Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
A mangle or wringer is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers in a sturdy frame, connected by cogs and, in its home version, powered by a hand crank or electricity. While the appliance was used to wring water from wet laundry, today mangles are used to press or flatten sheets, kitchen towels, or clothing and other laundry; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first use of the word in English from 1598, quoting John Florio who, in his 1598 dictionary, A World of Words, described "a kind of press to press buckram, fustian, or dyed linen cloth, to make it have a luster or gloss." The word comes from the Dutch mangel, from mangelen "to mangle", which in turn derives from the medieval Latin mango or manga which comes from the Greek manganon, meaning "axis" or "engine". Some northern European countries used a table version for centuries, the device consisting of the rolling pin, a wood cylinder around which the damp cloth was wrapped, the mangle board, a curved or flat length of wood, used to roll and flatten the cloth.
The oldest known model is a Norwegian mangle board, found near Bergen and dated 1444. In the second half of the 19th century, commercial laundries began using steam-powered mangles or ironers; the electric washing machine's spin cycle rendered this use of a mangle obsolete, with it the need to wring out water from clothes mechanically. Box mangles were large and intended for pressing laundry smooth. Middle-class households and independent washerwomen used upright mangles for wringing water out of laundry, in the 19th century they were more used than early washing machines; the rollers were made of wood, or sometimes rubber. The Steel Roll Mangle Co. of 108 Franklin Street, Illinois, offered a gas-heated home mangle for pressing linens in 1902. In the 1930s electric mangles are still a feature of many laundry rooms, they consist of a rotating padded drum which revolves against a heating element which can be stationary, or can be a rotating drum. Laundry is emerges flat and pressed on the other side.
This process takes much less time than ironing board. There were many electric rotary ironers on the American market including Solent, Thor and Apex. By the 1940s the list had grown to include Bendix, General Electric and Maytag. By the 1950s, home ironers, or mangles, as they came to be called, were becoming popular time-savers for the homemaker; when home washing machines were first invented, they were just for washing: a tub on wheels. A hand-cranked mangle appeared on top after 1843 when John E. Turnbull of Saint John, New Brunswick patented a "Clothes Washer With Wringer Rolls." The first geared wringer mangle in the UK is thought to date to about 1850, when one was invented by Robert Tasker of Lancashire. It was a smaller, upright version of the box mangle. Small domestic pressing mangles may be more common in some countries than in others, they are not sold in North American home appliance stores or departments. In contrast to their use in homes, mangles have become an essential feature of commercial or large-scale laundries.
They are used to press flat items such as sheets or tablecloths, are far quicker and more energy-efficient for removing most of the water than a clothes dryer. Skilled operators can press shirts and pants on a mangle. A significant benefit of mangling is reduced dust; when washing, the ends of the surface fibers tend to stick out when dried. The clothes are much more sensitive to trap dust and grease, to shed off fibers. Mangling presses the fiber ends back onto the fiber; this can reduce dust by as much as 10–60 times. Mangles are most used for bed sheets and towels, which would be time-consuming to iron by hand. List of home appliances Boston Public Library. Laundry Trade Cards, including 19th-century advertisements for wringers
Albert Nelson, known by his stage name Albert King, was an American blues guitarist and singer whose playing influenced many other blues guitarists. He is best known for the popular and influential album Born Under a Bad Sign and its title track, he is one of the three performers known as the "Kings of the Blues."He was known as "The Velvet Bulldozer" because of his smooth singing and large size—he stood taller than average, with sources reporting 6 ft 4 in or 6 ft 7 in, weighed 250 lb —and because he drove a bulldozer in one of his day jobs early in his career. King was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in May 2013. In 2011, he was ranked number 13 on Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. Nelson was born on a cotton plantation in Mississippi. During childhood he sang at a church with a family gospel group, in which his father, played the guitar. One of 13 children, he grew up picking cotton on plantations near Forrest City, where the family moved when he was eight years old.
