Knitted fabric is a textile that results from knitting. Its properties are distinct from woven fabric in that it is more flexible and can be more constructed into smaller pieces, making it ideal for socks and hats. There are two basic varieties of knit fabric: warp-knit fabric. Warp-knitted fabrics such as tricot and milanese are resistant to runs, are used in lingerie. Weft-knit fabrics are more common; when cut, they will unravel. Warp-knit fabrics are resistant to runs and easy to sew. Raschel lace—the most common type of machine made lace—is a warp knit fabric but using many more guide-bars than the usual machines which have three or four bars. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either crosswise. By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path, forming symmetric loops symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn; these meandering loops can be stretched in different directions giving knit fabrics much more elasticity than woven fabrics. Depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%.
For this reason, knitting is believed to have been developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions, such as socks and hosiery. For comparison, woven garments stretch along one or other of a related pair of directions that lie diagonally between the warp and the weft, while contracting in the other direction of the pair, are not elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to contour to the body's outline more closely. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams, as in the heel of a sock. Thread used in weaving is much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric. If they are not secured, the loops of a knitted course will come undone. To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it. Although the new stitch is itself unsecured, it secures the stitch suspended from it.
A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric, a method for casting on is used. During knitting, the active stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting. Different stitches and stitch combinations affect the properties of knitted fabric. Individual stitches look differently. Patterns and pictures can be created using colors in knitted fabrics by using stitches as "pixels". Individual stitches, or rows of stitches, may be made taller by drawing more yarn into the new loop, the basis for uneven knitting: a row of tall stitches may alternate with one or more rows of short stitches for an interesting visual effect. Short and tall stitches may alternate within a row, forming a fish-like oval pattern. Stitches affect the physical properties of a fabric. Stockinette stitch forms a smooth nap. Aran knitting patterns are used to create a bulkier fabric to retain heat.
In the simplest knitted fabric pattern, all the stitches are purl. Alternating rows of knit stitches and purl stitches produce what is known as a stockinette pattern/stocking stitch. Vertical stripes are possible by having alternating wales of knit and purl stitches. For example, a common choice is 2x2 ribbing, in which two wales of knit stitches are followed by two wales of purl stitches, etc. Horizontal striping is possible, by alternating rows of knit and purl stitches. Checkerboard patterns are possible, the smallest of, known as seed/moss stitch: the stitches alternate between knit and purl in every wale and along every row. Fabrics in which the number of knit and purl stitches are not the same, such as stockinette/stocking stitch, have a tendency to curl. Wales of purl stitches have a tendency to recede, whereas those of knit stitches tend to come forward. Thus, the purl wales in ribbing tend to be invisible. Conversely, rows of purl stitches tend to form an embossed ridge relative to a row of knit stitches.
This is the basis of shadow knitting, in which the appearance of a knitted fabric changes when viewed from different directions. Both types of plaited stitches give a subtle but interesting visual texture, tend to draw the fabric inwards, making it stiffer. Plaited stitches are a common method for knitting jewelry from fine metal wire; the initial
Warp and weft
Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft is drawn through and inserted over-and-under the warp. A single thread of the weft crossing the warp is called a pick. Terms vary; each individual warp thread in a fabric is called end. Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the "picking stick" and the "flying shuttle" speeding up production of cloth; the power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute. The words warp and weft derive from the Old English word wefan, to weave. Warp means "that, thrown away"; the warp is the set of yarns or other elements stretched in place on a loom before the weft is introduced during the weaving process. It is regarded as the longitudinal set in a finished fabric with two or more sets of elements; the term is used for a set of yarns established before the interworking of weft yarns by some other method, such as finger manipulation, yielding wrapped or twined structures.
