pentagon. For example, four such concave pentagons can be joined together to make one with twice the dimensions. Solomon W. Golomb coined the term rep-tiles for self-replicating tilings. In 2012, Lee Sallows identified rep-tiles as a special instance of a self-tiling tile set or setiset. A setiset of order n is a set of n shapes that can be assembled in n different ways so as to form larger replicas of themselves. Setisets in which every shape is distinct are called'perfect'. A rep-n rep-tile is just a setiset composed of n identical pieces.

One form of natural self-replication that isn't based on DNA or RNA occurs in clay crystals. Clay consists of a large number of small crystals, clay is an environment that promotes crystal growth. Crystals consist of a regular lattice of atoms and are able to grow if e.g. placed in a water solution containing the crystal components. Crystals may have irregularities where the regular atomic structure is broken, when crystals grow, these irregularities may propagate, creating a form of self-replication of crystal irregularities; because these irregularities may affect the probability of a crystal breaking apart to form new crystals, crystals with such irregularities could be considered to undergo evolutionary development. It is a long-term goal of some engineering sciences to achieve a clanking replicator, a material device that can self-replicate; the usual reason is to achieve a low cost per item while retaining the utility of a manufactured good. Many authorities say

Akhila Anand

Akhila Anand aka Akhila Shyam Sai is a playback singer in the Malayalam Film industry. She is a stage performer, Television artiste and Compere' in Kerala. Akhila Anand was born in Trivandrum City, India in Oct 1982, she started school at Poojapura Govt Lower Primary School, did her primary and secondary education at Sisu Vihar and Cotton Hill Girls High School. Post school she graduated in Commerce from Tandem, her musical sojourn was set on track by Saraswathi Ammal, under whom she trained in Carnatic Music for five years. She was given advanced musical classes by Dr Bhagya Lakshmi, She had the opportunity to be trained by noted singer Ramesh Narayan and Perumbavoor G Raveendranath. Akhila Anand's musical career started with her song'Azhakarnilla Manjacharaadillay Poothali', a duet in the movie Ashwaroodan, directed by Jayaraj; the music was composed by Jassie Gift. She has hence rendered more than forty songs for various Malayalam Films. One of the other hits, noted is the song Kalkkanda Malayil in the movie chocolate composed by Alex Paul and penned by Vayalar Sarath Chandra Varma.

Akhila is active in the television circuit. She has been involved in various TV shows like Climax on Kairali TV aired in 2000. In 2002 she anchored Global Greetings followed by Chithra Hridayaragam, all on Asianet, her recent TV programs include Symphony in Kairali TV and Suvarna Geethangal in Surya TV. She is a stage artiste and has done many shows during the Onam Week Celebrations in Kerala along with many other programs, she is active in anchoring shows out of Kerala. She continues to sing playback for Malayalam Movies. Https://

Evangelical Lutheran Diocese of North America

The Evangelical Lutheran Diocese of North America is a confessional Lutheran church body in the United States. There are seventeen pastors in the diocese, serving congregations in Alaska, Illinois, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Carolina and Wisconsin; the ELDoNA was founded June 6, 2006 at a meeting held at Salem Lutheran Church, Texas. A second diocesan synod was held August 28 and 29, 2007; the third diocesan synod was held at Christ Lutheran Church in Richmond, Missouri on May 22, 2008, the fourth in the same location, May 14–15, 2009. For the fifth Colloquium and Synod, the diocese returned to Malone, May 12–15, 2010, met there again for the sixth Colloquium and Synod May 11–13, 2011; the sixth Colloquium and Synod was the first in which all but one of the pastors of the diocese and the entire clergy of the Association of Confessional Lutheran Churches were in attendance. Among the significant decisions of the 2011 synod was the resolution to open a diocesan seminary in September 2012.

The 2012 synod took place at Salem Lutheran Church in Malone, Texas the week of April 23–27, 2012, the 2013 synod took place April 29–May 3, 2013. In August 2013 the ACLC broke fellowship with the ELDoNA due to the latter's stand on the doctrine of Objective Justification. In 2006, James Heiser was called to serve as the diocesan bishop. Heiser has published a volume of essays on the doctrine of the holy ministry entitled Stewards of the Mysteries of God, he is the author of a study of the neo-Platonic revival which took place during the Italian Renaissance, entitled Prisci Theologi and the Hermetic Reformation in the Fifteenth Century. In 2013, Repristination Press published a volume of essays by Pastor John Rutowicz which sets forth the diocesan understanding of the episcopal office: Holding Fast the Faithful Word: Episcopacy and the Office of the Holy Ministry in the Evangelical Lutheran Diocese of North America; the diocese produces The Lutheran Herald, a monthly devotional journal that includes diocesan news.

