The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Tapanuli orangutan. Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time, its original meaning referred only to their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees; the current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense. Within the taxon Hominidae, a number of extant and known extinct, that is, genera are grouped with the humans and gorillas in the subfamily Homininae; the most recent common ancestor of all Hominidae lived 14 million years ago, when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestral line of the other three genera.
Those ancestors of the family Hominidae had speciated from the family Hylobatidae 15 million to 20 million years ago. In the early Miocene, about 22 million years ago, there were many species of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines from East Africa. Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed to Victoriapithecus, the earliest Old World monkey. Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul, Dendropithecus, Nacholapithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Afropithecus and Kenyapithecus, all from East Africa. At sites far distant from East Africa, the presence of other generalized non-cercopithecids, that is, non-monkey primates, of middle Miocene age—Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia, Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus from France and Austria—is further evidence of a wide diversity of ancestral ape forms across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the warm and equable climatic regimes of the early and middle Miocene; the most recent of these far-flung Miocene apes is Oreopithecus, from the fossil-rich coal beds in northern Italy and dated to 9 million years ago.
Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of gibbons, the lesser apes, diverged from that of the great apes some 18–12 million years ago, that of orangutans diverged from the other great apes at about 12 million years. There are no fossils that document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a still-unknown South East Asian hominoid population. Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece. Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million years ago, first the gorillas, the chimpanzees split off from the line leading to the humans. Human DNA is 98.4% identical to that of chimpanzees when comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms. The fossil record, however, of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited. Other hominins adapted to the drier environments outside the African equatorial belt; the wet equatorial belt contracted after about 8 million years ago, there is little fossil evidence for the divergence of the hominin lineage from that of gorillas and chimpanzees—which split was thought to have occurred around that time.
The earliest fossils argued by some to belong to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis, followed by Ardipithecus, with species Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus. The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades; the original meaning of the term referred to only humans and their closest relatives—what is now the modern meaning of the term "hominin". The meaning of the taxon Hominidae changed leading to a different usage of "hominid" that today includes all the great apes including humans; the term hominid is confused with a number of similar words: A hominoid called an ape, is a member of the superfamily Hominoidea: extant members are the gibbons and the hominids. A hominid is a member of the family Hominidae, the great apes: orangutans, gorillas and humans. A hominine is a member of the subfamily Homininae: gorillas and humans. A hominin is a member of the tribe Hominini: humans. A homininan, following a suggestion by Wood and Richmond, would be a member of the subtribe Homin
External occipital protuberance
Near the middle of the squamous part of occipital bone is the external occipital protuberance, the highest point of, referred to as the inion. The inion is the most prominent projection of the protuberance, located at the posterioinferior part of the human skull; the nuchal ligament and trapezius muscle attach to it. The inion is used as a landmark in the 10-20 system in electroencephalography recording. Extending laterally from it on either side is the superior nuchal line, above it is the faintly marked highest nuchal line. A study of 16th-century Anatolian remains showed that the external occipital protuberance statistically tends to be less pronounced in female remains. Internal occipital protuberance This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 185 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Anatomy diagram: 34257.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Http://www.upstate.edu/cdb/grossanat/hnsklatob1.shtml
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates. It provides a protective cavity for the brain; the skull is composed of two parts: the mandible. In the human, these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone; the skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears and mouth. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds. In some animals such as horned ungulates, the skull has a defensive function by providing the mount for the horns; the English word "skull" is derived from Old Norse "skulle", while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον.
The skull is made up of a number of fused flat bones, contains many foramina, fossae and several cavities or sinuses. In zoology there are openings in the skull called fenestrae. For details and the constituent bones, see Neurocranium and Facial skeleton The human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton, it forms a cavity for the brain. Like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury; the skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin—the neurocranium and the facial skeleton. The neurocranium forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem; the upper areas of the cranial bones form the calvaria. The membranous viscerocranium includes the mandible; the facial skeleton is formed by the bones supporting the face Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial joints formed by bony ossification, with Sharpey's fibres permitting some flexibility.
Sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as sutural bones. Most these are found in the course of the lambdoid suture; the human skull is considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones and fourteen facial skeleton bones. In the neurocranium these are the occipital bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid and frontal bones; the bones of the facial skeleton are the vomer, two inferior nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, two lacrimal bones. Some sources count the maxilla as having two bones; some of these bones—the occipital, frontal, in the neurocranium, the nasal and vomer, in the facial skeleton are flat bones. The skull contains sinuses, air-filled cavities known as paranasal sinuses, numerous foramina; the sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium. Their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and moistening of the air drawn into the nasal cavity.
The foramina are openings in the skull. The largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels; the many processes of the skull include the zygomatic processes. The skull is a complex structure; the skull roof bones, comprising the bones of the facial skeleton and the sides and roof of the neurocranium, are dermal bones formed by intramembranous ossification, though the temporal bones are formed by endochondral ossification. The endocranium, the bones supporting the brain are formed by endochondral ossification, thus frontal and parietal bones are purely membranous. The geometry of the skull base and its fossae, the anterior and posterior cranial fossae changes rapidly; the anterior cranial fossa changes during the first trimester of pregnancy and skull defects can develop during this time. At birth, the human skull is made up of 44 separate bony elements. During development, many of these bony elements fuse together into solid bone.
