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Dayton, Sheridan and Grande Ronde Railroad

The Dayton and Grande Ronde Railroad was a 3 ft narrow gauge railroad in Yamhill and Polk counties in the U. S. state of Oregon. In 1877, farmers in Bellevue, Perrydale and Willamina met to discuss building a railroad that would serve their towns. An agreement was reached, the railroad was incorporated; the railroad constructed twenty miles of tracks on the Yamhill and South Yamhill rivers between Sheridan in the west and Dayton to the east. By 1879, the railroad was out of money and taken over by a group of Scot capitalists led by the Earl of Airlie, they formed the Oregonian Railway. List of defunct Oregon railroads Culp, Edwin D.. Stations West, The Story of the Oregon Railways, Bonanza Books, Page 65

Lucy Gallant

Lucy Gallant is a 1955 American drama film directed by Robert Parrish and written by John Lee Mahin and Winston Miller. The film stars Jane Wyman, Charlton Heston, Claire Trevor, Thelma Ritter, William Demarest and Wallace Ford; the film was released on October 1955, by Paramount Pictures. The story is based on a novella, "The Life of Lucy Gallant," by Texas-born author Margaret Cousins, published in Good Housekeeping magazine in May 1953, it was the last film Pine-Thomas Productions made at Paramount, an association that had endured since 1940. While traveling from New York City to Mexico, the stylish Lucy Gallant is stranded by a storm in fictitious New City, where rancher Casey Cole helps find her suitable lodging; the public reaction to her fashions persuades Lucy to sell the contents of her trousseau, she decides to stay and open a dress shop. Lucy lives at Molly Basserman's boarding house and runs her store out of Lady "Mac" MacBeth's brothel, called the Red Derrick, she obtains a loan from banker Charlie Madden.

She is courted by Casey, who learns that Lucy was jilted at the altar when her fiance found out about her father's dishonest business practices. Casey insists, they quarrel, after joining the United States Army during World War II, he becomes engaged to a fashion model in Paris. But Casey soon returns to Texas to save Lucy from banker Madden's underhanded business dealings, he salvages their romance. Jane Wyman as Lucy Gallant Charlton Heston as Casey Cole Claire Trevor as Lady MacBeth Thelma Ritter as Molly Basserman William Demarest as Charles Madden Wallace Ford as Gus Basserman Tom Helmore as Jim Wardman Gloria Talbott as Laura Wilson James Westerfield as Harry Wilson Mary Field as Irma Wilson Texas Governor Allan Shivers as Himself Edith Head as Herself The film was based on a novella, "The Longest Day of the Year". Paramount hired John Lee Mahin to adapt it; the story was set in Oklahoma but the film is set in Texas. The producers wanted Joan Crawford for the lead; the role went to Jane Wyman, borrowed from Warner Bros.

Charlton Heston, who had just made The Far Horizons for Pine-Thomas, signed to play her co star. John Lee Mahin wrote Robert Parrish agreed to direct. Thelma Ritter and Claire Trevor were cast in the two main support roles. Filming started August 18, 1954. Texas Governor Allan Shivers plays himself. So too does costumer Edith Head. Edith Head's designs were sold commercially. Jody McCrea made his film debut in the picture. List of American films of 1955 Lucy Gallant on IMDb Lucy Gallant at TCMDB Review of film at Variety Lucy Gallant at BFI

Afterimage

An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in the eyes after a period of exposure to the original image. An afterimage may be pathological. Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological exaggeration of physiological afterimages. Afterimages occur because photochemical activity in the retina continues when the eyes are no longer experiencing the original stimulus; the remainder of this article refers to physiological afterimages. A common physiological afterimage is the dim area that seems to float before one's eyes after looking into a light source, such as a camera flash. Palinopsia is a common symptom of visual snow. Negative afterimages are caused when the eye's photoreceptors known as rods and cones, adapt to overstimulation and lose sensitivity. Newer evidence suggests; the overstimulating image is moved to a fresh area of the retina with small eye movements known as microsaccades. However, if the image is large or the eye remains too steady, these small movements are not enough to keep the image moving to fresh parts of the retina.

The photoreceptors that are exposed to the same stimulus will exhaust their supply of photopigment, resulting in a decrease in signal to the brain. This phenomenon can be seen when moving from a bright environment to a dim one, like walking indoors on a bright snowy day; these effects are accompanied by neural adaptations in the occipital lobe of the brain that function similar to color balance adjustments in photography. These adaptations attempt to keep vision consistent in dynamic lighting. Viewing a uniform background while these adaptations are still occurring will allow an individual to see the after image because localized areas of vision are still being processed by the brain using adaptations that are no longer needed; the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision postulated that there were three types of photoreceptors in the eye, each sensitive to a particular range of visible light: short-wavelength cones, medium-wavelength cones, long-wavelength cones. Trichromatic theory, can not explain all afterimage phenomena.

Afterimages are the complementary hue of the adapting stimulus, trichromatic theory fails to account for this fact. The failure of trichromatic theory to account for afterimages indicates the need for an opponent-process theory such as that articulated by Ewald Hering and further developed by Hurvich and Jameson; the opponent process theory states that the human visual system interprets color information by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner. The opponent color theory suggests that there are three opponent channels: red versus green, blue versus yellow, black versus white. Responses to one color of an opponent channel are antagonistic to those of the other color. Therefore, a green image will produce a magenta afterimage; the green color fatigues the green photoreceptors, so they produce a weaker signal. Anything resulting in less green, is interpreted as its paired primary color, magenta, i.e. an equal mixture of red and blue. Example movie which produces distortion illusion after one looks away.

