The ARV Super2 is a British two-seat, strut-braced, shoulder wing, tricycle landing gear light aircraft designed by Bruce Giddings. Available either factory-built or as a kit, it was intended to be both a cost-effective trainer and an affordable aircraft for private owners. Called the "Opus", it gained US Federal Aviation Administration Light-sport aircraft approval in February 2008. About 35 aircraft were produced in the 1980s before the Isle of Wight-based company went into liquidation. Subsequently there have been a number of attempts to restart production, all unsuccessful, of which the most recent was by Opus Aircraft. In November 2013, Opus Aircraft announced that its assets had been auctioned off adding: "We hope to see our plans continued and to see the all-aluminum plane flying by 2015". Richard Noble, the world 1983 land speed record holder and UK entrepreneur, identified a gap in the market for a low-cost lightweight two-seat trainer, after expensive product-liability lawsuits in the USA had driven the major American general aviation manufacturers temporarily to abandon production of such aircraft.
Noble established a factory at Sandown on the Isle of Wight to build the ARV Super2 aircraft, with the first prototype flying on 11 March 1985. The factory used some novel manufacturing techniques, including British ALCAN's "Supral", a bespoke new British engine, the Hewland AE75; these innovations gave the ARV an empty weight 40% lower than the Cessna 152, making the Super2 both cheaper to buy and to operate. The manufacturer claimed it could reduce pilot training costs by 25%The ARV Super2 is a side-by-side configuration two-seater with a shoulder wing for improved visibility; the wing is swept forward 5° to maintain correct centre of gravity balance. The wing area is a small 92 sq ft, giving a wing loading of 11.9 lb/ft². The forward sweep may promote a spanwise airflow inwards towards the root, thereby reducing the likelihood of a wingtip stall; the ARV's tapered fibreglass wingtips help to reduce drag from wingtip vortices. The ARV is constructed of aluminium alloy, with fibreglass wingtips and canopy frame.
The cockpit is a stiff monocoque of "Supral" alloy for improved crash protection. Aft of the cockpit bulkhead, the ARV is conventionally built, with frames, longerons and a stressed skin forming a semi-monocoque. Skin sections riveted; the aircraft has twin control. Ailerons and flaps are pushrod-controlled, but the rudder and trim are cable-linked; the rudder pedals control a steerable nosewheel, but the hand-operated disc brakes are not differential and do not contribute to steering. The AE75 engine, a 49 kg 75 hp inverted three-cylinder water-cooled two-stroke unit with dual ignition and a 2.7:1 reduction gearbox, was specially developed for the ARV by Hewland from their existing two-cylinder microlight engine. The AE75 engine has a TBO of only 800 hours, and, in the absence of continuing factory support, many ARVs have had their AE75s replaced with engines such as the Rotax 912, the Rotax 914, or the Jabiru 2200. Three ARVs were manufactured with the MidWest twin-rotor wankel engine; the Super2 gained airworthiness certification in July 1986, soon after entered production.
In November 1985, Noble had reached an agreement to supply ARV parts to Canada's Instar Aviation, where the aircraft was intended to be assembled for the North American market. Transport Canada had agreed to certify the aircraft based on it "meeting UK criteria", but in the end these Canadian production plans came to nothing. ARVs were available either as kit-built aircraft, or factory built. In the spring of 1990 Aviation Scotland Limited was to restart production and in 1993 that company intended to set up another facility in Sweden to build ARVs. In the late 1990s the aircraft was sold in kit form in the USA as the Highlander by Highlander Aircraft Corporation of Golden Valley, Minnesota. In 2004, the CAA reclassified all ARVs as PFA Permit aircraft; the ARV Super2 was intended to be aerobatic, but the Isle of Wight factory closed before CAA clearance was obtained, so aerobatics remain prohibited. The factory had planned to develop a four-seater version, wing-tip tanks and floats. Opus Aircraft upgraded some specifications for the aircraft, increasing the Vne to 134 kn and increasing the gross weight to 1,168 lb.
