Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Rugby sevens, known as seven-a-side rugby, is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves. Rugby sevens is administered by the body responsible for rugby union worldwide; the game is popular at all levels, with amateur and club tournaments held in the summer months. Sevens is one of the most well distributed forms of rugby, is popular in parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas, in the South Pacific. Rugby sevens originated in Scotland in the 1880s; the popularity of rugby sevens increased further with the development of the Hong Kong Sevens in the 1970s and was followed by the inclusion of the sport into the Commonwealth Games for the first time in 1998 and the establishment of the annual World Rugby Sevens Series in 1999 and the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series in 2012. In 2016, rugby sevens was contested in the Summer Olympics for the first time, it has been played in regional events such as the Pan American Games and the Asian Games, in 2018 a women's tournament was played for the first time at the Commonwealth Games.
Rugby sevens is sanctioned by World Rugby, is played under similar laws and on a field of the same dimensions as the 15 player game. While a regular rugby union match lasts at least 80 minutes, a normal sevens match consists of two halves of seven minutes with a two-minute half-time break; the final of a competition can be played over two halves of ten minutes each. Sevens scores are comparable to regular rugby scores, but scoring occurs much more in sevens, since the defenders are more spaced out; the scoring system is the same as regular rugby union, namely five points for a try, three points for a drop goal and two points for a post-try conversion. The shorter match length allows rugby sevens tournaments to be completed in a weekend. Many sevens tournaments have a competition for a cup, a plate, a bowl, a shield, allowing many teams of different standards to avoid leaving empty-handed. Sevens tournaments are traditionally known for having more of a relaxed atmosphere than fifteen-a-side games, are known as "festivals".
Sevens tournaments gained their "popularity as an end of season diversion from the dourer and sterner stuff that provides the bulk of a normal season's watching." Fans attend in fancy dress, entertainment is put on for them. The Hong Kong Sevens tournament has been important in popularising the game in Asia, rugby sevens has been important as a form of international rugby "evangelism", hence is the most played form of the game, with tournaments in places as far apart as Bogota and Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Kenya and Scandinavia, as well as the countries in which rugby union is well known. Sevens is played on a standard rugby union playing field; the field measures up to 100 metres long and 70 metres wide. On each goal line are H-shaped goal posts; the goal posts are on the goal line. This is unlike American football. Teams are composed of seven players -- four backs. Scrums are made up of three players from each team; because of the faster nature of the game, sevens players are backs or loose forwards in fifteens rugby.
Substitutes are with only five substitutes on the bench. A typical defensive formation in open play involves a line of six defenders, with one sweeper behind the line. Rugby sevens tends to be played at a faster pace than rugby fifteens; the differences are most notable on game restarts. Because scrums in sevens involve three players forming one row instead of eight players forming three rows, scrums tend to assemble more require fewer restarts, the ball exits the scrum more quickly. Penalties in sevens are taken with a quick tap, instead of a kick for touch and a line out, resulting in the ball being put back in play more quickly. There are several variations in laws which apply to rugby sevens to speed up the game and to account for the reduced number of players; the main changes can be summarised. Five substitutes, with five interchanges. Seven minute halves. Maximum of two minutes half-time. Matches drawn after regulation are continued into sudden-death extra time, in multiple 5-minute periods.
All conversion attempts must be drop-kicked. Conversions must be taken within 30 seconds of scoring a try. Prior to 2016, the limit had been 40 seconds. Three player scrums. Kick-offs: in sevens, the team which has just scored kicks off, rather than the conceding team, as in fifteen-a-side. Yellow cards net a 2-minute suspension to the offender. Referees decide on advantage quickly. In major competitions, there are additional officials present to judge success of kicks at goals, which means the game is not delayed waiting for touch judges to move into position to judge conversion attempts. Rugby sevens was conceived in 1883 by Ned Haig and David Sanderson, who were butch
Lee Jones (rugby union)
Lee Jones is a Scotland international rugby union player who plays for Glasgow Warriors in the Pro14. He plays at Wing but can cover at Scrum-half. Jones was educated at Selkirk High School and in 2012 graduated with BEng in Mechanical Engineering from Heriot Watt University, he first played for Selkirk RFC. and the Borders’ under-16 and under-18 teams. Jones was drafted to Currie in the Scottish Premiership for the 2017-18 season. Jones has been drafted to Glasgow Hawks in the Scottish Premiership for the 2018-19 season, he joined Edinburgh Rugby in 2010 after some standout performances for his hometown club Selkirk RFC. He caught the attention of coach Rob Moffat, who saw Lee Jones as a player that could bring pace, lots of tries to the Edinburgh team. After joining Glasgow Warriors in February 2013, Jones made his debut in an 8-6 win over Connacht at Scotstoun, he signed a two-year deal with the club in November 2014. In March 2017, he signed an extension to his contact that would keep him with the Warriors until 2019.