See Motion aftereffect. Positive afterimages, by contrast, appear the same color as the original image, they are very brief, lasting less than half a second. The cause of positive afterimages is not well known, but reflects persisting activity in the brain when the retinal photoreceptor cells continue to send neural impulses to the occipital lobe. A stimulus which elicits a positive image will trigger a negative afterimage via the adaptation process. To experience this phenomenon, one can look at a bright source of light and look away to a dark area, such as by closing the eyes. At first one should see a fading positive afterimage followed by a negative afterimage that may last for much longer, it is possible to see afterimages of random objects that are not bright, only these last for a split second and go unnoticed by most people. An afterimage in general is an optical illusion that refers to an image continuing to appear after exposure to the original image has ceased. Prolonged viewing of the colored patch induces an afterimage of the complementary color.

The "afterimage on empty shape" effect is related to a class of effects referred to as contrast effects. In this effect, an empty shape is presented on a colored background for several seconds; when the background color disappears, an illusionary color similar to the original background is perceived within the shape. The mechanism of the effect is still unclear, may be produced by one or two of the following mechanisms: During the presentation of the empty shape on a colored background, the colored background induces an illusory complementary color inside the empty shape. After the disappearance of the colored background an afterimage of the "induced color" might appear inside the "empty shape". Thus, the expected color of the shape will be complementary to the "induced color", therefore similar to the color of the original background. After the disappearance of the colored background, an afterimage of the background is induced; this induced color has a complementary color to that of the original background.

It is possible that this background afterimage induces simultaneous contrast on the "empty shape". Simultaneous contrast is a psychophysical phenomenon of the change in the appearance of a color caused by the presence of a surrounding average color. Book of Optics Emmert's law Lilac chaser

L'intrepido

L'intrepido is a 2013 Italian comedy film directed by Gianni Amelio. It was screened in the main competition section of the 70th Venice International Film Festival and in the Special Presentation section at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival. Antonio does not have a steady job, his specialty is to replace other workers for a short time, since he likes to pretend to be someone else. But Antonio soon realizes he must do something more concrete in his life, so devotes to his son, a young musician, who fears of performing in concert. Antonio Albanese as Antonio Pane Livia Rossi as Lucia Gabriele Rendina as Ivo Pane Toni Santagata as Maltese Sandra Ceccarelli as Adriana L'intrepido on IMDb

Sedgeford

Sedgeford is a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk, about 5 miles south of the North Sea and 3 miles east of the Wash. It is 36 miles north-west of Norwich, it covers an area of 6.6 square miles and the population, including Fring, was 613 at the 2011 Census. An increase from 540 people and 224 households in the 2001 census, For the purposes of local government, it falls within the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk; the parish church, Sedgeford St. Mary, is one of 124 round-tower churches in Norfolk; the village lies in a fertile valley in the belt of chalk covering this area, with the small Docking river running through it. This river and the many springs feeding it have always ensured a good water supply for successive groups of people who have settled near the village historically; the village is recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. Part of the church, built of flint and stone, is Anglo-Saxon in origin, it is known from archæological evidence that people have lived here from much earlier times.

There are remains of Roman villas, pottery and a gold torc from the Iron Age and many earlier artefacts, like the Neolithic flint tools which are found in fields and gardens. It is crossed by two ancient roads – the prehistoric Icknield Way and the Roman-period the Peddars Way; this is a predominantly agricultural area, with barley and sugar beet as the main crops, although tourism has become important in recent years. Sedgeford has a village football team, Sedgeford FC. Peddars Way, an ancient Roman road, runs through the top end of the village and leads directly onto the Norfolk Coast Path. After Fring, the national trail passes through the hamlet of Littleport, a small row of higgledy-piggledy cottages which now form part of the main village; the route takes walkers past a local landmark Magazine Cottage, built in the 17th century by the Le Strange family during the civil war as a gunpowder magazine. Legend has it that a secret tunnel ran from the old armoury to the church in the heart of the village.

Today this small part of Peddars Way has derived its name from this historical building with Magazine Wood and Magazine Farm just a few steps away. All these properties were owned by William Newcombe-Baker, a local landowner whose estate formed much of the land surrounding the village, he was a founder member of NORMAC, the Norfolk machinery body that did much in the 20th century to bring modern mechanisation to arable farming in East Anglia. Magazine Wood was rebuilt in 2000 and from this high vantage point on Peddars Way you can witness the sun setting over the sea – one of the few places this is possible on the east coast of Britain. Peddars Way passes Magazine Wood and crosses the disused West Norfolk Junction Railway. Sedgeford had its own Sedgeford railway station on the line between Wells and King's Lynn, but this was closed to passengers in 1952 and to goods in 1964; the Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project was established in 1996 to reconstruct the story of human settlement in the parish.

It focused on the Anglo-Saxon cemetery located to the south of the modern village, but it is an ongoing project expanding to many other sites in the parish. Website 1643 Civil War in Lincolnshire and Sir Hamon LeStrange Neil Faulkner et al. Digging Sedgeford: A People's Archaeology. Poppyland Publishing. ISBN 978-1909796089 Garry Rossin Sedgeford Aerodrome and the aerial conflict over North West Norfolk during the First World War. Poppyland Publishing. ISBN 978-1909796423 Website with photos of Sedgeford St. Mary, a Round-tower church www.sharp.org.uk Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project Sedgeford Village Online website