The company intended to equip the aircraft with the Rotax 912A of 80 hp. The ARV Super2 has had an interrupted production history, with a number of successive companies producing 40 aircraft in total. Shortly after initial aircraft deliveries began, there were a number of forced landings; these were due to gearbox failures induced by propeller vibration, in November 1987 the CAA grounded the aircraft. Although these problems were resolved, the aircraft's reputation suffered. Buyers and investors lost confidence, leading to the closure of the Isle of Wight factory and the company was forced into administration; this resulted in the company being renamed Island Aircraft. Some 30 or so aircraft were completed by ARV and by Island Aircraft at Sandown. Production was transferred first to Scotland and to Sweden, where the ARV was renamed the "Opus 280", However, no aircraft were produced in Sweden before the proprietors went bankrupt in 1995. After yet another unsuccessful attempt to restart production in Ohio, USA, all manufacturing rights were sold to a new
The Norton Commando was a British Norton-Villiers motorcycle with an OHV pre-unit parallel-twin engine, produced by the Norton Motorcycle company from 1967 until 1977. Having a nominal 750 cc displacement 745 cc, in 1973 it became an 850 cc 828 cc, it had similar to all OHV Norton engines since the early 1920s. During its ten years of production, the Commando was popular all over the world. In the United Kingdom it won the Motor Cycle News "Machine of the Year" award for five successive years from 1968-1972. Given that its engine was an old pre-unit design Norton's chairman, Dennis Poore, expressed surprise at the Commando's remarkable success; the origins of the Norton Commando can be traced back to the late 1940s when the 497 cc Norton Model 7 Twin was designed by Bert Hopwood. The twin-cylinder design evolved into 600 cc the 650 cc Manxman and Dominator until superseded by 750 cc Atlas before being launched as the 750 cc Commando in 1967; as well as having a radical new frame, the Commando's engine was tilted forward.
This was easy as the engine was "pre-unit", that is, the gearbox was not integral with the crankcase, the change gave three benefits: the centre of gravity was moved further forward. The revolutionary part of the Commando, compared to earlier Norton models, was the award-winning frame developed by former Rolls-Royce engineer Dr. Stefan Bauer, he believed the classic Norton Featherbed frame design went against all engineering principles, so Bauer designed his frame around a single 2.25 in top tube. Bauer tried to free the Commando from classic twin vibration problems, which had increased as the volume of the basic engine design expanded from the 500 cc of Edward Turner's 1938 Triumph Speed Twin. He, with Norton-Villiers Chief Engineer Bernard Hooper and assistant Bob Trigg, decided that the engine and swing-arm assembly were to be bolted together and isolated from the frame by special rubber mountings; this eliminated the extreme vibration problems that were apparent in other models in the range, as it separated the rider from the engine.
Named the Isolastic anti-vibration system, the system's patent document listed Hooper as the lead inventor. Although the Isolastic system did reduce vibration, maintaining the required free play in the engine mountings at the correct level was crucial to its success. Too little play brought the vibration back; the Norton Commando was introduced in 1967 at the Earls Court Show. The first production machines completed in April 1968 had frame failure problems, which were resolved with the introduction of an improved frame in January 1969. There were numerous other design problems which were addressed over the years, although some persisted to the end; the early clutches could not handle the engine torque, two small internal pins would shear off, leading to severe slippage. The side-stand tended to break off if the owner insisted on starting the machine on the side-stand, leaving a hole in the frame beneath the engine, while the center-stand was too short to provide good support for the motorcycle, dragged on the pavement, tended to break in half.
The engine rubber mounting system, which isolated the rider from vibration well, left the engine to its own devices, it shook like a commercial paint can shaker at idle. The rocker arm oil supply pipe was steel, would fracture from vibration; the head steady would fatigue and fracture from vibration. The Amal carbs had float needle leakage from vibration, which led to flooding and fires, exacerbated by having the ignition points located under the right hand carb, and the carburetors wore out prematurely from vibration. The main bearings were of two types at first and roller. In 1972 both bearings became roller-type, the crankcase was stiffened; these main roller bearings in the now stiffer case would gall at high revs, leading to main bearing failure The threaded aluminum knobs holding the seat would strip, leaving the seat loose. The chain guard mount; the exhaust pipe manifold nuts were problematic to the end, loosening from vibration no matter how they were fastened, leading to a ruined cylinder head and constant rattling of the header pipes.
