Casual wear/attire/clothing is a Western dress code category that comprises anything not traditionally appropriate with more formal dress codes: formal wear, semi-formal wear, or informal wear. In general, casual wear is associated with emphasising personal comfort and individuality over formality or conformity; as such, it may referred to as leisurewear. In a broader sense, the word "casual" may be defined as anything relaxed, spontaneous, "suited for everyday use", or "informal" in the sense of "not formal". In essence, because of its wide variety of interpretations, casual wear may be defined not by what it is but rather by what it is not: Formal wear, such as: Morning dress White tie but ceremonial dress variants, including: Court uniforms Full dress uniform Religious clothing Folk costumes Academic clothing Semi-formal wear, such as: Black lounge suit Black tie Informal attire, such as: Business professional wear, comprising lounge suits, dress shirts, neckties and dress shoesYet, when indicated as a dress code for instance on an invitation to a gathering or in an office place, casual wear may still be expected to be done tastefully, meaning that trousers and shirts do not have holes, tears, or stains.
It may be combined with informal wear dress code components, illustrated by dress codes such as business casual, smart casual. Furthermore, dress codes within casual wear category such as business casual, smart casual or casual Friday may indicate expectation of some sartorial effort, including suit jacket, dress trousers, resembling the result of informal attire. With the popularity of spectator sports in the late 20th century, a good deal of athletic gear has influenced casual wear, such as jogging suits, running shoes, track clothing. Work wear worn for manual labor falls into casual wear. Basic materials used for casual wear include denim, jersey and fleece. Materials such as velvet and brocade are associated with more formal cloths. While utilitarian costume comes to mind first for casual dress, there is a wide range of flamboyance and theatricality. Punk fashion and fashion of the 1970s and 1980s is a striking example. Madonna introduced a great deal of lace and cosmetics into casual wear during the 1980s.
In the 1990s, hip hop fashion played up elaborate jewelry and luxurious materials worn in conjunction with athletic gear and the clothing of manual labor. Sport coat, jeans, dress shirt, a T-shirt describe to be casual wear for men in the 21st century. Casual wear is the dress code in which forms of gender expression are experimented with. An obvious example is masculine jewelry, once considered shocking or titillating in casual circles, is now hardly noteworthy in semi-formal situations. Amelia Bloomer introduced trousers of a sort for women as a casual alternative to formal hoops and skirts; the trend toward female exposure in the 20th century tended to push the necklines of formal ball gowns lower and the skirts of cocktail dresses higher. For men, the exposure of shoulders and backs is still limited to casual wear. Western dress codes Formal wear Semi-formal wear Informal attire Casual wear Smart casual Business casual Workwear Combat uniform Sportswear Sportswear
A combat uniform, field uniform, or battledress, is a type of uniform used in combat, as opposed to dress uniforms worn in functions and parades. In American English, the term fatigues is used being a term for soldiers' work uniforms; the combat uniform is camouflaged, either in monochrome such as a shade of green or brown to approximate the background, or in a disruptive pattern. Contrary to dress uniforms, the combat uniform is made from cotton, to a more loose and comfortable cut. British forces in India in the mid 19th century were the first to use drab cotton uniforms for battle; the first purpose-made and issued military camouflage fabric was for half-shelters by the Italian Army after the First World War. Germany was the first to use such shelter fabric for uniforms for their paratroopers, by the war's end both various German as well as the older Italian fabric was used for camouflage uniforms. Most nations developed camouflage uniforms during the Second World War, though these were issued only to "elite" units.
Australian troops wear a camouflage uniform called Disruptive Pattern Combat Uniform, shaded to suit Australia's terrain. It was developed by entering the colours of the Australian landscape into a computer program and DPCU was the result.. The Australian Army is in the process of issuing to its personnel the new Australian Multicam Camouflage Uniform. There are three variations, the original design, most used, another for use in desert environments, called Disruptive Pattern Desert Uniform and a third for use by OPFOR units in training exercises. Canada's battledress developed parallel to that of the British from 1900 to 1950, though always with significant differences, increasingly followed the US pattern of separate uniforms for separate functions, becoming distinctively "Canadian" in the process and utilizing CADPAT design; the first true battledress adopted by Canada for standard issue across the board was the khaki field uniform known as Service Dress, adopted in 1907. This was of a separate pattern from the British Service Dress adopted after the Boer War, marked a departure in Canadian uniforms in that it was distinct from the scarlet/blue/rifle green uniforms traditionally worn to that point, the latter of which became "ceremonial" dress for parades and other functions apart from field training.