As Albert King, he was famed for his soulful, smoky vocals. He carved his own indelible niche in the blues hierarchy by creating a deep, dramatic sound, imitated by both blues and rock guitarists. King’s identifiable style made him one of the most important artists in the history of the blues, but his own identity was a longtime source of confusion, he stated in interviews that he was born in Indianola on April 25, 1923, was a half-brother of B. B. King, but the scant surviving official documentation suggests otherwise on both counts. Nonetheless, he stated that whenever he performed at Club Ebony in Indianola, the event was celebrated as a homecoming, he cited the fact that B. B.'s father was named Albert King. But when he applied for a Social Security card in 1942, he gave his birthplace as “Aboden” and signed his name as Albert Nelson, listing his father as Will Nelson. Musicians knew him as Albert Nelson in the 1940s and'50s, but when he made his first record in 1953—after B. B. had become a national blues star—Albert Nelson became Albert King, by 1959 he was billed in newspaper ads as “B.
B. King's brother.” He sometimes used the same nickname as B. B—“Blues Boy”—and named his guitar Lucy. B. B. however, stated that Albert was a friend but not a relative, he once remarked, “My name was King before I was famous.” According to King, his father left the family when Albert was five, when he was eight he moved with his mother, Mary Blevins, two sisters to an area near Forrest City, Arkansas. He said his family had lived in Arcola, for a time, he made his first guitar out of a cigar box, a piece of a bush, a strand of broom wire. He bought a real guitar for $1.25. As a left-hander learning guitar on his own, he used a normal string setup and tuning, but played with his guitar reversed, bending strings by pulling them down rather than pushing them up, he picked cotton, drove a bulldozer, worked in construction, held other jobs until he was able to support himself as a musician. He began his professional work as a musician with a group called the Groove Boys in Osceola, where he moved with his family in 1931.
During this time he was exposed to the work of many Delta blues artists, including Elmore James and Robert Nighthawk. Moving north to Gary, Indiana, he played drums for Jimmy Reed's band and on several of Reed's early recordings, he was influenced by the blues musicians Blind Lemon Lonnie Johnson. The electric guitar became his signature instrument, his preference being a Gibson Flying V, which he named Lucy. King earned his nickname "The Velvet Bulldozer" during this period, as he drove a bulldozer and worked as a mechanic to make a living, his smooth vocal style was influenced by R&B pop balladeers, such as the Mills Brothers. King moved to Gary, Indiana in the early 1950s, where he recorded his first single, for Parrot Records; the record sold a few copies, but made no significant impact and Parrot did not request any followup records or sign King to a long-term contract. He moved to St. Louis, where he recorded with the Bobbin and King Labels, he moved to Brooklyn, just across the river from St. Louis, in 1956, formed a new band.
During this period, he settled on using the Flying V as his primary guitar. He resumed recording in 1959 with his first minor hit, "I'm a Lonely Man", written by Little Milton, another guitar hero, an A&R man for Bobbin Records and was responsible for King's signing with the label, it was not until his 1961 release "Don't Throw Your Love on Me So Strong" that King had a major hit, reaching #14 on the US Billboard R&B chart. The song was included on his first album The Big Blues, released in 1962. However, the other singles that King cut for Bobbin failed to chart at all and he was dropped from the label in 1964, he cut two records for them. With no apparent career prospects other than touring the club circuit in the South and Midwest, King moved to Memphis, where he signed with the Stax record label. Produced by Al Jackson Jr. King with Booker T. & the MGs recorded dozens of influential sides, such as "Crosscut Saw" and "As the Years Go Passing By". In 1967, Stax released the album Born Under a Bad Sign, a collection of the singles King recorded at Stax.
The title track of that album (written by Booker
Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles. Laundry processes are done in a room reserved for that purpose. An apartment building or student hall of residence may have a shared laundry facility such as a tvättstuga. A stand-alone business is referred to as a self-service laundry; the material, being washed, or has been laundered, is generally referred to as laundry. Laundry has been part of history since humans began to wear clothes, so the methods by which different cultures have dealt with this universal human need are of interest to several branches of scholarship. Laundry work has traditionally been gendered, with the responsibility in most cultures falling to women; the Industrial Revolution led to mechanised solutions to laundry work, notably the washing machine and the tumble dryer. Laundry, like cooking and child care, is done both at home and by commercial establishments outside the home. Laundry was first done in watercourses, letting the water carry away the materials which could cause stains and smells.
Laundry is still done this way in the rural regions of poor countries. Agitation helps remove the dirt, so the laundry was rubbed, twisted, or slapped against flat rocks. One name for this surface is a beetling-stone, related to beetling, a technique in the production of linen; the dirt was beaten out with a wooden implement known as a washing paddle, battling stick, beetle or club. Wooden or stone scrubbing surfaces set up near a water supply were replaced by portable rub boards, including factory-made corrugated glass or metal washboards. Once clean, the clothes were rinsed and wrung out — twisted to remove most of the water, they were hung up on poles or clothes lines to air dry, or sometimes just spread out on clean grass, bushes, or trees. They were Ironed. Before the advent of the washing machine, laundry was done in a communal setting. Villages across Europe that could afford it built a wash-house, sometimes known by the French name of lavoir. Water was channelled from a stream or spring and fed into a building just a roof with no walls.
This wash-house contained two basins – one for washing and the other for rinsing – through which the water was flowing, as well as a stone lip inclined towards the water against which the wet laundry could be beaten. Such facilities were more convenient than washing in a watercourse; some lavoirs had the wash-basins at waist height. The launderers were protected to some extent from rain, their travel was reduced, as the facilities were at hand in the village or at the edge of a town; these facilities were public and available to all families, used by the entire village. Many of these village wash-houses are still standing, historic structures with no obvious modern purpose; the job of doing the laundry was reserved for women. Washerwomen took in the laundry of others; as such, wash-houses were an obligatory stop in many women's weekly lives and became a sort of institution or meeting place. It was a women-only space where they could discuss issues or chat. Indeed, this tradition is reflected in the Catalan idiom "fer safareig".
European cities had public wash-houses. The city authorities wanted to give the poorer population, who would otherwise not have access to laundry facilities, the opportunity to wash their clothes. Sometimes these facilities were combined with public baths, see for example Baths and wash houses in Britain; the aim was to thus reduce outbreaks of epidemics. Sometimes large metal cauldrons, were filled with fresh water and heated over a fire, as hot or boiling water is more effective than cold in removing dirt. A posser could be used to agitate clothes in a tub. A related implement called a washing dolly is "a wooden stick or mallet with an attached cluster of legs or pegs" that moves the cloth through the water; the Industrial Revolution transformed laundry technology. Christina Hardyment, in her history from the Great Exhibition of 1851, argues that it was the development of domestic machinery that led to women's liberation; the mangle was developed in the 19th century — two long rollers in a frame and a crank to revolve them.
A laundry-worker took sopping wet clothing and cranked it through the mangle, compressing the cloth and expelling the excess water. The mangle was much quicker than hand twisting, it was a variation on the box mangle used for pressing and smoothing cloth. Meanwhile, 19th-century inventors further mechanized the laundry process with various hand-operated washing machines to replace tedious hand rubbing against a washboard. Most involved turning a handle to move paddles inside a tub; some early-20th-century machines used an electrically powered agitator. Many of these washing machines were a tub on legs, with a hand-operated mangle on top; the mangle too was electrically powered replaced by a perforated double tub, which spun out the excess water in a spin cycle. Laundry drying was mechanized, with clothes dryers. Dryers were spinning perforated tubs, but they blew heated air rather than water. In the United States and Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century, the occupation of laundry worker was identified wi
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.
A currency detector or currency validator is a device that determines whether notes or coins are genuine or counterfeit. These devices are used in many automated machines found in retail kiosks, self checkout machines, arcade gaming machines, launderette washing machines, car park ticket machines, automatic fare collection machines, public transport ticket machines, vending machines; the process involves examining the coins and/or notes that have been inserted into the machine, by using various tests, determining if the currency is counterfeit. Since the parameters are different for each coin or note, these detectors must be programmed for each item that they are to accept. In normal operation, if any item such as a coin, card or ticket is accepted, it is retained within the machine and it falls into a storage container to allow a member of staff to collect it when the machine is being emptied. If the item is rejected, the machine returns the item to the customer. If a coin or token is rejected, it falls into a tray or rolls out of a slot at the bottom where the customer can remove the coin.
If a banknote, card or ticket is rejected, it is pushed back out through the machine so that the customer can remove it from the slot into which it was inserted. The basic principle for coin detection is to test the physical properties of the coin against known characteristics of acceptable coins; the coin acceptor analyses the coin based on its mass, diameter, metal composition and/or magnetism, sends an appropriate electrical signal via its output connection. The next step is performed by the banknote-to-coins exchanger. Today, sophisticated electronic coin acceptors are being used in some places that, in addition to validating weight and size scan the deposited coin using optics and match the image to a pre-defined list, or test the coin's "metallic signature" based on its alloy composition. Normal circulation coins collect microscopic particles of dirt, dust and grease from people's fingers; when a coin acceptor is used long enough, thousands of coins rolling along a track will leave enough dirt, dust and grease to be visible.
As a consequence of this, the coin acceptor must be cleaned on a regular basis to prevent malfunction or damage. Coin acceptors are modular, so a dirty acceptor can be replaced with a clean unit, preventing downtime; the old unit is cleaned and refurbished. Some new types of coin acceptors are able to recognize the coins through "training", so they will support any new types of coins or tokens when properly introduced. Vending and change machines use several methods of deciding. Adjusting these settings and the sensitivity of each is programmed via means of dip switches on the internal circuitry. Optical sensing with a small light detector called a photocell or a miniature digital camera is one of the main techniques that vending machines use. Many countries' banknotes are pixelated—that is, they are made out of small dots; the dots have different sizes, depending on the note. The optical sensors can look for these different patterns to determine what sort of note has been inserted; some paper money is fluorescent: it glows when ultraviolet light is shined on it.
Some machines shine an ultraviolet light on the note and measure the glow to help determine the banknote's material composition. The particles in the ink on many countries' currency have ferromagnetic properties, including some elemental iron. Magnetic composition comprises carbon nanofoam in an amount of from 0.1 to 45 percent by weight of the total composition. Notes are magnetized along their direction of travel. A magnetic sensor located several inches away with its sensitive axis parallel to the direction of travel can detect the remnant field of the ink particles; the purpose of the biasing magnet in this case is to achieve a controlled orientation of the magnetic moments of the ink particles, resulting in a maximum and recognizable magnetic signature. Reversing the magnetizing field can invert the signature; the thickness and dimensions of a banknote are tested to ensure. US currency is 2.61 inches wide by 6.14 inches in length and are 0.0042 inches thick, weigh 1 gram. Currency printed prior to 10 July 1929 had larger physical characteristics.
As the notes pass between the rollers, the voltages vary according to their thickness. Miniature transducers 3/8" diameter, offer high accuracy linear measurement in a compact space where size constraints prohibit the use of standard LVDTI's. In addition, the low- mass core is ideal for systems with low driving forces or high acceleration and, will not adversely influence the delicate nature of these applications. Operating ranges are available from ±0.005" to ±1.00", divided into eight intermediate strokes. Genuine Federal Reserve notes have a clear polyester thread embedded vertically in the paper; the thread is inscribed with the denomination of the note, is visible only when held up to light. Each denomination will glow a unique color in ultraviolet light. Known as validators or acceptors, paper currency detectors scan paper currency using optical and magnetic sensors. Upon validation, the validator will inform the vending machine controller or other host device of a credit via a parallel or serial interface.
Various interfaces exist for the host device, including a single-line pulse interface, a multi-line parallel interface, a multi-line binary interface, serial interfaces such as ccTalk, SSP, MDB. Wrinkled or creased notes can cause these machines to reject them. There are only a handful of companies manufacturing thi