Gregory Francis "Greg" Selinger, is a Canadian former politician who served as the 21st Premier of Manitoba from 2009 until 2016, leading an NDP government. From 1999 to 2009 he was the Minister of Finance in the government of his immediate predecessor, Gary Doer. Selinger was the member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for St. Boniface from 1999 until his resignation in early 2018, his party was defeated by Brian Pallister and the Progressive Conservatives in the 2016 Manitoba general election. Selinger was born in Regina, the son of Margaret Eva and Nicodemus Selinger, he came to Manitoba from Saskatchewan as a child with his single mother, who ran a small clothing store in Winnipeg. Selinger received a Bachelor of Social Work from the University of Manitoba, a Master of Public Administration from Queen's University, a PhD from the London School of Economics. Before entering politics, he worked as an associate professor in the Faculty of Social Work at the University of Manitoba, sat on the boards of the St. Boniface Hospital, the St. Boniface Museum, the Community Income Tax Service Boards, as president of the Old St. Boniface Residents Association.
After joining an alliance of progressive municipal politicians called Winnipeg into the'90s in the late 1980s, Selinger was elected to the Winnipeg City Council in 1989 as a candidate of the alliance in St. Boniface, defeating incumbent Guy Savoie. During his time as a city councillor, Selinger was a member of the Executive Policy Committee and was the chair of the Committee on Finance and Administration. In 1992, Selinger came in second place, losing to Susan Thompson; some have attributed his loss to his refusal to accept corporate and union donations, which he based on principle. Following his failed mayoral bid, Selinger stepped back from politics and return to teaching at the University of Manitoba. Selinger was elected to the Manitoba legislature in the provincial election of 1999, defeating his closest opponent, Liberal Jean-Paul Boily, by 5439 votes to 2994 in the Winnipeg riding of St. Boniface. Selinger was appointed Minister of Finance, after the 1999 election, in Gary Doer's first cabinet, was given responsibility for French Language Services, the administration of the Crown Corporations Review and Accountability Act and the administration of the Manitoba Hydro Act.
In his ten years as Minister of Finance, Selinger balanced every budget. On January 17, 2001, he was given responsibility for the Civil Service. Following a cabinet shuffle on September 25, 2002, he was charged with the administration of the Liquor Control Act, while being relieved of his duties for the Manitoba Hydro Act. In 2003, Selinger supported Bill Blaikie's campaign to lead the federal New Democratic Party. Selinger was re-elected in the provincial election of 2003 with 75% of the vote in his riding. On November 4, 2003, he was relieved of responsibilities for the Liquor Control Act. In January 2005, Selinger announced that his government would change its system of accounting for expenditures and revenues; this followed a request from Auditor General Jon Singleton, who criticized the government for listing crown corporation losses and other matters as off-budget spending. Selinger is considered a strong performer in the Doer Cabinet, he was re-elected in the 2007 provincial election. On June 28, 2007, Selinger regained responsibility for the administration of the Liquor Control Act and was charged with the administration of The Manitoba Lotteries Corporation Act.
On September 8, 2009, Selinger resigned from his cabinet position and announced his candidacy for the leadership of the New Democratic Party of Manitoba. He was running against fellow cabinet ministers Steve Ashton and Andrew Swan until Swan dropped out of the race on September 28; the leadership convention took place on October 17, 2009. Rosann Wowchuk replaced Selinger as interim Minister of Finance, he defeated his leadership rival, Steve Ashton, taking 1,317 votes among delegates, to Ashton's 685. Selinger was sworn in as Premier of Manitoba by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba on October 19, 2009, the same day that Gary Doer was sworn in as Canadian Ambassador to the United States. Despite predictions of defeat, Selinger led the NDP to its fourth straight majority government in the October 2011 general election, surpassing Doer's record and winning 37 seats. In April 2013, the Selinger government reneged on an earlier promise to not increase sales taxes by implementing a 1% increase in the provincial sales tax rate from 7% to 8%, which resulted in a precipitous decline in popular support for the government and a caucus revolt against Selinger's leadership culminating in the resignation of five cabinet ministers.