Simple looms use a spiral warp, in which the warp is made up of a single long yarn wound in a spiral pattern around a pair of sticks or beams. The warp must be strong to be held under high tension during the weaving process, unlike the weft which carries no tension; this requires the yarn used for warp ends, or individual warp threads, to be made of spun and plied fibre. Traditionally wool, linen and silk were used. However, improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution created cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used in mechanized weaving. Artificial or man-made fibres such as nylon or rayon were employed. While most weaving is weft-faced, warp-faced textiles are created using densely arranged warp threads. In these the design is in the warp, requiring all colors to be decided upon and placed during the first part of the weaving process, which cannot be changed; such limitations of color placement create weavings defined by length-wise stripes and vertical designs.
Many South American cultures, including the ancient Incas and Aymaras, employed backstrap weaving, which uses the weight of the weaver's body to control the tension of the loom. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom the way the warp is it can be less strong, it is made of spun fibre wool and cotton, today of synthetic fiber such as nylon or rayon. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle", air jets or "rapier grippers". Hand looms were the original weaver's tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand; the expression "warp and weft" is used metaphorically. Warp and weft are sometimes used more in literature to describe the basic dichotomy of the world we live in, as in, up/down, in/out, black/white, Sun/Moon yin/yang, etc; the expression is used for the underlying structure upon which something is built. The terms "warp" and "woof" are found in some English translations of the Bible in the discussion of mildews found in cloth materials in Leviticus 13:48-59.
In Guru Granth Sahib many shabads in Gurbani use the metaphor of warp and weft to describe the state where our soul imbibes into the Almighty as a fabric. Weft is a hairdressing term for temporary hair extensions; these can be attached to a person's hair variously by cornrow braiding, using metal cylinders or gluing. The result is called a weave. Knot density Pile Warp knitting Barber, E. J. W.. Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00224-X. Burnham, Dorothy K.. Warp and Weft: A Textile Terminology. Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 0-88854-256-9
In weaving, the shed is the temporary separation between upper and lower warp yarns through which the weft is woven. The shed is created to make it easy to interlace the weft into the warp and thus create woven fabric. Most types of looms have some sort of device which separates some of the warp threads from the others; this separation is called the shed, allows for a shuttle carrying the weft thread to move through the shed perpendicular to the warp threads. Which threads are raised and which are lowered are changed after each pass of the shuttle; the process of weaving can be simplified to a series of four steps: the shed is raised, the shuttle is passed through, the shed is closed, the weft thread is beaten into place. These steps are repeated, with a different set of threads being raised so as to interlace the warp and weft; the term shedding refers to the action of creating a shed. A shedding device is the device used to open the shed. Creating the separation is referred to as raising or opening the shed, while the reverse is known as lowering or closing the shed.
The type of device, used to raise and lower the shed differs on the type of loom. With a tablet loom the sheds are lowered by rotating the tablets, or cards. In a floor loom the shed is created by the harnesses. Inkle looms have one of the more primitive shedding devices, where there is one set of heddles and the shed is created by hand. There was no shed, the weft was inserted into the warp by picking the warp threads up individually, as is done in tapestry weaving. After each weft thread is woven the warp threads had to be picked out and lifted again, which made the process slow. To speed up the process various devices were developed to create a reproducible shed, so that the weft could be passed between the separated threads, so the threads would not have to be separated individually each time; the first type of shedding device was called a shed-rod. It was a rod inserted into the warp to ease in weaving, came about at the same time as the heddle. Threads were alternated over and under the rod, the threads that went under the rod went through string heddles attached to a bar.
The shed was created in two ways:by raising the shed-rod, by lifting the heddles. The shed-rod was an invention of eastern origin, was introduced to Europe via Egypt in the first century AD; the Romans used it for twill. After the shed-rod came the rigid heddle loom, where the shed is created by raising or lowering the rigid heddle; as the loom progressed, the shed-rod was replaced by a second set of heddles, for a total of two shafts with heddles. Looms like the modern floor loom were developed, where there are many shafts which can be raised to create the shed. Two different shedding methods were developed for the harness loom-one where any one harness or combination of harnesses was lifted while the other harnesses remained stationary; this type of loom is known as a rising shed loom, examples include the table loom, dobby loom or the Jack loom. The other method used in harness looms; the second method lessened the effort of lifting the selected harnesses because they no longer needed to be raised as high as in a rising shed loom.
