Cavnic is a former mining town situated in the valley of the same name, 26 km east of Baia Mare, in Maramureş County, northern Romania. The town covers 47.17 km2, at altitudes ranging from 500 to 1050 meters above sea level. Cavnic was first documented as Capnic, it was named after the river, which got its name from a Slavic word, kopanе, which refers to digging. Mining activity in the area dates back to the Roman age; the town was destroyed by the Ottomans in 1460 and by the Tatars in 1717, but the Tatars invasion ended with their defeat from the people of Cavnic, making from it the last Tatar invasion to take place in Romania. As a proof of the last Tatar invasion, the town hosts a 7.2 m tall obelisk on which a Latin inscription states "Anno 1717 usque hic fuerunt tartari" meaning "During the year 1717 the Tatars have arrived here". The obelisk is known among locals as "Tatar Pole" or "Written Rock"; the exact date when the obelisk was built is unknown. In the 1910 Census of the Kingdom of Hungary, Kapnikbánya was in Nagybánya district.
It had a population of 3517, out of which 1864 were Hungarians, 49 were Germans and 1604 were Romanians. 1497 identified as Catholic, 1890 as Greek Catholic, 89 as Jewish. The town's mines tended to close and reopen not remaining operational for any great length of time. In the 1970s, Cavnic underwent a great deal of development. Two ski slopes were built at Icoana, the town gained motels, boardinghouses and a hotel to take advantage of its touristic potential; as an interesting detail of touristic interest, it appears that one of the oldest inscriptions found in European mines has been uncovered in Voievod Gallery belonging to the former town's mine. The inscription states "Hier hats erschlagen Iacob Huber"; the text, dated 1511, was most written to commemorate a mining accident. In 2011 it had 4,862 residents, of whom 4,026 were Romanians, 705 Hungarians, 28 Roma, 4 Germans and 97 others. Ignaz von Born, was born here on December 26, 1742. Jenő Jendrassik, Hungarian professor and philosopher, was born here in 1824.
Simon Papp, Hungarian geologist, was born here on February 14, 1886. This article is based on a translation of the equivalent article from the Hungarian Wikipedia on 22 February 2007. Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains www.cavnic.ro www.orasulcavnic.ro
Predeal is a town in Brașov County, Romania. Predeal, a mountain resort town, is the highest town in Romania, it is located in the Prahova Valley at an elevation of over 1,000 m. The town administers three villages: Timișu de Jos and Timișu de Sus. Beginning in the 2000s, the area experienced a boom in construction, now many wealthy families own mountain retreats in Predeal. During the 2013 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival, it hosted the cross-country skiing and snowboarding competitions; the name Predeal is derived from the Slavic word predel, which means "border". Predeal is situated in the Centru development region of Romania, in the Prahova Valley, in the southern part of Brașov County. Neighboring towns include Azuga to the south, Bușteni to the southwest, Râșnov to the northwest and Brașov to the north; the town is mountainous, with the Piatra Mare mountains to the north, the Bucegi mountains to the southwest and the Postăvarul Massif to the northwest. The woods around Predeal have a rich and diversified fauna, including a high number of wild boars, European pine martens, foxes, gray wolves, squirrels, rabbits and heather cocks.
The town of Predeal is a well-known tourist destination in Romania in winter. Predeal has each with a difficulty grade. Most of them have snowmaking guns, some are fitted with floodlights and ski lifts; the slopes range from 790 metres to 2,243 metres. Some of the town's tourist attractions include the 3 Brazi Chalet, The Susai Chalet and The Poiana Secuilor Chalet. In close proximity to Predeal are several tourist destinations, including the Peleş Castle, Râșnov Citadel, Bran Castle, The Old Town of Brașov, Biserica Neagră and the Seven Ladders Canyon; the town has been certified as a climate resort by government decree due to the ionized air rich in ultraviolet radiation and the low atmospheric pressure. Because of this, Predeal is popular within the holistic healing community; the town is crossed by one national railway. Predeal is one of the cities which will be crossed by the future Bucharest – Brașov motorway. Strategia de dezvoltare a orașului Predeal Town map Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains Predeal-alpine station, sensitive map
Straja resort is an Eastern European ski and snowboarding resort, situated at an elevation of 1,440 m in the Vâlcan Mountains Carpathian Mountains, in the Jiu Valley region of Hunedoara County, Romania. Access to the resort can be made on a 8 km long paved mountain road or by a gondola; the resort is a new one, being declared a resort in 2002. The Straja resort has about 26 km of ski area. 20 km are equipped with artificial snow. The 11 cable cars provide you with easy access to all the slopes of the resort. There are each equipped with a cable car. Five of them benefit from a nocturnal facility, making it possible to use the slopes until late at night, they are maintained with snow-blowing machines to keep them in the best possible conditions for skiing. The snow season here starts in the first week of December and ends in the last week of March. Due to the construction of the gondola and the chairlift on the Straja Peak there are new slopes, the longest being the Straja Strand, with a length of 3.8 km.