Jones has played under-19 and under-20 grades and at 7s for Scotland. His pace, strength in the contact and an unquestionable eye for the try line resulted in a call up into the Scotland senior squad for the 2012 Six Nations Championship and started on the wing against England on 4 February, scoring his first try for Scotland against France, becoming injured after a head clash with Andrew Trimble in the Scotland vs Ireland game, causing him to miss the game against Italy. To date he has won seven caps for Scotland. In the summer Jones featured for Scotland 7s in the Commonwealth Games, scoring 14 tries, before extending his deal with the Warriors on a dual contract with Scotland 7s; this season, Jones has played on the IRB World Series Sevens circuit as well as featuring for the Warriors. Edinburgh Rugby player bio
Scotland national rugby union team
The Scotland national rugby union team is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union. The team takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship and participates in the Rugby World Cup, which takes place every four years; as of 18 March 2019, Scotland are 7th in the World Rugby Rankings. The Scottish rugby team dates back to 1871, where they beat England in the first international rugby union match at Raeburn Place. Scotland competed in the Five Nations from the inaugural tournament in 1883, winning it 14 times outright—including the last Five Nations in 1999—and sharing it another 8. In 2000 the competition accepted a sixth competitor, thus forming the Six Nations. Since this change, Scotland have yet to win the competition; the Rugby World Cup was introduced in 1987 and Scotland have competed in all eight competitions, the most recent being in 2015 where they were knocked out by Australia at the quarter-final stage in controversial circumstances. Their best finish came in 1991. Scotland have a strong rivalry with the English national team.
They both annually compete for the Calcutta Cup. Each year, this fixture is played out as part of the Six Nations, with Scotland having last won in 2018. In December 1870 a group of Scots players issued a letter of challenge in The Scotsman and in Bell's Life in London, to play an England XX at rugby rules; the English could hardly ignore such a challenge and this led to the first-ever rugby international match being played at Academical Cricket Club's ground at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh, on Monday 27 March 1871. In front of around 4000 spectators, the Scots won the encounter by a try and a goal to a solitary try scored by England. England got revenge by winning the return match at the Kennington Oval, London in the following year; the Calcutta Cup was donated to the Rugby Football Union in 1878 by the members of the short-lived Calcutta Rugby Club. The members had decided to disband: the cup was crafted from melted-down silver rupees which became available when the Club's funds were withdrawn from the bank.
The Cup is unique in that it is competed for annually only by Scotland. The first Calcutta Cup match was played in 1879 and, since that time, over 100 matches have taken place. In 1882 the Home Nations Championship, the fore-runner of the modern Six Nations Championship was founded with Scotland, England and Ireland taking part; the Scots enjoyed occasional success in the early years, winning their first Triple Crown in 1891 and repeating the feat again in 1895, vying with Wales for dominance in the first decade of the 20th century. Further Triple Crowns wins for Scotland followed in 1901, 1903 and 1907. However, Scotland's triumph in 1907 would be the last for eighteen years as the First World War and England's dominance afterwards would deny them glory. In 1897 land was purchased, at Inverleith, Edinburgh, thus the SFU became the first of the Home Unions to own its own ground. The first visitors were Ireland, on 18 February 1899. International rugby was played at Inverleith until 1925; the SFU bought some land and built the first Murrayfield Stadium, opened on 21 March 1925.
In 1925 Scotland had victories over France at Inverleith, Wales in Swansea and Ireland in Dublin. England, the Grand Slam champions of the two previous seasons were the first visitors to Murrayfield. 70,000 spectators saw the lead change hands three times before Scotland secured a 14–11 victory which gave them their first-ever Five Nations Grand Slam. In 1926, Scotland became the first Home nation side to defeat England at Twickenham after England had won the Grand Slam five times in eight seasons; the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 brought rugby union in Scotland to a halt. The SRU cancelled all arranged trial and international matches and encouraged the member clubs to carry on as best they could; some clubs closed down, others amalgamated and carried on playing other local clubs and, teams from the armed forces stationed in their various areas. Internationals resumed in the 1946–47 season, although these were not formally recognised and no caps were awarded to participating players.