Evangelical Lutheran Diocese of North America Website News of Fellowship Between the ELDoNA and the ACLC ELDoNA responds to the Actions of the ELCA 2009 Churchwide Assembly Wittenberg Door commentary Mars Society Bio of Bp. Heiser American Lutheran Publicity Bureau Discussion of the ELDoNA

Triad (American fraternities)

The term Triad is used to designate certain historic groupings of seminal college fraternities in North America. The Union Triad is a group of the three oldest existing Greek-letter social fraternities in North America that were founded at Union College in Schenectady, New York: the Kappa Alpha Society, the Sigma Phi Society and the Delta Phi. No formal organization exists. Other fraternities which owe their birth to Union College include Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi and Theta Delta Chi. Collectively, these many foundings earned Union College the title Mother of Fraternities; the Miami Triad refers to three fraternities founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in the 19th century: Beta Theta Pi, Phi Delta Theta, Sigma Chi. Historians of fraternities compare the significance of the Miami Triad to that of the earlier Union Triad. Delta Zeta sorority was founded at Miami University in 1902, Phi Kappa Tau fraternity in 1906. Delta Sigma Epsilon sorority began there in 1914; these numerous Greek organization foundings cause some to refer to the school as the Mother of Fraternities.

It has been tradition at some campuses that have chapters of each of the Miami Triad, such as the University of Kansas, the University of Mississippi, to hold an annual party, formal, or ball referred to as "Miami Triad" or "Triad", to commemorate their tie to each other and the Miami Triad's place in Greek history. This tradition has waned in recent years and some schools have transformed the celebration into new events, such as the University of Kansas' Miami Triad Concert; the Lexington Triad is a group of three fraternities founded by students from colleges in Lexington, Virginia during Reconstruction following the American Civil War. Members of the triad include Alpha Tau Omega, Kappa Alpha Order, Sigma Nu; the national headquarters of both the Kappa Alpha Order and Sigma Nu are located in Lexington. The members of the Triad are sometimes grouped as part of the Virginia Circle, which includes several other fraternities founded in Virginia during the period of the Lexington Triad: Kappa Sigma and Pi Kappa Alpha at the University of Virginia, sometimes Sigma Phi Epsilon at Richmond College.

The Jefferson Duo includes the fraternities Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Kappa Psi, founded in 1848 and 1852 at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. A third, Kappa Phi Lambda, was founded there but dissolved in 1874. In 1865, Jefferson College combined with Washington College to become Washington & Jefferson College. Phi Kappa Sigma, founded at the University of Pennsylvania in 1850, is grouped with Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Kappa Psi to complete the Pennsylvania Triad. Mother of Fraternities Syracuse Triad

Monroe Correctional Complex

Monroe Correctional Complex is a Washington State Department of Corrections men's prison located in Monroe, United States. With an operating capacity of 2,500, it is the second largest prison in the state, it opened 21 years after statehood. Vocational classes offered at MCC include printing, information technology and personal computer support specialist, inmates can earn a GED while incarcerated. An independent non-profit, University Beyond Bars, offers college courses as a volunteer organization, some people incarcerated at MCC have earned associate degrees despite the prohibition of state funding for post-secondary education. A staff-supervised youth program is offered to high school and middle school students, it is designed to deter students from becoming involved in a criminal lifestyle by meeting selected inmates who tell them about the choices they made which led to their incarceration. Class II and III jobs are located within MCC. Class III jobs provide essential services to the facility such as maintenance, clerical warehouse workers, kitchen work.

Class II jobs are designed to reduce the cost of goods and services to state agencies and other tax-supported entities. These include laundry services, a print shop, a license tab shop, the panel program. Class I industries were once housed at MCC, but were eliminated in July 2004 as a result of a Washington Supreme Court decision that held that inmates cannot be employed by private commercial enterprises. Inmates have access to classification and mental health counselors at MCC, in addition to a wide range of paid and volunteer staff. Monroe Correctional Complex is located on a 365-acre campus in Washington. On campus are five housing units: SOU MSU WSRU TRU IMUThese vary from minimum to Super maximum security. Washington State Reformatory Unit - The original prison at the site. WSR is the second oldest prison in the state, only to Washington State Penitentiary. WSR has a capacity of 720, is minimum and maximum custody inmates. There are extended family visit trailers for family style visits with immediate relatives, available to the entire Monroe complex.

WSR has an inpatient hospital on the 4th floor, classified as Maximum security though the rest of the facility is medium, which classifies WSRU as a rating for DOC’s transport rating System. The 4th floor hospital is used by other correctional facilities within the state. Major medical care can be performed here along with daily dialysis, X-ray, minor medical procedures, but serious surgical procedures are performed in community hospitals. Special Offender Unit - Opened in 1980 as Special Offender Center under Gov. Dixy Lee Ray, renamed to Special Offender Unit under Gov. Jay Inslee, the Special Offender Unit houses Mentally Ill Incarcerated Individuals, has a 400 bed capacity. Security Levels are Maximum, Close and Minimum; the SOU is unique in that it employed Psychology Doctors to assess and treat mentally ill incarcerated individuals as part of its base operation unlike other facilities. Twin Rivers Unit - Originally known as Twin Rivers Corrections Center, the Twin Rivers Unit was opened in 1984.