Due, in part, to the unpopularity of the tax increase, the NDP fell far behind the Opposition Progressive Conservatives in public opinion polls. In the fall of 2014 several cabinet ministers asked Selinger to resign in hopes that the party would recover under a new leader, but he declined. In September 2014, during a caucus retreat, several MLAs told Selinger he needed to resign but he refused. A month at the end of October Jennifer Howard, minister of finance, Stan Struthers, minister of municipal government, Theresa Oswald, minister for jobs and the economy, Andrew Swan, minister of justice and Erin Selby, minister of health, and several senior party officials went public with their call for Selinger's resignation. Selinger asked the media labeled "gang of five", ministers to either disavow their public statements or quit; the five resigned on Monday November 3. The same day Selinger said in a state
Red River Colony
The Red River Colony was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk on 300,000 square kilometres of land. This land was granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company, referred to as the Selkirk Concession; the establishment of Canada in the late 19th century led to the creation of what is today Manitoba, although much of its original territory is now part of the United States. The Selkirk Concession known as Selkirk's Grant, included the portions of Rupert's Land, or the watershed of Hudson Bay, bounded on the north by the line of 52° N latitude from the Assiniboine River east to Lake Winnipegosis, it formed a line of 52°30′ N latitude from Lake Winnipegosis to Lake Winnipeg, by the Winnipeg River, Lake of the Woods and Rainy River. On the west of the Selkirk Concession, it is formed by the current boundary between Saskatchewan and Manitoba; these covered portions consist of present-day southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, in addition to small parts of eastern Saskatchewan, northwestern Ontario, northeastern South Dakota.
Growing up in Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745, Lord Selkirk was troubled by the plight of his Scottish kin. Selkirk was influenced by humanitarian luminaries such as William Wilberforce and, following the forced displacement of Scottish farmers that took place during the Highland Clearances, decided that emigration was the only viable option to improve the livelihood of the Scottish people. Upon inheriting his father's title in 1799, Selkirk focused the majority of his time and resources on establishing a Scottish colony in North America. Selkirk became interested in the Red River region after reading Alexander MacKenzie's Voyages in 1801. During the first decade of the nineteenth century Selkirk established two unsuccessful agricultural colonies in British North America but continued to pursue the settlement of the Red River region. By 1807 Selkirk acknowledged that an alliance with either the Hudson's Bay or North West Company, the dominant fur trading companies at the time, was essential to the establishment of a colony at Red River.
By 1811 the Hudson's Bay Company had reconsidered Selkirk's proposal and granted Selkirk 300,000 km2, an area five times the size of Scotland, to establish an agricultural settlement in the region of Red River. Supplies of "produce, such as flour, beef and butter..." would be affordable to manufacture in this colony, would reduce the costly shipments from Britain. The grant was pending the annual provision of 200 men to the company and Selkirk's assurance that the colony would remain out of the fur trade. Selkirk, who once mocked the fur trade for grossing more than ₤200, 000 and only having 3 ships employed in its service, gladly agreed to the terms.: Selkirk referred to this new territory as the District of Assiniboia. At the time of the concession, Red River was the only Hudson Bay Colony, established within the company's 610,000-hectare territory. There is continuing debate as to whether Selkirk forced the concession of Assiniboia through a controlling interest of Hudson's Bay stock; the argument against Selkirk claims that he received the concession by controlling the shares in the company.
Historians seeking to defend this claim have argued that although Selkirk did buy a considerable number of Hudson's Bay shares between 1811 and 1812, Selkirk received his initial grant in 1811. The early settlement of the Red River region was marked by a long series of crises and ecological disasters and within the first decade of settling the region it had suffered renewed warfare, prairie fires and a flood; the most significant ecological disaster was the rapid depletion of the bison population. A vital food source, bison numbers had been dwindling since the 1760s due to overhunting by the British and Aboriginal inhabitants of the prairies. Due to the untenability of their traditional livelihood, many Anishnabe welcomed the arrival of the Red River colonists in hopes that they might bring salvation to the prairies. In July 1811 Miles Macdonell sailed from Yarmouth, England to the Hudson's Bay post at York Factory with 36 Irish and Scottish settlers. Due to persuasive efforts of the North West Company only 18 settlers arrived at Red River in August 1812.