The brake light switches were unreliable. The steering head bearings were ball-type, took a permanent set under the bearing pre-load, leading to weaving at speed. There was a rear chain oiler which covered the rear wheel in oil, had to be pinched off by the owner; the speedometer drive mechanism operated with a long cable to the speedometer. This drive mechanism wore out quickly, as did any replacement, leading to no speedometer reading; the early tachometer drive jutted from the right side of the engine, was vulnerable to being struck and snapped off. The primary chain tensioning bolt tended to loosen at inconvenient times; the rear chain adjusting bolts pushed, rather than pulled, the rear axle, would bend, making them difficult to turn. Nor were there index marks to allow equal axle positioning on the right a
Mooney International Corporation
The Mooney International Corporation is a Chinese-owned aircraft manufacturer, founded in 1929 by Albert Mooney and his brother Arthur. The company is based in Kerrville, United States, manufactures single-engined piston-powered general aviation aircraft. Mooney International is owned by the Meijing Group and markets the M20V Acclaim Ultra and M20U Ovation Ultra. Deliveries of the M20V Acclaim Ultra began in July 2017. Among Mooney's achievements are the first pressurized single-engined, piston-powered aircraft, the M22 Mustang. Many Mooney aircraft have the signature vertical stabilizer with its vertical leading edge and swept trailing edge that gives the illusion of being forward-swept. Albert Mooney had his first job in aviation at the age of 19 in 1925 when he worked for Alexander Aircraft Company in Denver, Colorado, he worked for the Marshall/Montague Monoplane Company in Marshall, Missouri in 1926, but the company had financial difficulties, Al soon returned to Alexander, where he designed the Alexander Bullet.
He was joined by his brother Arthur, known as Art. Early in 1929 Al was invited to meet with some financial backers in Wichita and the Mooney Aircraft Corporation was established with financial backing from the Bridgeport Machine Company; the company owned some buildings which could be used to design and build aircraft. Seven months Albert's M-5 airplane was test-flown. Due to the Great Depression, the Mooney Aircraft Corporation went bankrupt in 1930; the Mooney brothers worked for other aircraft companies, including the Culver Aircraft Company, from through World War II. On June 18, 1948, Albert started Mooney Aircraft Incorporated in Wichita, along with Charles Yankey, Art Mooney and W. L. McMahon; the first aircraft produced by the new Mooney company was the small single-seat Mooney Mite M-18. It was designed to appeal to the thousands of fighter pilots leaving military service; some thought the Mooney Mite looked so much like the Messerschmitt Bf 109 that they called it the "Texas Messerschmitt".
The Mite was produced into the early 1950s and established some of the design concepts still used by Mooney today. Al Mooney had been developing the designs for a four-seater plane for some time while the Mite was in production. In early 1953, the company moved to Kerrville and when it became clear that the Mite was nearing the end of its production, the development of the new plane was accelerated; the first M20 flight took place on September 3, 1953. Charles Yankey had been the primary financial backer since he helped Al establish the company in 1948, when he visited Kerrville for a ride in the new airplane, he was pleased with the project and began to develop the financial plans necessary to put the plane into production; that year, before Yankey transferred the funds from Wichita to Kerrville, he suffered a severe stroke, he died in December 1953. None of Yankey's heirs had any interest in the aviation business, although he had left his company stock to the two Mooney brothers, that stock had little value without further investment.
The company was on the point of declaring bankruptcy when two investors, Hal Rachal and Norm Hoffman of Midland, decided to step in and save the company. The M20 was certified in September 1955. Shortly thereafter, Albert Mooney left the company for unknown reasons and went to work for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Marietta, Georgia, his brother Art joined him there, both remained with Lockheed until retirement. During 1955, Mooney sold 10 of the M20 airplanes. Due to start-up costs, they lost US$3000 on each airplane. Production increased, they delivered 51 airplanes in 1956 and 105 airplanes in 1957; the M20 gained attention because it was able to achieve speeds of up to 170 miles per hour with a 150 hp Lycoming O-320 engine. The combination of speed and efficiency was noteworthy. In 1958 the M20A joined the lineup with a larger 180 hp Lycoming O-360-A1A engine, by 1959 this was the only model offered, with a total sales that year of 231 units; this was the first year. The M20A continued production into 1960.
These were the last of the Mooneys to have wooden structures in tail. Since Al Mooney's departure, John W. Taylor had been the chief engineer. In January 1960, the Mooney company convinced Ralph Harmon to leave McDonnell Aircraft and take over management of the engineering efforts, he had worked for Beech Aircraft where he headed the design of the Beechcraft Model 35, one of the first all-metal general aviation monoplanes. He worked on the larger Cessna 620 and McDonnell Model C119, but his interests lay with small aircraft, he accepted Mooney's offer, he insisted on replacing the wood in the M20 with aluminum, the all-metal M20B was completed by the end of 1960, less than a year after his arrival. In 1961 the company sold 222 M20Bs; the following year a refined version of the M20B, was introduced. Rachal and Harmon were not experienced at running an aircraft factory, but saw the need to expand the product line and add dealers, pushed ahead. In 1963 they introduced the M20D an M20C with fixed landing gear and a fixed-pitch propeller.