Counterbalance and countermarch looms are of this second type. There are many things that can cause the warp threads not to separate cleanly, thus produce a poor shed. A slack warp, threads set too in the reed, or increase of friction on the first foot or so of the warp where the threads were handled all cause poor sheds. Fuzzy yarns like mohair can cause a poor shed. To get a better shed the weaver can lift the harnesses while the reed is against the fabric, or raise only one harness at a time. By weaving in a different manner sometimes a good shed can be created; the weaver can insert a stick into the shed to clear it, make way for the shuttle though this option is time-consuming
Darning is a sewing technique for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting using needle and thread alone. It is done by hand, but it is possible to darn with a sewing machine. Hand darning employs the darning stitch, a simple running stitch in which the thread is "woven" in rows along the grain of the fabric, with the stitcher reversing direction at the end of each row, filling in the framework thus created, as if weaving. Darning is a traditional method for repairing fabric damage or holes that do not run along a seam, where patching is impractical or would create discomfort for the wearer, such as on the heel of a sock. Darning refers to any of several needlework techniques that are worked using darning stitches: Pattern darning is a type of embroidery that uses parallel rows of straight stitches of different lengths to create a geometric design. Net darning called filet lace, is a 19th-century technique using stitching on a mesh foundation fabric to imitate lace. Needle weaving is a drawn thread work embroidery technique that involves darning patterns into barelaid warp or weft thread.
In its simplest form, darning consists of anchoring the thread in the fabric on the edge of the hole and carrying it across the gap. It is anchored on the other side with a running stitch or two. If enough threads are criss-crossed over the hole, the hole will be covered with a mass of thread. Fine darning, sometimes known as Belgian darning, attempts to make the repair as invisible and neat as possible; the hole is cut into a square or darn blends into the fabric. There are many varieties of fine darning. Simple over-and-under weaving of threads can be replaced by various fancy weaves, such as twills, etc. achieved by skipping threads in regular patterns. Invisible darning is the epitome of this attempt at restoring the fabric to its original integrity. Threads from the original weaving are used to effect the repair. Invisible darning is appropriate for expensive fabrics and items of apparel. In machine darning, lines of machine running stitch are run back and forth across the hole the fabric is rotated and more lines run at right angles.
This is a fast way to darn. There are special tools for darning socks or stockings: A darning egg is an egg-shaped tool, made of stone, wood, or similar hard material, inserted into the toe or heel of the sock to hold it in the proper shape and provide a foundation for repairs. A shell of the tiger cowry Cypraea tigris, a popular ornament in Europe and elsewhere, was sometimes used as a ready-made darning egg. A darning mushroom is a mushroom-shaped tool made of wood; the sock is stretched over the curved top of the mushroom, gathered around the stalk to hold it in place for darning. A darning gourd is a hollow dried gourd with a pronounced neck; the sock can be stretched over the full end of the gourd and held in place around the neck for darning. Pattern darning is a simple and ancient embroidery technique in which contrasting thread is woven in-and-out of the ground fabric using rows of running stitches which reverse direction at the end of each row; the length of the stitches may be varied to produce geometric designs.
Traditional embroidery using pattern darning is found in Africa, Japan and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Peru. Pattern darning is used as a filling stitch in blackwork embroidery. Rafoogari is the name for art of darning in India and neighbouring countries of the subcontinent where this art of healing the cloth is used for emotional and historical reasons too. Though is a social shame associated with wearing restored clothes but this art has been used by skilled "rafoogars" to restore some priceless clothes such as Pashmina shawl, woolen clothes and fine cotton, etc. Kashmiris are considered the best rafoogars, who have imparted their knowledge to the artists all over India. Rafoogars still exist across India. Foundation of Indian Contemporary Art has been trying to preserve this art and some artists in India still practice it as hereditary art for over 16 generations. In the Beatles' 1966 song "Eleanor Rigby", McCartney sings about the priest Father McKenzie: "Look at him working, darning his socks/ In the night when there's nobody there."