Canadian pattern Service Dress worn by Other Ranks did not stand up to the rigors of campaigning and was replaced by British uniforms in France. Officers wore a distinctive pattern of Service Dress, identical to that worn by British officers. In combat in France and Flanders, they were replaced on an individual basis by Other Ranks' Service Dress, making the officer less conspicuous to enemy snipers and soldiers. Khaki Drill was a series of different uniform patterns of light khaki cloth cotton, first worn by Canadian soldiers in the Boer War and reserved for summer training in Canada, or for employment in tropical climates. Canada developed its own pattern after the First World War, the uniform was worn in Canada, with officers again having the option of finer garments purchased. In the Second World War, Canadians serving in Jamaica and Hong Kong wore Canadian pattern KD. Worn in tropics far beyond 1949. KD worn with either short or long trousers as parade dress. Jacket was replaced with shirt for normal barrack dress wear.
Worn by all British units in Kenya until Dec 1964. In issue and worn by British Honduras Garrison and attached Infantry Company Group until at least 1968. In 1939, the Battle Dress uniform was adopted as a field uniform. Officers had the option of having BD tailored from better material, but in the field most wore "off the rack" BD with a modified open collar. Service Dress was worn in 1939 and into 1940 by soldiers in Canada as field dress, afterward was no longer issued except to a select few. While a new pattern of Service Dress was introduced for Other Ranks in this period, it was reserved for dress wear only. Battle Dress replaced SD as a field uniform beginning in 1940 as enough of the new uniforms became available. A new pattern of BD was introduced in 1949, with an open collar matching that of British Pattern 1949 BD; the garment was worn as a field dress throughout the Korean War, into the 1960s until replaced by the Combat uniform. Some Militia units used BD as a dress uniform until the early 1970s.
The US Army produced its own version of the BD blouse for issue to soldiers in Europe. Although most of these were produced in England, they were of a dark green color, rather than khaki. Called the ETO jacket, American soldiers dubbed it the Ike Jacket, after General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Bush Dress was a series of dark green cotton uniforms, similar to KD clothing, which replaced those uniforms just prior to the Korean War. Like KD, Bush Dress was worn as a field uniform, it was replaced by the Combat uniform in the 1960s. The green combat uniform became universal b
Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category applicable for the most formal occasions, such as weddings, confirmations, funerals and Christmas traditions, in addition to certain audiences and horse racing events. Formal attire is traditionally divided into formal evening attire. Permitted other alternatives, are the most formal versions of ceremonial dresses, full dress uniforms, religious clothing, national costumes, most frock coats. In addition, formal attire may be instructed to be worn with official medals. With background in the 19th century, the protocol indicating men's formal attire have remained unchanged since the early 20th century, remains observed so in certain settings influenced by Western culture: notably around Europe, the Americas, Australia, as well as Japan. For women, although fundamental customs for ball gowns apply, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Optional conventional headgear for men is the top hat, for women picture hats etc. of a range of interpretations.
"Formal attire" being the most formal dress code, it is followed by semi-formal attire, equivalently based around daytime stroller, evening black tie i.e. dinner suit, evening gown for women. The lounge suit and cocktail dress in turn only comes after this level, associated with informal attire. Notably, if a level of flexibility is indicated, the host tend to wear the most formal interpretation of that dress code in order to save guests the embarrassment of out-dressing. Since the most formal versions of national costumes are permitted as exceptions to the uniformity in Western formal dress code, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some equivalent level of formality, the versatile framework of Western formal dress codes open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard. From these social conventions derive in turn the variants worn on related occasions of varying solemnity, such as formal political and academic events, as well as certain parties including award ceremonies, high school proms, dance events, fraternal orders, etc.
The dress codes counted as formal wear are the formal dress codes of morning dress for daytime and white tie for evenings. Although some consider strollers for daytime and black tie for the evening as formal, they are traditionally considered semi-formal attires, sartorially speaking below in formality level; the clothes dictated by these dress codes. For many uniforms, the official clothing is unisex. Examples of this are court dress, academic dress, military full dress uniform. Morning dress is the daytime formal dress code, consisting chiefly for men of a morning coat and striped trousers, an appropriate dress for women; the required clothing for men, in the evening, is the following: Formal trousers, with stripes on leg seams White piqué front or plain stiff-fronted shirt with a detachable wing collar, cuff links and shirt studs White piqué bow tie White piqué vest A tailcoat Black patent leather court shoes AccessoriesWomen wear a variety of dresses. See ball gowns, evening gowns, wedding dresses.