As the planting season had ended before the settlers could complete the construction of Fort Douglas, they were forced to hunt bison for food and were unprepared for the arrival of 120 additional settlers in October. More settlers were scheduled to arrive in 1813, but due to a fever outbreak on their ship, they did not arrive until June 21, 1814. Dogged by poor harvests and a growing population, now governor of Red River, issued the Pemmican Proclamation in January 1814 to prevent the export of pemmican from the colony. In doing so, Macdonell undermined the security of Red River and plunged the colony into a conflict with the North West Company that would not end until 1821; the Pemmican War, initiated by Macdonell's proclamation was only the tail end of a much larger conflict between the Hudson's Bay Company and its fur trade rivals, both English and French, in Montreal. The conflict dates back to King Charles II's generous grant of Rupert's Land to members of the English nobility in 1670.
Cause for conflict arose from the inability of either the Montreal traders or the Hudson's Bay Company to gain a monopoly over the North American fur trade. Between 1800 and 1821 the conflict between Hudso
2009 Red River flood
The 2009 Red River flood along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States and Manitoba in Canada brought record flood levels to the Fargo-Moorhead area. The flood was a result of saturated and frozen ground, spring snowmelt exacerbated by additional rain and snow storms, flat terrain. Communities along the Red River prepared for more than a week as the U. S. National Weather Service continuously updated the predictions for the city of Fargo, North Dakota with an higher projected river crest. Predicted to reach a level of near 43 feet at Fargo by March 29, the river in fact crested at 40.84 feet at 12:15 a.m. March 28, started a slow decline; the river continued to rise to the north. The Red River flows from the United States into Lake Winnipeg in Canada. Unlike the vast majority of rivers in the United States, it flows northward, which means melting snow and river ice, as well as runoff from its tributaries create ice jams, which cause the river to overflow; the valley is flat, leading to overland flooding, with no high ground on which to take refuge.
Ground, saturated when it froze at the onset of winter, melting snow which could not be absorbed by the frozen ground, additional precipitation from high winter snow fall, a rain storm on March 22 and a snowstorm, high temperature snow melt rate, are reasons for the serious flooding. A low-pressure area caused the rain storm on March 22 and by March 25 a total of 15 to 25 cm fell in the Winnipeg area, 20 to 30 cm in southern Manitoba. In northeastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota, around 8 inches of snow accumulated from the same storm. Warnings for the 2009 flood occurred as early as March 9 when the National Weather Service warned that the Fargo-Moorhead area could see a significant flood of between 35 feet and 36 feet; as preparations began for the flooding on March 16, North Dakota Governor John Hoeven declared a statewide disaster in anticipation of flooding across the state. On March 19, the National Weather Service raised the predicted flood level in the Fargo area to between 37 feet and 40 feet.
The city began filling sandbags on March 20. In anticipation of a rain and snow storm, the predicted crest level was raised on March 22 to a range from 39 feet to 41 feet. Volunteers continued preparing sandbags, with 560,000 bags filled by late March 22, out of an expected 1.5 million to 2 million needed. By March 24, residents in Fargo-Moorhead had filled over 1 million sandbags and were attempting to fill a total of 2 million by the 26th. A levee in Georgetown, Minnesota was raised another two feet, emergency dikes were being built in Fargo, Harwood and Richland County; the predicted flood crest was raised again on March 26, changed to between 41 feet and 42 feet by March 28, with a possibility of 43 feet. In addition to the sandbags, the construction of the dikes protecting the city required large amounts of clay. Clay had been brought from several places in and around the city, including the soccer field at Centennial Elementary School and around Discovery Middle School. Elsewhere along the river, early predictions for the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area saw a predicted level of at least 16 feet.