In January 1946, Scotland played and defeated a strong New Zealand Armed Forces team by 11–6. Scotland resumed full international matches in February 1947; the period after World War Two was not a successful one for Scotland. In 1951, the touring Springboks massacred Scotland 44–0 scoring nine tries, a record defeat. Scotland suffered 17 successive defeats between February 1951 and February 1955, scored only 54 points in these 17 games: 11 tries, six conversions, four penalties; the teams from 1955–63 were an improvement. There were no wins over England. Occasional wins were recorded against Wales and France. 1964 was a good year for Scotland. New Zealand were held to a 0 -- the last international match in which no points were scored; the Calcutta Cup was won 15–6, the first time since 1950 and they shared the Five Nations title in 1964 with Wales. In 1971 the SRU appointed Bill Dickinson as their head coach, after years of avoidance, as it was their belief that rugby should remain an amateur sport.
He was designated as an "adviser to the captain". Scotland were the first of the Home Unions to run a nationwide club league; this was introduced in 1973 and still flourishes today with several of the country's original clubs still much in evidence, such as Heriots, West of Scotland and the famous'border' clubs su
Selkirk, Scottish Borders
Selkirk is a town and historic Royal Burgh in the Scottish Borders Council district of southeastern Scotland. It lies on a tributary of the River Tweed; the people of the town are known as Souters. At the time of the 2011 census, Selkirk's population was 5,784. Selkirk was the county town of Selkirkshire. Selkirk is one of the oldest Royal Burghs in Scotland and is the site of the earliest settlements in what is now the Scottish Borders; the town's name means "church in the forest" from the Old English cirice. Selkirk was the site of the first Borders abbey, a community of Tironensian monks who moved to Kelso Abbey during the reign of King David I. In 1113, King David I granted Selkirk large amounts of land. William Wallace was declared guardian of Scotland in the town at the Kirk o' the Forest. Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Marquess of Montrose and the Outlaw Murray all had connections with the town. Selkirk grew because of its woollen industry, although now that industry has ceased, leaving little in its wake.
The town is best known for a dry fruit cake. It has an art gallery; the town has associations with Mungo Park. It is home to Scotland's oldest horse racing track, the Gala Rig, on the outskirts of the town, it was in the church at Selkirk, supported by nobles and clergy, that William Wallace was declared Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. However this is disputed. Mauldslie Castle was built on the lands of Forest Kirk. Selkirk men fought with Wallace at Stirling Bridge and Falkirk, with Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn, but it is Selkirk's connection with the Battle of Flodden in 1513, her response to the call of the King, the brave bearing of her representatives on the fatal field, the tragic return of the sole survivor, that provide the Royal Burgh with its proudest and most maudlin memories: the celebration of a five-hundred-year-old defeat. Only one man, "Fletcher", returned from the battle, bearing a blood-stained English flag belonging to the Macclesfield regiment. On his return he cast the captured English standard around his head before falling to his death.
During the series of conflicts that would become known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Selkirk played host the Royalist army of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, with his cavalry installed in the burgh, whilst the Royalist infantry were camped at the plain of Philiphaugh, below the town. On the morning of 13 September 1645, a covenanting army led by Sir David Leslie attacked the royalist forces camped at Philiphaugh, a rout ensued. Montrose arrived to find his army in disarray and had to the flee the field leading to his exile; the action at Philiphaugh is infamous for the massacre by the Covenanters of up to 500 surrendered Royalist troops and camp followers — including many women and children. Sir Walter Scott was appointed Sheriff-Depute of the County of Selkirk in 1799, was based in the Royal Burgh's courthouse in the town square; the Sir Walter Scott Way from Moffat to Cockburnspath passes through Selkirk. The Selkirk Common Riding is a celebration of the history and traditions of the Royal and Ancient Burgh.
Held on the second Friday after the first Monday in June, the ceremony is one of the oldest in the area, with 300-400 riders, Selkirk boasts one of the largest cavalcades of horses and riders in Europe. Selkirk still owns common land to the north and south of the town, but only the northern boundary of Linglie is ridden on the day; the Riding commemorates how, from the eighty men that left the town to fight in the Battle of Flodden, only one – Fletcher - returned, bearing a captured English flag. Legend has it that he cast the flag about his head to indicate that all the other men of Selkirk had been cut down. At the climax of the day the Royal Burgh Standard Bearer and Crafts and Associations Standard Bearers cast their colours in Selkirk's ancient market place; the Standard Bearer is chosen from the eligible unmarried young men of the town who have applied for the post by the trustees of the Common Riding Trust, successors to the old Selkirk Town Council which disappeared in the local government reorganisation in 1975.