In season 2016-2017 the chairlift on the Constantinescu Piste had been open, in the 2017-2018 season, another chair lift had replaced the ski lift number 2. Jiu Valley Carpathian Mountains Jiu Valley Portal - the regional web portal of the Jiu Valley region and host of the official Jiu Valley websites Enjoy Hunedoara - regional turism portal
Durău is a ski resort located in north-eastern Romania, in Neamţ County, Moldavia near the Ceahlău Massif. The location is disadvantaged because of the lack of accessibility, the only access road being DN15. Durau Resort lies in Neamt county, at 780–800 m altitude, 9 km from Izvorul Muntelui Lake on the Bistrita river, in a sunny glade, on the north-west slope of the Ceahlau massif; the fauna of the surrounding woods is rich: carpathian stag, brown bear, wild boar, black goat. From here hiking can be organised to the surrounding mountains, Duruitoarea Waterfall, the Natural Reservation of bison from Ceahlau Mountains and many other trips: visits to nearby monasteries, monasteries from the north of Moldavia, Bicaz Gorges, Rosu Lake and Vatra Dornei resort. In Durau you'll find a small church painted by the famous Romanian painter Nicolae Tonitza and a monastery built in 1992. Durau is a year-round resort. In town there are four 2- and 3-star hotels, an ancient monastery and a conference center belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Borșa is a town in eastern Maramureș County, northern Romania, in the valley of the Vișeu River and near the Prislop Pass. Linking Transylvania to Bukovina, Prislop Pass is surrounded by the Rodna and Maramureș Mountains, both ranges of the Carpathians; the highest peak in the region is Pietrosul Rodnei — 2,303 meters. The Rodna National Park can be accessed from Borșa; the town is home to a wooden church, built in 1718. It administers Băile Borșa. In 1891 there were 1,432 Jews living in Borșa. Israel Polack Frank Timiș
Caraș-Severin is a county of Romania on the border with Serbia. The majority of its territory lies within the historical region of Banat, with a few northeastern villages considered part of Transylvania; the county seat is Reșița. The Caraș-Severin county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisza Euroregion. In Serbian and Croatian, it is known as Karaš Severin/Караш Северин or Karaš-Severinska županija, in Hungarian as Krassó-Szörény megye, in German as Kreis Karasch-Severin, in Bulgarian as Караш-Северин; the county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mureș-Tisza euroregion. In 2011, it had a population of 274,277 and a population density of 33.63/km2. The majority of the population are Romanians. There are Roma, Germans - Banat Swabians, Serbs and Ukrainians. With 8,514 km2, it is the third largest county in Romania, after Suceava counties, it is the county through which the Danube River enters Romania. The mountains make up 67% of the county's surface, including the Southern Carpathians range, with Banat Mountains, Țarcu-Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains and elevations between 600 and 2100 meters.
Transition hills between mountains and the Banat Plain lie in the western side of the county. The Danube enters Romania in the vicinity of Baziaș. Timiș, Caraș and Nera cross the county, some of them through spectacular valleys and gorges. Hunedoara County and Gorj County to the east. Timiș County to the north. Mehedinți County to the southeast. Serbia to the southwest: Vojvodina Autonomous Province to the west – South Banat okrug. Bor District and Braničevo District to the south. In 1718 the county was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, part of the province of Banat. In 1771 the county seat, Reschitz became a modern industrial center under Austrian rule; the area received considerable attention due to its mining industry. In 1855, the entire Banat area, with its supplies of mineral deposits and timber, was transferred from the Austrian Treasury to a joint Austrian-French mining and railroad company named StEG. StEG built the Oravița-Baziaș line, Romania's oldest railroad track. After World War I, StEG, Banat and most Austro-Hungarian property were taken over by a company named UDR.
During the last years of World War II, when Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany, a partisan group, led by Ștefan Plavăț, was active in the mountainous area of the county. The arrival of the communist regime in Romania after World War II and that regime's campaign of nationalization of the mining industry brought tremendous social upheaval in the area. Archaeological findings show. There is a County Museum of History in Reșița, displaying archeological artifacts, and, in the town of Ocna de Fier, the Constantin Gruiescu Mineralogical Collection; the county hosts the regional lilac festivals in the Spring. Sites worth visiting: Cheile Nerei – Beușinta National Park. President of the County Council – Florin Silviu Hurduzeu Vice-president of the County Council - Ionut PopoviciThe Caraș-Severin County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Caraș-Severin County has 2 municipalities, 6 towns and 69 communes Municipalities Caransebeș Reșița – capital city.
The county was located in the southwestern part of Greater Romania, in the south and east region of the Banat. The county seat was Lugoj, its territory consisted of the current territory of the county, but parts of the current counties of Timiș, Mehedinți. It bordered on the west with Timiș-Torontal County and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, to the south with Yugoslavia, to the east with the counties Mehedinți and Hunedoara, to the north by Arad County; the county had a total area over 11,000 square kilometres, making it the largest county geographically of interwar Romania. Its territory corresponded to the former Hungarian division of Krassó-Szörény County; the county existed for seven years, being divided in 1926 into Severin County. The county was divided administratively into fourteen districts. There were five urban municipalities: Caransebeș, Reșița, Oravița and Orșova. According to the census data of 1920, the total population of the county was 424,254 inhabitants; the population density was 38 inhabitants/km2