With a population capacity of 800, TRU houses both medium security levels. The Washington State Sex Offender Treatment and Assessment Program is located at TRU, those participating in the program are housed there. Minimum Security Unit - Opened in 1997, the Minimum Security Unit has a capacity of 470; the MSU has a program housing Mentally Ill incarcerated individuals that allows them to transfer to minimum from other security levels. This program is the only one in the state. MSU houses incarcerated individuals with less than 4 years to serve. Intensive Management Unit - Opened in 2007, the IMU being Violator Unit and Intensive Management System has a capacity of 200+, 100+ of that being designated for probation violators. To note the Violator unit, not holding incarcerated individual allows double bunking which increases the maximum number of violators to 150+; the IMS houses incarcerated individuals that are difficult to manage or are a threat to others due to excessively violent outbursts in other facilities, has a security level of super maximum, no incarcerated individual is allowed to walk in IMS unlike in maximum custody.

It requires, by state policy a minimum of 2 officers to directly control and escort 1 incarcerated individual while they are in waist chains. IMS has controlled movement where as the Violator unit is treated as Minimum to medium security where violators can move in their respective day rooms with no officers present in the day room, IMS is one of the administrative segregations for the facility; the Washington State Reformatory opened in 1910, making it the second oldest operational prison in Washington state, behind the Washington State Penitentiary. The next facility opened was the Special Offender Unit in 1980. In 1984 the Twin Rivers Corrections Center was opened, it is now known as the Twin Rivers Unit. In 1997 the Minimum Security Unit was opened. In 2007 the Intensive management unit was opened. On January 29, 2011, Officer Jayme Biendl was strangled to death with an amplifying cord by an inmate within prison walls. Inmate Byron Scherf was accused of the murder. Officer Biendl had filed work orders for additional security measures to her supervisors which went unanswered.

One of her supervisors, Sergeant Jimmy Fletcher, signed a sworn affidavit that he had signed one of the work orders and forwarded it up the chain of command. In reaction to the murder, Washington DOC Officers now carry pepper spray and a "panic button" in case of emergency

K-32 (Kansas highway)

K-32 is a 32.197-mile-long state highway that runs from Lawrence to Kansas City in the U. S. state of Kansas paralleling the course of the Kansas River. Its western terminus is just outside Lawrence at U. S. Route 24 and US-40, its eastern terminus is in Kansas City at US-69. K-32 begins in extreme northeastern Douglas County at an intersection with US-24 and US-40 northeast of Lawrence. From this intersection, K-32 heads east along Linwood Road through rural parts of Leavenworth County, passing through the town of Linwood; the road crosses into the town of Bonner Springs 8.884 miles east of Linwood. In Bonner Springs, K-32 proceeds east on Kump Avenue until forced to turn northeast by the Kansas River; the highway has an interchange with K-7. At this point, K-32 runs alongside a Union Pacific rail line. Now bearing the name of Front Street, the route continues east into Edwardsville south of the Lake of the Forest. In Edwardsville, it picks up the name of Kaw Drive. On the Edwardsville -- Kansas City line, K-32 has an interchange with the Kansas City beltway.

The highway, still following Kaw Drive, continues northeast through the southwest portion of Kansas City. The highway comes to an interchange with the Turner Diagonal. Here, K-32 departs instead turning east to cross the river. Upon reaching the shore, the highway picks up Kansas Avenue, which it follows east alongside the BNSF rail yard; the highway has this time with I-635, as it enters a heavy industrial area. East of I-635, K-32 crosses the Kansas River again before coming to an end at an interchange with the 18th Street Expressway, which carries US-69; the Turner Diagonal bore the route designation of K-132, which continued east onto Kansas Avenue. K-32 continued straight through the interchange along Kaw Drive; the highway passed through an interchange with I-70 part of the Kansas Turnpike. This interchange is now part of the I-70 / I-635 interchange complex. Upon passing through the interchange, Kaw Drive changes names to Park Drive. K-32 continued east along Park until reaching 18th Street and Central, where the highway turned southeast.

K-32 followed Central through Downtown Kansas City, Kansas before coming to an end at I-70 at what is now Exit 422D. For a time, 3.5 miles of this stretch of road was concurrent with US-40. When the Kansas Turnpike Authority ceased collecting toll for the parallel stretch of I-70, US-40 was realigned to use the freeway. In 1993, the K-132 designation was removed from the state highway system and the portion of the Turner Diagonal west of Kaw Drive reverted to city control. K-32 was realigned onto the Kansas River bridge and Kansas Avenue, replacing K-132 east of Kaw Drive. K-32 Truck is a truck route of K-32, it begins at K-32 and travels southeastward along Scheidt Lane. It turns northeastward onto East Front Street, ends back at K-32