In the classic episode of "I Love Lucy" titled "Lucy Does a TV Commercial", Lucy Ricardo is seen darning a sock for Ricky in the episode’s opening scene. Mending Conservator-restorer Conservation and restoration of paintings Conservation and restoration of textiles Kintsugi Restoration Reader's Digest Oxford Dictionary p. 1001. CS. Coates, Lydia Trattles. "Chapter 11—Darning and Patching". American Dressmaking Step by Step. New York: Pictorial Review Company. Pp. 188–192 – via Google Books. "Embroidery or Decoration". How to Become an "Expert Knitter". Studio Knits. N.d. Swiss darning, or duplicate stitch
In sewing and dressmaking, a ruffle, frill, or furbelow is a strip of fabric, lace or ribbon gathered or pleated on one edge and applied to a garment, bedding, or other textile as a form of trimming. The term flounce is a particular type of fabric manipulation that creates a similar look but with less bulk; the term derives from earlier terms of fronce. A wavy effect is achieved without gathers or pleats by cutting a curved strip of fabric and applying the inner or shorter edge to the garment; the depth of the curve as well as the width of the fabric determines the depth of the flounce. A godet is a circle wedge that can be inserted into a flounce to further deepen the outer floating wave without adding additional bulk at the point of attachment to the body of the garment, such as at the hemline, collar or sleeve. Ruffles appeared at the draw-string necklines of full chemises in the 15th century, evolved into the separately-constructed ruff of the 16th century. Ruffles and flounces remained a fashionable form of off-and-on into modern times.
Arnold, Janet: Patterns of Fashion: the cut and construction of clothes for men and women 1560–1620, Macmillan 1985. Revised edition 1986. Baumgarten, Linda: What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America, Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09580-5 Oxford English Dictionary Picken, Mary Brooks: The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls, 1957. Tozer and Sarah Levitt, Fabric of Society: A Century of People and their Clothes 1770–1870, Laura Ashley Press, ISBN 0-9508913-0-4 Media related to Ruffle at Wikimedia Commons
In sewing and crafts, an embellishment is anything that adds design interest to the piece. Appliqué can be made by sewing machine of decorative techniques and or embroidery, done either by machine or by hand piping made from either self-fabric, contrast fabric, or a a cord. Trim lace, either pre-made or home-made Fringe beads batikItems that serve a function may be used as embellishment. For example: buttons can be placed anywhere on the piece zippers can be unzipped and be used as piping, or stitched on buckles can be placed anywhere on the piece grommets can be placed anywhere when there is no cord is looped through them sequins can be placed anywhere
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew and veins. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand; the invention of the sewing machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the 20th century led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, custom dressmaking, is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression; the first known use of the word "sewing" was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Era.
Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for shelter. The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bone. Sewing was combined with the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips of palm leaf, woven into a coil; the weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BC, earlier during the Neolithic Age, the sewing of cloth accompanied this development. During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed tailors; the vital importance of sewing was indicated by the honorific position of "Lord Sewer" at many European coronations from the Middle Ages. An example was Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, appointed Lord Sewer at the coronation of Henry VIII of England in 1509. Sewing for the most part was a woman's occupation, most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an expensive investment for most people, women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.
Sewing was used for mending. Clothing, faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use; the many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, young women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European brides. Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known throughout the world today.
Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the Japanese stitch. The stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages; the Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide. However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia; the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth; the world's first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint.
By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear. Barthélemy Thimonnier introduced a simple sewing machine in 1841 to produce military uniforms for France's army. By the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate and and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was still produced at home by female members of the family and more ready-made clothes for the middle classes were being produced with sewing machines. Textile sweatshops full of poorly paid sewing machine operators grew into entire business districts in large cities like London and New York City. To further support the industry, piece work was done for little money by women living in slums. Needlework was one of the few occupations considered acceptable for women, but it did not pay a living wage. Women doing piece work from home worked 14-hour days to earn enough to support themselves, sometimes by renting sewing machines that they could not afford to buy.
Tailors became associated with higher-end clothing during this period. In London, this status grew out of the dandy trend of the early 19th century, when new tailor shops were established around Savile Row