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Semi-dome

In architecture, a semi-dome is a half dome that covers a semi-circular area in a building. Semi-domes are a common feature of apses in Ancient Roman and traditional church architecture, in mosques and iwans in Islamic architecture. A semi-dome, or the whole apse, may be called a conch after the scallop shell carved as decoration of the semi-dome, though this is used for subsidiary semi-domes, rather than the one over the main apse. Small semi-domes have been decorated in a shell shape from ancient times, as in Piero della Francesca's Throned Madonna with saints and Federigo da Montefeltro, the example in the gallery below. Islamic examples may use muqarnas decorative corbelling, while in Late Antique and medieval church architecture the semi-dome is the classic location for a focal mosaic, or fresco. Found in many Ancient Greek exedras, the semi-dome became a common feature of the apse at the end of Ancient Roman secular basilicas, adopted in Early Christian architecture as the commonest shape for churches, becoming the focal point for decoration.

In buildings like Hagia Sophia in Byzantine architecture, apsidal openings or exhedras from the central nave appear in several directions, not just to the liturgical east. The tetraconch and cross-in-square are other Eastern Christian church plans that produce several semi-domes; when the Byzantine styles were adapted in Ottoman architecture, less concerned with maintaining a central axis, a multiplicity of domes and semi-domes becomes the dominating feature of both the internal space and the external appearance of the building. The buildings of Mimar Sinan and his pupil Sedefkar Mehmed Agha are the masterpieces of this style. Mihrabs are another common location for semi-domes. In Western Europe the external appearance of a semi-dome is less exploited than in Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, is disguised as a sloping rather than curved semi-circular roof. Cincinnati Union Terminal in Cincinnati, Ohio features the largest semi-dome in the Western hemisphere, measuring 180 feet wide and 106 feet high.

Hachlili, Rachel. Ancient Jewish art and archaeology in the diaspora. Leiden: Brill, 1998 Kim, Tae Won. Choe: "Semidome building as sexual signaling in the fiddler crab Uca lactea", in Journal of Crustacean Biology, Vol. 24:4, pp. 673-679 David Talbot Rice, Byzantine Art, 3rd edn 1968, Penguin Books Ltd Vadnal, Jane: Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture

Wiang Nong Long District

Wiang Nong Long is a district of Lamphun Province, northern Thailand. The minor district was split off from Pa Sang district becoming effective on 1 April 1995. On 15 May 2007, all 81 minor districts were upgraded to full districts. With publication in the Royal Gazette on 24 August, the upgrade became official. Neighboring districts are Pa Sang and Ban Hong of Lamphun Province, Chom Thong and Doi Lo of Chiang Mai Province; the district Wiang Nong Long is divided into three sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 25 administrative villages. There are three sub-district municipalities in the district: Wang Phang consisting of sub-district Wang Phang. Nong Yuang consisting of sub-district Nong Yuang. Nong Long consisting of sub-district Nong Long

Willie McCartney

Willie McCartney was a Scottish football referee and manager. He managed Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian; the Sunday Herald newspaper listed McCartney in 22nd place in their 2003 list of the 50 greatest Scottish football managers, citing his role in the development of Hibs' Famous Five forward line. The newspaper said that McCartney "was intelligent and had great presence", described his ultimate failure to win a major trophy as "unthinkably cruel". McCartney was appointed Hearts manager in November 1919, replacing John. Unlike his father, Willie McCartney had never played football at a high level because he suffered an injury while playing as a youth and he became a referee instead; when he took the manager position at Hearts he had the task of rebuilding a team, decimated by the First World War, including three dead on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Although Hearts drew big crowds during the early 1920s, the team was unsuccessful and narrowly avoided relegation in 1922. Hearts improved through the rest of McCartney's time after the signing of prolific goalscorer Barney Battles, Jr. in 1928, but defensive frailties meant that they did not win any trophies.

In 1933, McCartney asked to be relieved of clerical duties to concentrate on working with the players, but this had no discernible impact. McCartney resigned in June 1935. McCartney had signed and developed many good players, but failed to deliver success. After a year out of the game, McCartney was appointed Hibs manager in 1936. Hibs had suffered a poor period in the early 1930s, having been relegated in 1931 and failing to win promotion in 1932. Although Hibs won promotion in 1933, they only just retained Division One status in 1934 and 1936. McCartney's appointment produced some excitement, as Hibs drew a crowd of 25,000 for his first match in charge. Hibs again struggled in his first season, as McCartney tried to find the right blend of the many new signings he had made. McCartney developed a strong group of younger players, but the club suffered a humiliating defeat in the 1937–38 Scottish Cup by Edinburgh City. Hibs put up a much better effort in the 1938–39 Scottish Cup, but were beaten 1–0 by eventual winners Clyde in the semi-final.

Just as it appeared McCartney was building a good team, with The Scotsman predicting a good 1939–40 season for Hibs, the Second World War started. The Scottish Football League abandoned competition after five games of the league season, with only friendlies outside "danger areas" allowed; these restrictions were soon relaxed to allow games to be played in the cities, subject to Home Office permission, but the league was regionalised. Hibs used the war years productively, however. Gordon Smith and Bobby Combe were signed in 1941 though Hearts had been watching both players. Soon afterwards, Smith scored a hat-trick for Hibs against Hearts at Tynecastle. Combe scored in a 5–3 win for Hibs. At the same time, McCartney attracted guest players including Bobby Baxter. Hibs won the Summer Cup in 1941. Rangers were the dominant club during the war, winning every Southern League competition and six of the ten cup competitions. McCartney's Hibs were their main challengers, winning two of the other four cups, winning an equal share of the league points contested between the two sides.

The guest players moved on at the end of the war in 1945. Willie Ormond and Eddie Turnbull were signed during the 1946–47 season, while a young Lawrie Reilly signed in that season. McCartney technically wasn't allowed to sign the 16-year-old Reilly, but got around the regulation by keeping the signing form in his desk until Reilly's 17th birthday. Hibs finished that season as runners-up in both of the main competitions, second to Rangers in the league and 2–1 losers to Aberdeen in the 1947 Scottish Cup Final. Hibs started the 1947–48 season and were top of the league in January ahead of a key match against Rangers at Ibrox; the week before, Hibs played Albion Rovers in the 1947–48 Scottish Cup at Cliftonhill. Hibs won an unremarkable match 2–0, but manager McCartney had collapsed and died that day. Trainer Hugh Shaw was appointed as McCartney's replacement, Hibs went on to win the league that season Shaw completed the Famous Five lineup by signing Bobby Johnstone, the team went on to win further league championships in 1951 and 1952.

SourcesMackay, John. The Hibees. John Donald Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-85976-144-4. London Hearts profile