Business attire for women has a developmental history of its own and looks different from formal dress for social occasions. Many invitations to white tie events, like the last published edition of the British Lord Chamberlain's Guide to Dress at Court, explictely state that national costume or national dress may be substituted for white tie. In general, each of the supplementary alternatives apply for both day attire, evening attire. Including court dresses, diplomatic uniforms, academic dresses. Prior to World War II formal style of military dress referred to as full dress uniform, was restricted to the British, British Empire and United States armed forces. In the U. S. Army, evening mess uniform, in either blue or white, is considered the appropriate military uniform for white-tie occasions; the blue mess and white mess uniforms are black tie equivalents, although the Army Service Uniform with bow tie are accepted for non-commissioned officers and newly commissioned officers. For white tie occasions, of which there are none in the United States outside the national capital region for U.
S. Army, an officer must wear a wing-collar shirt with white vest. For black tie occasions, officers must wear a turndown collar with black cummerbund; the only outer coat prescribed for both black- and white-tie events is the army blue cape with branch color lining. Certain clergy wear, in place of white tie outfits, a cassock with ferraiolone, a light-weight ankle-length cape intended to be worn indoors; the colour and fabric of the ferraiolone is determined by the rank of the cleric and can be scarlet watered silk, purple silk, black silk or black wool. For outerwear the black cape known as a choir cape, is most traditional, it is a long black woollen cloak fastened with a clasp at the neck and has a hood. Cardinals and bishops may wear a black plush hat or, less formally, a biretta. In practice, the
Diplomatic uniforms are ornate uniforms worn by diplomats—ambassadorial and consular officers—at public occasions. Introduced by European states around 1800 and patterned on court dress, they were abandoned by most countries in the twentieth century, but diplomats from some countries retain them for rare, formal occasions. Up until the 18th century, diplomats wore their own court clothing to solemn occasions. Diplomatic uniforms were first introduced by France in 1781 and adopted by other European nations around 1800 in the course of administrative reforms undertaken as a response to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. In several countries, diplomatic uniforms were among the first civilian uniforms to be adopted. Apart from saving diplomats the expense of maintaining a full court wardrobe, diplomatic uniforms served to emphasize the importance of the office and to deemphasize the person of its holder. Several non-European courts adopted European-style diplomatic uniforms during the 19th century.
Notably, Japan during the Meiji Revolution introduced European uniforms instead of traditional clothing for all officials in 1872. The Ottoman court was another non-European court that adopted the uniforms, which were introduced during the Tanzimat period; the final period during which the majority of diplomatic services retained formal uniforms for the accredited members of their overseas missions was that prior to World War II. A detailed study of contemporary uniforms, both military and civil, published in 1929 gives descriptions of the diplomatic uniforms still being worn by representatives of the majority of states in existence; these included a number of Latin American and Asian countries. It is however noted that several states which had only been created following World War I, had not adopted diplomatic uniforms and that others had discarded them; the uniforms described are nearly all of the traditional style of bicorne hat and tailcoat with braiding according to grade, from third secretaries to ambassadors.
Consular staff were less to have authorised uniforms than their diplomatic colleagues and where consular uniforms existed they were of simpler style. As an example, the British Consular Service had silver braiding rather than the gold of diplomats. While most countries abandoned diplomatic uniforms at some time during the 20th century, several long-established foreign services have retained them for wear by senior staff on ceremonial occasions such as the formal presentation of credentials by ambassadors. A photo of the 2001 New Year's reception at the Vatican shows the ambassadors of Monaco, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain and Belgium all clad in diplomatic uniform. Diplomatic uniforms followed 19th century court fashion and included a tailcoat with standing collar, breeches or pantaloons, a sword and a two-cornered plumed hat. There were at least two versions, a dress uniform for ceremonial events and a simpler version for less formal occasions which required the use of uniform dress.
Unlike their military and naval counterparts, diplomats did not wear uniforms for everyday purposes but substituted the appropriate civilian clothing. Diplomatic uniforms were richly embroidered with gold similar to the uniforms of high court officials. Diplomatic rank was distinguished by the quality of the embroidery. In contrast to military uniforms, which underwent rapid changes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, the diplomatic uniforms tended to keep their traditional design. While the uniforms of the different foreign services shared the common features noted above, there were considerable national differences, though of minor detail. Thus, as examples, French ambassadors were distinguished by pearl-handled court swords with gold and silk frogs, their Portuguese colleagues by oak leaves and acorns represented in gold embroidery on their dress coats, while Norwegian diplomats wore gold embroidery of pine cone design on their dark blue "swallow-tail" coats. Belgian diplomats of all ranks had "royal blue" tail coats and retained the 18th century fashion of white breeches and stockings with low shoes.
Today, Belgian diplomats wear blue and gold waist sashes, Spanish diplomats red cuffs on their dark blue tail-coats, Danish diplomats distinctive red coats. In 1817, Prussian diplomats received as uniforms dark blue tail coats with cuffs and a standing collar of black velvet, decorated with oak leaf scrolls embroidered in gold. In 1888, the German Empire introduced the Altbrandenburgischer Waffenrock, a long military-style coat, as the general state uniform for high-ranking officials. Military uniform was worn instead of court uniform by military officers and by those political figures who were reserve officers, which included most diplomats: it was impossible under the Empire for one to be a civil servant or a state secretary of ministerial rank without being a reserve officer. Diplomatic uniforms were abandoned under the Weimar Republic, but the Nazi regime, which had a general fondness for uniforms, reintroduced them; the stage designer Benno von Arent designed the "startling" Nazi diplomatic uniform, consisting of a dark blue tailcoat whose modern lapels were embroidered with silver oak leaves, a silver sash, a silver aiguillette and a small dagger.
Following the Meiji Restoration, the Dajō-kan released an edict on December 12, 1872, implementing regulations for the uniforms of civil officials and nobles, issuing another edict on December 29 of that year regulating their proper wear. Three of the highest subcategories of civil officials were allocated specific court (dip
Morning dress known as formal day dress, is the formal Western dress code for day attire, consisting chiefly of, for men, a morning coat and formal trousers, an appropriate gown for women. Men may wear a popular variant where all parts are the same colour and material grey and called "morning suit" or "morning grey" to distinguish it; the correct hat would be a formal top hat, or if on less spacious audience settings optionally a collapsible equivalent opera hat. The semi-formal counterpart of this code is the stroller. Morning dress is now worn as anything other than formal wear, as a form of civic dress, e.g. by provincial mayors, but more only for weddings, some official civic, governmental or royal functions,'social season' events, e.g. races such as Royal Ascot and at Epsom in the Queen's Stand on Derby Day, formal lunches and as uniform at some of Britain's most traditional schools such as Harrow and Eton. It may be seen sometimes worn at services in St Paul's Cathedral, London and St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh.
Debrett's states that morning dress should not be specified as the dress code for events starting after 6pm. The name originated from the practice of gentlemen in the nineteenth century riding a horse in the morning with a cutaway front, single breasted morning coat; the modern twentieth century morning dress was a more casual form of half dress, but as the nineteenth century progressed it became acceptable to wear it in more formal situations instead of a frock coat. In the Edwardian era it took over in popularity from the frock coat as the standard daytime form of men's full dress; when it was regarded as a more casual coat, it was common to see it made with step collars, but as it took over from the frock coat in formality it began to be made with the more formal pointed lapels. Morning dress consists of: a morning coat, now always single breasted with link closure or one button and with pointed lapels, may include silk piping on the edges of the coat and lapels. A waistcoat, which matches the material of the coat.
A pair of formal striped or checked trousers worn with braces. A shirt. Otherwise, a high detachable wing collar is worn with a single-cuffed shirt; this is a more formal option most seen at weddings. Black Oxford shoes or dress boots, or boots with a horse riding connection, such as George or Chelsea boot, or galosh-top dress boots. If the trouser cloth matches the coat, the ensemble becomes a morning suit; the waistcoat may match, or not. Morning suits will sometimes be a middle-tone grey. Morning suits the lighter-toned ones, are considered less formal than morning coat ensembles; the following can optionally be worn or carried with morning dress: a top hat, either classic silk plush, or a modern Melusine fur. Alternatively, a top hat made of fur felt or wool felt, is another common option. Gloves of suede, chamois, or kid leather; the modern morning coat is single-breasted and has peaked lapels. It is closed with a single button but may have a link-front closure instead, it is traditionally in either black or Oxford grey herringbone wool, which should not be too heavy a weight, with curved front edges sloping back into tails of knee length.
The coat may feature ribbon braiding around the edges of the collar and down around the tails. Nicholas Storey advises that braiding should be avoided for formal morning wear. A black morning coat with matching black waistcoat is the most formal option, being worn for Court, memorial services, civic dress and diplomatic dress, with academic dress, or in government use in America. At social or festive occasions, e.g. races and weddings, a contrasting waistcoat is worn. The most traditional colours are dove grey, light grey, buff or camel, duck-egg blue, white. There has been a tendency towards'fancy' waistcoats of multicolou
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order. Traditionally some plain garb recognisable as a religious habit has been worn by those leading the religious eremitic and anchoritic life, although in their case without conformity to a particular uniform style. In the typical Roman Catholic or Anglican orders, the habit consists of a tunic covered by a scapular and cowl, with a hood for monks or friars and a veil for nuns. Modern habits are sometimes eschewed in favor of a simple business suit. Catholic Canon Law requires only that it be in some way identifiable so that the person may serve as a witness of Gospel values; this requires creativity. For instance in Turkey, a Franciscan might wear street clothes. In many orders, the conclusion of postulancy and the beginning of the novitiate is marked by a ceremony, during which the new novice is accepted clothed in the community's habit by the superior. In some cases the novice's habit will be somewhat different from the customary habit: for instance, in certain orders of women that use the veil, it is common for novices to wear a white veil while professed members wear black, or if the order wears white, the novice wears a grey veil.
Among some Franciscan communities of men, novices wear a sort of overshirt over their tunic. In some orders, different types or levels of profession are indicated by differences in habits. Kāṣāya, "chougu" are the robes of Buddhist nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye. In Sanskrit and Pali, these robes are given the more general term cīvara, which references the robes without regard to color. Buddhist kāṣāya are said to have originated in India as set of robes for the devotees of Gautama Buddha. A notable variant has a pattern reminiscent of an Asian rice field. Original kāṣāya were constructed of discarded fabric; these were stitched together to form three rectangular pieces of cloth, which were fitted over the body in a specific manner. The three main pieces of cloth are the antarvāsa, the uttarāsaṅga, the saṃghāti. Together they form tricīvara; the tricīvara is described more in the Theravāda Vinaya. A robe covering the upper body, it is worn over antarvāsa. In representations of the Buddha, the uttarāsaṅga appears as the uppermost garment, since it is covered by the outer robe, or saṃghāti.
The saṃghāti is an outer robe used for various occasions. It comes over the upper robe, the undergarment. In representations of the Buddha, the saṃghāti is the most visible garment, with the undergarment or uttarāsaṅga protruding at the bottom, it is quite similar in shape to the Greek himation, its shape and folds have been treated in Greek style in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra. Other items that may have been worn with the triple robe were: a waist cloth, the kushalaka a buckled belt, the samakaksika In India, variations of the kāṣāya robe distinguished different types of monastics; these represented the different schools that they belonged to, their robes ranged from red and ochre, to blue and black. Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao came to China and translated a work which describes the color of monastic robes utilized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Dà Bǐqiū Sānqiān Wēiyí. Another text translated at a date, the Śariputraparipṛcchā, contains a similar passage corroborating this information, but the colors for the Sarvāstivāda and Dharmaguptaka sects are reversed.
In traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, which follow the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, red robes are regarded as characteristic of the Mūlasarvāstivādins. According to Dudjom Rinpoche from the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, the robes of ordained Mahāsāṃghika monastics were to be sewn out of more than seven sections, but no more than twenty-three sections; the symbols sewn on the robes were the endless knot and the conch shell, two of the Eight Auspicious Signs in Buddhism. In Chinese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called gāsā. During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the most common color was red; the color of the robes came to serve as a way to distinguish monastics, just as they did in India. However, the colors of a Chinese Buddhist monastic's robes corresponded to their geographical region rather than to any specific schools. By the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, only the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage was still in use, therefore the color of robes served no useful purpose as a designation for sects, the way that it had in India.
In Japanese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called kesa. In Japan, during the Edo and Meiji periods, kesa were sometimes pieced together from robes used in Noh theatre; the Eastern Orthodox Church does not have distinct religious orders such as those in the Catholic Church. The habit is the same throughout the world; the normal monastic color is symbolic of repentance and simplicity. The habits of monks and nuns are identical; the habit is bestowed as the monk or nun advances in the spiritual life. There are three degrees: the beginner, known as the Rassaphore the intermediate, known as the Stavrophore, the Great Schema worn by Great Schema Monks or Nuns. Only the last, the Schemamonk or S