The bones of the roof of the skull are separated by regions of dense connective tissue called fontanelles. There are six fontanelles: one anterior, one posterior, two sphenoid, two mastoid. At birth these regions are fibrous and moveable, necessary for birth and growth; this growth can put a large amount of tension on the "obstetrical hinge", where the squamous and lateral parts of the occipital bone meet. A possible complication of this tension is rupture of the great cerebral vein; as growth and ossification progress, the connective tissue of the fontanelles is invaded and replaced by bone creating sutures. The five sutures are the two squamous sutures, one coronal, one lambdoid, one sagittal suture; the posterior fontanelle closes by eight weeks, but the anterior fontanel can remain open up to eighteen months. The anterior fontanelle is located at the junction of the parietal bones. Careful observation will show that you can count a baby's heart
Squamous part of occipital bone
The squamous part of occipital bone, is situated above and behind the foramen magnum, is curved from above downward and from side to side. The external surface is convex and presents midway between the summit of the bone and the foramen magnum a prominence, the external occipital protuberance and inion. Extending lateralward from this on either side are two curved lines, one a little above the other; the upper faintly marked, is named the highest nuchal line, to it the epicranial aponeurosis is attached. The lower is termed the superior nuchal line; that area of the squamous part, which lies above the highest nuchal lines is named the occipital plane and is covered by the occipitalis muscle. That below, termed the nuchal plane, is irregular for the attachment of several muscles. From the external occipital protuberance, an faintly marked ridge or crest, the median nuchal line, descends to the foramen magnum and affords attachment to the nuchal ligament. Running from the middle of this line across either half of the nuchal plane is the inferior nuchal line.
Several muscles are attached to the outer surface of the squamous part, thus the superior nuchal line gives origin to the occipitalis and trapexius muscles, insertion to the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles. Into the surface between the superior and inferior nuchal lines the semispinalis capitis and the obliquus capitis superior are inserted, while the inferior nuchal line and the area below it receive the insertions of the rectus capitis posterior major and minor; the posterior atlantooccipital membrane is attached around the postero-lateral part of the foramen magnum, just outside the margin of the foramen. The internal surface is concave and divided into four fossae by the cruciform eminence; the upper two fossae lodge the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. At the point of intersection of the four divisions of the cruciform eminence is the internal occipital protuberance. From this protuberance the upper division of the cruciform eminence runs to the superior angle of the bone, on one side of it is a deep groove, the sagittal sulcus, which lodges the hinder part of the superior sagittal sinus.
To the margins of this sulcus the falx cerebri is attached. The lower division of the cruciform eminence is named the internal occipital crest. In the attached margin of this falx is the occipital sinus, sometimes duplicated. In the upper part of the internal occipital crest, a small depression is sometimes distinguishable. Transverse grooves, one on either side, extend from the internal occipital protuberance to the lateral angles of the bone; the groove on the right side is larger than that on the left and is continuous with that for the superior sagittal sinus. Exceptions to this condition are, not infrequent: the left may be larger than the right or the two may be equal in size; the angle of union of the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses is named the confluence of the sinuses, its position is indicated by a depression situated on one or other side of the protuberance. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 129 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Middle cranial fossa
The middle cranial fossa, deeper than the anterior cranial fossa, is narrow medially and widens laterally to the sides of the skull. It is separated from the posterior fossa by the petrous crest, it is bounded in front by the posterior margins of the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone, the anterior clinoid processes, the ridge forming the anterior margin of the chiasmatic groove. It is traversed by the squamosal, sphenoparietal and sphenopetrosal sutures, it houses the temporal lobes of the pituitary gland. A middle fossa craniotomy is one means to surgically remove acoustic neuromas growing within the internal auditory canal of the temporal bone; the middle part of the fossa presents, in front, the chiasmatic tuberculum sellae. Behind the optic foramen the anterior clinoid process is directed backward and medialward and gives attachment to the tentorium cerebelli. Behind the tuberculum sellæ is a deep depression, the sella turcica, containing the fossa hypophyseos, which lodges the hypophysis, presents on its anterior wall the middle clinoid processes.
The sella turcica is bounded posteriorly by a quadrilateral plate of bone, the dorsum sellae, the upper angles of which are surmounted by the posterior clinoid processes: these afford attachment to the tentorium cerebelli, below each is a notch for the abducent nerve. On either side of the sella turcica is the carotid groove, broad and curved somewhat like the italic letter f, it begins behind at the foramen lacerum, ends on the medial side of the anterior clinoid process, where it is sometimes converted into a foramen by the union of the anterior with the middle clinoid process. This groove lodges the cavernous sinus and the internal carotid artery, the latter being surrounded by a plexus of sympathetic nerves; the lateral parts of the middle fossa are of considerable depth, support the temporal lobes of the brain. They are marked by depressions for the brain convolutions and traversed by furrows for the anterior and posterior branches of the middle meningeal vessels; these furrows begin near the foramen spinosum, the anterior runs forward and upward to the sphenoidal angle of the parietal, where it is sometimes converted into a bony canal.
The following apertures are to be seen. In front is the superior orbital fissure, bounded above by the small wing, below, by the great wing, medially, by the body of the sphenoid, it transmits to the orbital cavity the oculomotor, the trochlear, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal, the abducent nerves, some filaments from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic, the orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery. Behind the medial end of the superior orbital fissure is the foramen rotundum, for the passage of the maxillary nerve. Behind and lateral to the foramen rotundum is the foramen ovale, which transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. Medial to the foramen ovale is the foramen Vesalii, which varies in size in different individuals, is absent. Lateral to the foramen ovale is the foramen spinosum, for the passage of the middle meningeal vessels, a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve. Medial to the foramen ovale is the foramen lacerum.
The nerve of the pterygoid canal and a meningeal branch from the ascending pharyngeal artery pierce the layer of fibrocartilage. On the anterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone are seen the eminence caused by the projection of the superior semicircular canal. Anterior cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 190 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:22:os-0802 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center