This had a lower price than the M20C and was intended as a basic or trainer model which would have lower insuranc
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
Isle of Man TT
The Isle of Man TT or Tourist Trophy races are an annual motorcycle sport event run on the Isle of Man in May/June of most years since its inaugural race in 1907, is called one of the most dangerous racing events in the world. The Isle of Man TT is run in a time-trial format on public roads closed to the public by an Act of Tynwald; the event consists of one week of practice sessions followed by one week of racing. It has been a tradition started by racing competitors in the early 1920s, for spectators to tour the Snaefell Mountain Course on motorcycles during the Isle of Man TT on "Mad Sunday", an informal and unofficial sanctioned event held on the Sunday between'Practice Week' and'Race Week'; the first Isle of Man TT race was held on Tuesday 28 May 1907 and was called the International Auto-Cycle Tourist Trophy. The event was organised by the Auto-Cycle Club over 10 laps of the Isle of Man St John's Short Course of 15 miles 1,470 yards for road-legal'touring' motorcycles with exhaust silencers, saddles and mudguards.
From 1911 the Isle of Man TT transferred to the much longer Snaefell Mountain Course of 37.40 miles. The race programme developed from a single race with two classes for the 1907 Isle of Man TT, expanding in 1911 to two individual races for the 350cc Junior TT motor-cycles and the Blue Riband event the 500cc Senior TT race; the race did not take place from 1915 to 1919 due to the First World War. It resumed in 1920. A 250cc Lightweight TT race was added to the Isle of Man TT programme in 1922 followed by a Sidecar TT race in 1923. There was no racing on the Isle of Man between 1945 due to the Second World War, it recommenced with the Manx Grand Prix in 1946 and the Isle of Man TT in 1947, with a expanded format that included the new Clubman's TT races. The Isle of Man TT became part of the FIM Motor-cycle Grand Prix World Championship as the British round of the World Motor-Cycling Championship during the period 1949–1976. Following safety concerns with the Snaefell Mountain Course and problems over inadequate'start-money' for competitors, there was a boycott of the Isle of Man TT races from the early 1970s by many of the leading competitors, motorcycle manufacturers and national motorcycle sporting federations.
It is still billed in popular culture as the most dangerous motorsport event in the world, with the New York Times stating the number of deaths "to 146 since it was first run in 1907. Fatalities in its history. An on-site account of the 2003 race by Sports Illustrated writer Franz Lidz called the spectacle "38 Miles of Terror... a test of nerves and speed that may be sport's most dangerous event." In 1976, the Isle of Man TT lost its world championship status. The Isle of Man TT Races became an integral part of the new style TT Formula 1, Formula 2 and Formula 3 World Championships between 1977 and 1990 to develop and maintain the international racing status of the Isle of Man TT races; the event was redeveloped by the Isle of Man Department of Tourism as the Isle of Man TT Festival from 1989 onwards. This included new racing events for the new Isle of Man TT Festival programme, including the Isle of Man Pre-TT Classic Races in 1989 followed by the Isle of Man Post-TT Races from 1991 and both held on the Billown Circuit.
In 2013, the Isle of Man Classic TT was developed by the Isle of Man Department of Economic Development and the Auto-Cycle Union for historic racing motorcycles, along with the Manx Grand Prix now forms part of the'Isle of Man Festival of Motorcycling' held in late August of each year. The event has not been without criticism. In 2007 an incident during the ` senior race' resulted in the death of two spectators; the resultant inquest made several recommendations and included several comments, such as:'Senior Marshals may well have been elevated beyond the sphere of their competence'. It noted that "I am more than aware of the fact that the witnesses from the Manx Motor Cycle Club and the marshals are all volunteers, they give their time and without paid reward. Having said that however, if it were suggested because they were volunteers there should be some allowance in the standards expected of them I regret I cannot agree' on the subject of competency." Motor racing began on the Isle of Man in 1904 with the Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial, restricted to touring automobiles.