By March 24, the National Weather Service predicted the crest in Wahpeton and Breckenridge not to top 18 feet, below the cities' levees. In the Grand Forks, North Dakota area, flood predictions released February 27 predicted a possibility of a flood crest between 44 feet and 46 feet; the snowstorm that struck March 9–10 raised the predicted levels between 47 feet and 50 feet prompting the city to declare a state of emergency. On March 22 the predicted crest level was changed to 52 feet. In Manitoba, the 2009 flood was the second worst on record since 1826; the Red River Floodway was not opened, due to the Red River being full of ice, which can lead to damage of the floodway and the flooding of Selkirk. The Red River Floodway was opened in early April. Several towns and R. M.s declared a state of emergency due to the ice jams built up in places along the Red. Flooding in Manitoba was not expected until the second week of April; the CPR Line from Winnipeg to Emerson closed. The floodway was opened around 1 p.m. on April 8 due to a crest expected to hit the city of Winnipeg.
Highway 75, a major artery between Winnipeg and the U. S. border, was closed between April 7 and May 13. This closure cost Manitoba trucking companies thousands of dollars in additional travel costs and hurt the economy of the town of Morris. An eight-year-old boy fell into the river on Thursday, April 9 on the Westroc Hutterite Colony, near Portage la Prairie. Samuel Gross came out of his 13-day coma after being under icy cold water for 20 minutes; the team under Murray Kesselman, director of the Health Sciences Centre pediatric intensive care unit, worked on Gross's heart for two hours before it started to beat on its own and he began to recover. Walter Imbeck, 68 years old, went missing since April 11 when friends and neighbours thought he was trying to clear a broken drain behind his home, along the riverbank; as of April 13, several communities north of Winnipeg had to be evacuated due to flash flooding and ice jams on the Red River. It was predicted to be the third worst flood, next to the floods of 1950 and 1997.
A 79-year-old woman, Mary and her 82-year-old husband, Glen Silverthorn, went missing Easter Sunday after their car was swept into the Woody River. A search commenced, his body was found on May 19. Prime Minister Stephen Harper toured
Manitoba Junior Hockey League
The Manitoba Junior Hockey League is a Junior'A' ice hockey league operating in the Canadian province of Manitoba and one of eleven member leagues of the Canadian Junior Hockey League. The MJHL consists of 11 teams playing a balanced 60-game schedule, with the top eight teams qualifying for the playoffs; the quarter-finals, semi-finals, final are determined by best-of-seven series. The playoff champion is awarded the Turnbull Cup; the league had two divisions and Sherwood, prior to the 2014-15 season. The winner of the MJHL playoffs competes against the champion from Saskatchewan for the ANAVET Cup and a berth in the National Junior A Championship; the league has a rich tradition. Its first year of operation was the 1918 -- 19 season, it was known as the Winnipeg and District League until 1931, when it became the Manitoba Junior Hockey League. During the inaugural season, there were nine teams in two divisions, each playing a six-game schedule; the teams included the Winnipeg Pilgrims, Grand Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg Tigers, Young Men's Lutheran Club, Winnipeg Argonauts, Selkirk Fishermen and Winnipeg Monarchs.
Over the years, more than 200 MJHL players have gone on to the National Hockey League, 11 of those MJHL graduates have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame: Andy Bathgate, Turk Broda, Art Coulter, Bobby Clarke, Charlie Gardiner, Bryan Hextall, Tom Johnson, Harry Oliver, Babe Pratt, Terry Sawchuk, Jack Stewart. In 1955, the brothers Art and Gordon Stratton of the Winnipeg Barons set a league record for most points in a single season with 76 each. In 1957, Ray Brunel of the St. Boniface Canadiens broke it with 105. In the early 1960s, the powerhouse Brandon Wheat Kings, built by Jake Milford, won three titles in a row, four in five years. In 1961, goalie Ernie Wakely of the Winnipeg Braves was named Canada's outstanding junior hockey player for the month of January. In 1962, Clarence Campbell president of the NHL attended inaugural Manitoba–Saskatchewan all-star game in Winnipeg. In 1963, Jim Irving, captain of the Winnipeg Rangers, was named Manitoba's outstanding junior athlete and received the Carl Pederson Memorial Award.