He will have served his time as an Attendant to previous Standard Bearers. He is introduced on the last Friday in April, he is carried shoulder high round the town, accompanied by the crowds of locals. There follow many civic duties in preparation for the main event, participation in other town common ridings and festivities, including Spurs Night when the Standard Bearer and attendants meet the principals of Galashiels at Galafoot and receive a pair of spurs at a dinner in Galashiels; the Saturday before Common Riding Day is marked with the annual Children's Picnic, where primary schoolchildren have races. Sunday sees the inspection of The Rig, the town racecourse and Show Sunday moved to the grounds of The Haining. Traditionally Souters would meet up in their new finery bought for the festivities and sing songs to the town bands. Other events include the Ex-Standard Bearers Dinner on Monday, Ladies Night on Wednesday when the female population take over the bars and clubs for the evening and only the bravest males venture out.
Various bussing concerts and dinners are held for the Associations. On Thursday evening the Senior Burgh Officer takes to the streets to "Cry the Burley", giving notice that the marches are to be ridden the following day, naming the Burleymen (four ex
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh, founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in law in 1975, the term is still used by many former royal burghs. Most royal burghs were either created by the Crown, or upgraded from another status, such as burgh of barony; as discrete classes of burgh emerged, the royal burghs—originally distinctive because they were on royal lands—acquired a monopoly of foreign trade. An important document for each burgh was its burgh charter, creating the burgh or confirming the rights of the burgh as laid down by a previous monarch; each royal burgh was represented in the Parliament of Scotland and could appoint bailies with wide powers in civil and criminal justice. By 1707 there were 70 royal burghs; the Royal Burghs Act 1833 reformed the election of the town councils. Those qualified to vote in parliamentary elections under the Reform Act 1832 were now entitled to elect burgh councillors. Before the reign of David I Scotland had no towns.
The closest thing to towns were the larger than average population concentrations around large monasteries, such as Dunkeld and St Andrews, regionally significant fortifications. Scotland, outside Lothian at least, was populated by scattered hamlets, outside that area, lacked the continental style nucleated village. David I established the first burghs in Scotland only in Middle-English-speaking Lothian; the earliest burghs, founded by 1124, were Roxburgh. However, by 1130, David had established burghs in Gaelic areas: Stirling, Dunfermline and Scone, as well as Edinburgh; the conquest of Moray in that same year led to the establishment of burghs at Forres. Before David was dead, St Andrews and Aberdeen were burghs. In the reigns of Máel Coluim IV and William, burghs were added at Inverness, Cullen, Nairn, Kintore, Forfar, Dundee, Lanark and Ayr. New Lothian burghs came into existence, at Haddington and Peebles. By 1210, there were 40 burghs in the Scottish kingdom. Rosemarkie and Cromarty were burghs by the Scottish Wars of Independence.
David I established the first burghs, their charters and Leges Burgorum were copied verbatim from the customs of Newcastle upon Tyne. He imported the burgh into his "Scottish" dominions from his English ones. Burghs were for the most part populated by foreigners, rather than native Scots or Lothianers; the predominant ethnic group were the Flemings, but early burgesses were English and German. The burgh's vocabulary was composed of either Germanic terms such as croft, gild and wynd, or French ones such as provost, vennel and ferme; the councils that governed individual burghs were individually known as lie doussane, meaning the dozen. Aberdeen Berwick-upon-Tweed Dundee Lanark Edinburgh Dunfermline Elgin Forres Linlithgow Montrose Peebles Perth Rutherglen Roxburgh Stirling Tain Haddington Renfrew Canongate St Andrews Ayr Auldearn Cullen Dumfries Forfar Inverkeithing Inverness Jedburgh Kinghorn Kintore Lauder Nairn Crail Annan Arbroath Brechin Dundee Glasgow Kirkintilloch Prestwick Dingwall Dumbarton Auchterarder Cromarty Fyvie Kilrenny Lanark Rosemarkie Selkirk Wigtown Crawford Dunbar Inverurie Irvine Kelso Lochmaben Newburgh, Aberdeenshire Newburgh, Fife Urr Cupar Inverbervie Banff North Berwick Rothesay Dunbar Falkland Kirkcudbright Lochmaben Tain c 1439 Elgin Kirkwall Nairn Dingwall Forres Kintore Whithorn Annan Auchtermuchty Burntisland Pittenweem Inverurie Anstruther Easter Anstruther Wester Arbroath Cromarty.
Disenfranchised by Privy Council 1672. Re-established as a burgh of barony in 1685. Culross Earlsferry Glasgow Fortrose became part of royal burgh of Rosemarkie 1