As the Motor Car Act 1903 placed a speed restriction of 20 mph on automobiles in the UK, Julian Orde, Secretary of the Automobile Car Club of Britain and Ireland approached the authorities in the Isle of Man for the permission to race automobiles on the island's public roads. The Highways Act 1904 gave permission in the Isle of Man for the 52.15-mile Highroads Course for the 1904 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial, won by Clifford Earl in 7 hours 26.5 minutes for five laps of the Highroads Course. The 1905 Gordon Bennett Trial was held on 30 May 1905 and was again won by Clifford Earl driving a Napier automobile in 6 hours and 6 minutes for six laps of the Highroads Course; this was followed in September 1905 with the first Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Race for racing automobiles, now known as the RAC Tourist Trophy and was won by John Napier in 6 hours and 9 minutes at an average speed of 33.90 mph. For the 1905 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial it was decided to run an eliminating trial for motorcycles th
John Player & Sons
John Player & Sons, most known as Player's, was a tobacco and cigarette manufacturer based in Nottingham, England. In 1901, the company merged with other companies to form The Imperial Tobacco Company to face competition from US manufacturers; the company released several series of association football trading cards in the 1930s under the Player's brand. Nowadays the brands "Player" and "John Player Special" are owned and commercialised by Imperial Brands. In March 1820, William Wright set up a small tobacco factory in Craigshill, West Lothian; this business earned Wright a comfortable fortune. John Player bought the business in 1877, he had the Castle Tobacco Factories built in Radford, just west of the city centre. He had three large factory blocks built, but only one was used to process and pack tobacco; the other two blocks were loaned out to lace manufacturers until the business had expanded enough to use the additional space. One of John Player's innovations was to offer pre-packaged tobacco.
Before this, smokers would have bought tobacco by weight from loose supplies and cigarette papers to roll them in. He adopted a registered trade mark as a guarantee to the public that the goods could be relied on. John Player died in December 1884 and for the next nine years, the business was run by a small group of family friends until W G and J D Player were ready to take over the firm in 1893; the business became a private limited company in 1895, with a share capital of £200,000. The business was run by Player's sons John Dane Player and William Goodacre Player. In 1901, in response to competitive threats from the US, Player's merged with the Imperial Tobacco Group; the largest constituent of Imperial Tobacco was W. D. & H. O. Wills and the new group was run from Wills' head office in Bristol. Player's retained its own identity with cigarette brands such as No. 9, John Player Special, Gold Leaf. Player's Medium Navy Cut was the most popular by far of the three Navy Cut brands. Two thirds of all the cigarettes sold in Britain were Player's and two thirds of these were branded as Player's Medium Navy Cut.
In January 1937, Player's sold nearly 3.5 million cigarettes. The popularity of the brand was amongst the middle class and in the South of England, it was smoked in the north but other brands were locally more popular. Production continued to grow until at its peak in the late 1950s, Player's was employing 11,000 workers and producing 15 brands of pipe tobacco and 11 brands of cigarettes. In the UK in 1968, in response to an increase in tobacco duty in the budget, Player's launched a new, cheaper brand, "Player's No.10". Priced at 3 s 2 d for 20, it was the cheapest cigarette on the British market. A new factory was opened in the early 1970s on Nottingham's industrial outskirts, with better road access and more effective floor space, next to the headquarters of Boots the Chemists. On 15 April 2014, Imperial Tobacco announced that the Horizon factory would close in early 2016, bringing an end to cigarette and tobacco manufacture in Nottingham after over 130 years; the old factories in Radford the cavernous No. 1 Factory which occupied the whole area between Radford Boulevard and Alfreton Road, bordered by Player Street and Beckenham Road, were run down.
The No. 2 Factory, facing onto Radford Boulevard with its distinctive clock and the No. 3 factory with its rooftop'John Player & Sons' sign, were demolished in the late 1980s. The iron railings and gates onto Radford Boulevard from the present retail park are the ones that surrounded No. 2 Factory – the large gates were the entrance to the factory yard between No. 2 and No. 3 factories and the smaller gates were the pedestrian entrances to No. 2 factory itself. John Player's brands are well known in motor racing from their long association with the Lotus Formula One team, the Forsythe Racing Champ Car team, Norton motorcycle racing team. Ford introduced the John Player Special limited edition, in March 1975. Available only in black or white, the JPS featured yards of gold pinstriping to mimic the Formula 1 livery, gold-coloured wheels, a bespoke upgraded interior of beige cloth and carpet trimmed with black. John Player's sponsorship of Team Lotus began with the Lotus 49 in Gold Leaf colours in the 1968 Tasman Series.