Goaltender Wayne Stephenson led the Winnipeg Braves to the MJHL Championship in 1965. In 1967, future Hall of Famer Bobby Clarke of the Flin Flon Bombers set league records for most goals and points in a single season. Clarke led the Bombers to win the MJHL title. During the summer of 1967, the MAHA agreed to allow three teams to enter the new Western Hockey League, the Brandon Wheat Kings and the Flin Flon Bombers from the MJHL, the Ben Hatskin's owned Winnipeg Jets. Hatskin owned three MJHL teams. Part of the agreement was the continuation of the MJHL. Hatskin sold his three teams to local interests; the Winnipeg Warriors became the West Kildonan North Stars, the St. James Braves became the St. James Canadians, the Winnipeg Rangers became the St. Boniface Saints; these three teams along with the Winnipeg Monarchs became the new MJHL. The Selkirk Steelers, however opted to join the new Central Manitoba Junior Hockey League; the next year, the MJHL absorbed the CMJHL, creating a North Division to house the former CMJHL teams: the Steelers, Portage Terriers, Dauphin Kings, Kenora Muskies, who had operated out of Fort Garry the previous year.
The existing teams created the South Division. On September 19, 1968, the Winnipeg Monarchs announced the signing of Hiroshi Hori, a defenceman from Japan. Hori, a high school all-star in his homeland, would spend a year with the team and return home to pass on what he had learned. A Canadian missionary to Japan, Father Moran was behind the idea. With CAHA approval, Moran convinced the Japanese Skating Union to sponsor one player to a year in Canada; the CAHA chose Winnipeg as the site because of the added experience from watching the Canadian National Team, the Monarchs volunteered. On Sunday February 9, 1969, the MJHL held a special emergency meeting to discuss Butch Goring leaving the Winnipeg Jets of the WCHL and joining the Dauphin Kings. Goring played the night before in Kenora for the Kings during a regular season game; the MJHL gave the Kings approval to use Goring in regular playoff games. Goring was leading the WCHL in goals at the time. Monday, WCHL president Ron Butlin said a court injunction would be sought against Goring and another Jet forward Merv Haney from playing with the Dauphin Kings.
Saying the CHA would be "taking whatever action is necessary against Dauphin and the MAHA for damages." Goring and Haney would play for all the way to the Western Memorial Cup Finals. In September 1971, Winnipeg Monarchs President Bob Westmacott announced 17-year-old Stephan Lindberg of Sweden had been invited to training camp. Jack Bownass, former coach of Canada's national team, recommended Lindberg to the Monarchs; the Dauphin Kings were the first "dynasty" of the new MJHL, winning the league three out of four years, 1969, 1970, 1972, boasting such stars as Ron Low, Butch Goring, Ron Chipperfield. The Kings went to the Western Memorial Cup final in 1969, in 1972 recorded 40 wins, a modern-day MJHL record. Charlie Simmer of the Kenora Muskies won the scoring title in 1973, the same year the Portage Terriers were crowned National Champs, winning the Centennial Cup. In 1974, the Selkirk Steelers won the national crown, giving the MJHL back to back "Canadian Championships", it was players such as Low, Chipperfield, Chuck Arnason, Murray Bannerman, Paul Baxter, John Bednarski, Rick Blight, Dan Bonar, Brian Engblom, Glen Hanlon, Bob Joyce, Barry Legge, Perry Miller, Chris Oddleifson, Curt Ridley, Rick St. Croix, Blaine Stoughto
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Queen of Canada in Right of Manitoba, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba form the legislature of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected to this assembly in provincial general elections, all in single-member constituencies with first-past-the-post voting; the Manitoba Legislative Building is located in central Winnipeg, at the meeting point of the Wolseley and Fort Rouge constituencies. The Premier of Manitoba is Brian Pallister and the current Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba is Myrna Driedger; the Legislature of Manitoba had another chamber, the Legislative Council of Manitoba, but this was abolished in 1876, just six years after the province was formed. Members in bold are in the Cabinet of Manitoba† Speaker of the Assembly The seating arrangement is viewable at the official website. Official site Legislative tour
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati