Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards set by the World Wide Web Consortium. The goal of the Semantic Web is to make Internet data machine-readable. To enable the encoding of semantics with the data, technologies such as Resource Description Framework and Web Ontology Language are used; these technologies are used to formally represent metadata. For example, ontology can describe concepts, relationships between entities, categories of things; these embedded semantics offer significant advantages such as reasoning over data and operating with heterogeneous data sources. These standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, fundamentally the RDF. According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application and community boundaries." The Semantic Web is therefore regarded as an integrator across different content and information applications and systems. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines—that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable.

While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in library and information science, industry and human sciences research have proven the validity of the original concept. Berners-Lee expressed his vision of the Semantic Web in 1999 as follows: I have a dream for the Web become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content and transactions between people and computers. A "Semantic Web", which makes this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines; the "intelligent agents" people have touted for ages will materialize. The 2001 Scientific American article by Berners-Lee and Lassila described an expected evolution of the existing Web to a Semantic Web. In 2006, Berners-Lee and colleagues stated that: "This simple idea…remains unrealized". In 2013, more than four million Web domains contained Semantic Web markup. In the following example, the text'Paul Schuster was born in Dresden' on a Website will be annotated, connecting a person with its place of birth.

The following HTML-fragment shows how a small graph is being described, in RDFa-syntax using a vocabulary and a Wikidata ID: The example defines the following five triples. Each triple represents one edge in the resulting graph: the first element of the triple is the name of the node where the edge starts, the second element the type of the edge, the last and third element either the name of the node where the edge ends or a literal value; the triples result in the graph shown in the given figure. One of the advantages of using Uniform Resource Identifiers is that they can be dereferenced using the HTTP protocol. According to the so-called Linked Open Data principles, such a dereferenced URI should result in a document that offers further data about the given URI. In this example, all URIs, both for edges and nodes can be dereferenced and will result in further RDF graphs, describing the URI, e.g. that Dresden is a city in Germany, or that a person, in the sense of that URI, can be fictional.

The second graph shows the previous example, but now enriched with a few of the triples from the documents that result from dereferencing and Additionally to the edges given in the involved documents explicitly, edges can be automatically inferred: the triple from the original RDFa fragment and the triple from the document at allow to infer the following triple, given OWL semantics: The concept of the semantic network model was formed in the early 1960s by researchers such as the cognitive scientist Allan M. Collins, linguist M. Ross Quillian and psychologist Elizabeth F. Loftus as a form to represent semantically structured knowledge; when applied in the context of the modern internet, it extends the network of hyperlinked human-readable web pages by inserting machine-readable metadata about pages and how they are related to each other. This enables automated agents to access the Web more intelligently and perform more tasks on behalf of users.

The term "Semantic Web" was coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees the development of proposed Semantic Web standards. He defines the Semantic Web as "a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines". Many of the technologies proposed by the W3C existed before they were positioned under the W3C umbrella; these are used in various contexts those dealing with information that encompasses a limited and defined domain, where sharing data is a common necessity, such as scientific research or data exchange among businesses. In addition, other technologies with similar goals have emerged, such as microformats. Many files on a typical computer can be loosely divided into human-readable documents and machine-readable data. Documents like mail messages and brochures are read by humans. Data, such as calendars, addressbooks and spreadsheets are presented using an application program that lets them be viewed and combined.

The World Wide Web is based on documents written in Hypertext Markup Language, a markup co

Awake, our drowsy souls

"Awake, our drowsy souls" was a Christian hymn by Elizabeth Scott. It was first published in the Baptist Collections of Evans, Bristol, 1769, No. 307, in 5 stanzas of 6 1. and appointed as "A hymn for Lord's Day Morning." From that collection it passed into several hymnals, including John Rippon, John Dobell, others. By the early 20th-century, it was entirely unknown to modern hymn-books except in the United States, having been superseded by "Awake, ye saints, And hail", others as a recast of the same in 4 stanzas made by Thomas Cotterill, given in the first edition of his Selection, 1810; this form of the hymn had somewhat extensive use in Great Britain and the U. S. and is ascribed to "Elizabeth Scott and Thomas Cotterill." In many of the modern American hymnals, stanza iv. is omitted. In this case, the only alteration is "blest " for "bless'd " in stanza i. line 5. Another form of the hymn is:— "Servants of God, awake." It consists of st. i.—iii- of Cotterill's recast altered. It appeared in the Harrow School Hymn Book, 1855, from on passed into Church Hymns, 1871, No. 39.

In the Hymn-Book of the Evangelical Association, Ohio, 1881, No. 604, stanzas i. ii. are given as "Children of God, awake ". In Caleb Evans’s Collection, fifth edition, 1786, it appears in five stanzas, commencing, “Awake, our drowsy souls." Rippon has it with the same text and the same title: “A Hymn for the Lord’s Day Morning." Evans credits it to “D,” that is, Dr. Philip Doddridge, but Dobell, who reprints it in six stanzas, has assigned it to “Scott”, it was altered about the year 1810 for his Sheffield collection. The original was discovered in the library of Yale College, where it remained. Professor Frederic Mayer Bird gave much care to Scott's biography and hymns, elaborately annotated this manuscript volume in the columns of the New York Independent; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Duffield, Samuel Willoughby. English Hymns: Their Authors and History. Funk & Wagnalls; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John.

A dictionary of hymnology: setting forth the origin and history of Christian hymns of all ages and nations. Dover Publications


Nightwood is a 1936 novel by Djuna Barnes, first published in London by Faber and Faber. It is one of the early prominent novels to portray explicit homosexuality between women, as such can be considered lesbian literature, it is notable for its intense, gothic prose style. The novel employs modernist techniques such as its unusual form or narrative and can be considered metafiction, it was praised by other modernist authors including T. S. Eliot, who wrote an introduction included in the 1937 edition published by Harcourt, Brace; as a roman à clef, the novel features a thinly veiled portrait of Barnes in the character of Nora Flood, whereas Nora's lover Robin Vote is a composite of Thelma Wood and the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. Felix Volkbein is born in 1880 to Guido and Hedvig Volkbein, a Jew of Italian descent and a Viennese woman of great beauty, respectively. Guido had died six months and Hedvig dies too, at the age of forty-five, shortly after she gives birth. Guido had pretended to be of baronial descent, adapting to Christian customs, but is haunted by his Jewishness.

He lives as an outcast. Hedvig is convinced, though, they reside in a house overlooking the Prater in Vienna, filled with ornaments of a false lineage, including paintings of Guido's claimed parents, a coat-of-arms of Guido's own proclamation, three pianos, upon which Hedvig plays waltzes in a masculine style. Thirty years Felix turns up from nowhere with the paintings of Guido's "parents", which bear an accidental resemblance to the man, his aunt informs him of his presumed baronial heritage, Felix takes it up along with an obsession for a sort of nobility and royalty. He comes by good money, masters seven languages, though well-known, is not popular, he is seen alone, dressed in part for the evening and in part for the day. In 1920, he lives in Paris, keeping two servants for their physical resemblances to royalty, insinuating himself amongst the actresses and circus performers of Europe in their salons, who have taken on titles too, but for different purposes, he finds a sense of peace here.

One of these performers is a trapeze artist. One night in Berlin, Mann intends to introduce Felix to a Count Onatorio Altamonte, but they walk in on Dr. Matthew O'Connor, an Irishman from San Francisco, presiding as interim host until the Count has appeared, he considers himself an amusing predicament. O'Connor speaks about history and legend, on humor proceeds, running over Mann's interjection, to describe a former circus performer in the Cirque de Paris, focusing on tattoos which O'Connor calls the ameublement of depravity, which the performer calls beauty. Felix asks O'Connor about Vienna. A young woman in her late twenties doing publicity for the circus comes over; the doctor claims to have helped to bring her into this world. Felix bursts into laughter at a certain phrase of the doctor's finds himself distressed at having doing so; the doctor comes and claims not to be or have a variety of things finishes off with a sweeping statement about love and lies. He continues by comparing the Protestant and the Catholic churches and their methods of storytelling, their effects.

He moves on to sorrow, after a chide from Nora describes a memory of being in a town under bombardment. He had rushed for the cellar, inside was an old Breton woman, her cow, a Dubliner praying. Under a flash of lightning, he saw that the cow had tears all over her eyes, he began to talk to the cow. Comes an aside recalling an encounter with a headsman; the Count appears with a young girl and tells them all to go, which Matthew says, after the trio are in a cab, is because the Count thinks that he has had "his last erection." Frau Mann bids them go for drinks, Felix disembarks. It is snowing. In Heinrich's, Matthew says that Felix reminds him of a Mme. Basquette, "damned from the waist down", without legs, she had wheeled herself around the Pyrenees on a board. One day a sailor saw her, wanted her, raped her; when he was done, he put her down five miles outside of town. She had to wheel herself back into town. Matthew describes his parents and what they looked like. Frau Mann mentions an album of her own, falls asleep, the doctor leaves, foisting the bill upon her.

Matthew lives on the rue Servandoni, close to the church of Saint-Sulpice, frequents the neighbourhood place, its environs, a local café. He is seen walking alone, going to Mass, where he uses the holy water liberally, sometimes, late at night, before entering the cafe, gazing up at the towers of the church and the fountain in the place. Now, a few weeks after the Berlin encounter, he brings Felix to the cafe. Felix considers Matthew a liar in behaviour. Matthew talks about Jews and the Irish, moving from knowledge to societal problems in a medical metaphor. Grief and laughter, denying that he is neurasthenic, waiting. Felix muses about beverages unique to cities. Matthew tells Felix to pay the bill and to follow him, which Felix does, they go upstairs to a room full of a variety of plants surrounding a bed, upon which lies a young woman. The woman is dishevelled, has a scent approaching fungi, her skin resembles flora, she seems to evoke the paintings of Henri Rousseau. Felix retreats for propriety and Matthew, who happens to be an unlicensed doctor, rouses the woman.

The woman falls back onto the bed. Felix sees Matthew make a series of dissembling movements with his hands.