It continued with the Lotus 49 and Lotus 72 in Formula One, changed to the black and gold John Player Special colours in 1972, ended in 1986 with the Lotus 98T. In Australia, JPS Team BMW competed in the Australian Touring Car Championship between 1981 and 1987, with Jim Richards winning the series in 1985 and 1987. In 1981, BMW released a limited-edition road version of its 323i touring car in JPS colours to the Australian market and another in 1984. Imperial Tobacco Canada's Player's brands sponsored Canadian auto racing for decades. After a blanket tobacco advertising ban was instituted in the Canadian Tobacco Act in 1988, Imperial created a new corporation, Player's Racing Ltd., an auto racing promotion company. This took advantage of an exemption in the Act that allowed tobacco companies to sponsor "cultural events" using the company's proper name instead of a brand name. Player's Ltd. advertising looked nearly identical to Player's cigarette packs, given that it was one of the few legal outlets for advertising, the company was extensively promoted both during race weekends and at ot
Monocoque structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or "single hull". First used in boats, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load-carrying internal frame. Few metal aircraft can be regarded as pure monocoques, as they use a metal shell or sheeting reinforced with frames riveted to the skin, but most of the wooden aircraft are described as monocoques though they incorporate frames. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a hybrid combining a tensile stressed skin and a compressive structure made up of longerons and ribs or frames. Other semi-monocoques, not to be confused with true monocoques, include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, inflatable shells or balloon tanks, both of which are pressure stabilised; the term is misused as a marketing term for structures built up from hollow components.
Early aircraft were constructed using frames of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as Irish linen or cotton. The fabric made a minor structural contribution in tension but none in compression and was there for aerodynamic reasons only. By considering the structure as a whole and not just the sum of its parts, monocoque construction integrated the skin and frame into a single load-bearing shell with significant improvements to strength and weight. To make the shell, thin strips of wood were laminated into a three dimensional shape. One of the earliest examples was the Deperdussin Monocoque racer in 1912, which used a laminated fuselage made up of three layers of glued poplar veneer, which provided both the external skin and the main load-bearing structure; this produced a smoother surface and reduced drag so that it was able to win most of the races it was entered into. This style of construction was further developed in Germany by LFG Roland using the patented Wickelrumpf form licensed by them to Pfalz Flugzeugwerke who used it on several fighter aircraft.
Each half of the fuselage shell was formed over a male mold using two layers of plywood strips with fabric wrapping between them. The early plywood used was prone to damage from delamination. While all-metal aircraft such as the Junkers J 1 had appeared as early as 1915, these were not monocoques but added a metal skin to an underlying framework; the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier. He had to overcome a number of problems, not least was the quality of aluminium alloys strong enough to use as structural materials, which formed layers instead of presenting a uniform material. After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, he built the Zeppelin-Lindau V1 to test out a monocoque fuselage. Although it crashed, he learned a lot from its construction; the Dornier-Zeppelin D. I was built in 1918 and although too late for operational service during the war was the first all metal monocoque aircraft to enter production. In parallel to Dornier, Zeppelin employed Adolf Rohrbach, who built the Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20, which when it flew in 1920 became the first multi-engined monocoque airliner, before being destroyed under orders of the Inter-Allied Commission.
At the end of WWI, the Inter-Allied Technical Commission published details of the last Zeppelin-Lindau flying boat showing its monocoque construction. In the UK, Oswald Short built a number of experimental aircraft with metal monocoque fuselages starting with the 1920 Short Silver Streak in an attempt to convince the air ministry of its superiority over wood. Despite advantages, aluminium alloy monocoques would not become common until the mid 1930s as a result of a number of factors, including design conservatism and production setup costs. Short would prove the merits of the construction method with a series of flying boats, whose metal hulls didn't absorb water as the wooden hulls did improving performance. In the United States, Northrop was a major pioneer, introducing techniques used by his own company and Douglas with the Northrop Alpha. In motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and only a few cars have been built with monocoque structures.
An aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car and McLaren was the first to use carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers to construct the monocoque of the 1981 McLaren MP4/1. In 1992 the McLaren F1 became the first production car with a carbon-fiber monocoque; the term monocoque is misapplied to unibody cars. Commercial car bodies are never true monocoques but instead use the unibody system, which uses box sections and tubes to provide most of the strength of the vehicle, while the skin adds little strength or stiffness; some armoured fighting vehicles use a monocoque structure with a body shell built up from armour plates, rather than attaching them to a frame. This reduces weight for a given amount of armour. Examples include the German TPz Fuchs and RG-33. French industrialist and engineer Georges Roy attempted in the 1920s to improve on the bicycle-inspired motorcycle frames of the day, which lacked rigidity; this limited their handling and therefore performance.
He applied for a patent in 1926, at the 1929 Paris Automotive Show unveiled his new motorcycle, the Art-Deco styled 1930 Majestic. Its new type of monocoque body solved the p