The Scottish Premiership was established in July 2013, after the Scottish Professional Football League was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw, no points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by points, goal difference. At the end of season, the club with the most points is crowned league champion. If points are equal, the goal difference determines the winner, if this still does not result in a winner, the tied teams must take part in a playoff game at a neutral venue to determine the final placings. The top flight of Scottish football has contained 12 clubs since the 2000–01 season, during this period the SPL and now the SPFL have operated a split format. This is done to prevent the need for a 44-game schedule and that format was used in the Scottish Premier Division, but is now considered to be too high a number of games in a league season. A season, which runs from August until May, is divided into two phases, during the first phase, each club plays three games against every other team, either once at home and twice away or vice versa.
After this first phase of matches, by which all clubs have played 33 games, the league splits into a top six. Each club plays a further five matches, one against each of the five teams in their own section. Points achieved during the first phase of 33 matches are carried forward to the second phase, but the teams compete only within their own sections during the second phase. After the first phase is completed, clubs cannot move out of their own section in the league, even if they achieve more or fewer points than a higher or lower ranked team and this is known as the league seeding and is based on clubs performance in previous years. If a club does not finish in the half where it is predicted to finish, it faces the possibility of playing a number of home. For example, one club sometimes plays another three times at home and once away, the bottom placed Premiership club at the end of the season is relegated, and swaps places with the winner of the Scottish Championship, provided that the winner satisfies Premiership entry criteria.
With the creation of the SPFL, promotion and relegation involving the top flight were introduced for the first time in 17 years. That now means the Premiership club in 11th place face the Championship play-off winners over two legs, the winner of those play-offs will earn the right to play in the Scottish Premiership the following season along with the winners of the Scottish Championship. The Scottish Football League had used playoffs between its three divisions since 2007, clubs finishing in the top positions of the Premiership will gain qualification to compete in one of UEFAs European competitions. UEFA grants European places to the Scottish Football Association, determined by the Scotlands position in the UEFA coefficients ranking system, the Scottish Football Association in turn allocate a number of these European places to final Scottish Premiership positions
Semi-Pro is a 2008 American sports comedy film from New Line Cinema. The film was directed by Kent Alterman and stars Will Ferrell, Woody Harrelson, André Benjamin, the film was shot in Los Angeles near Dodger Stadium, in Detroit, and in Flint, Michigan. It was released in theaters on February 29,2008 and was released on DVD and this was the last film from New Line Cinema before they merged with Warner Bros. The ABA Commissioner announces a plan to merge the league with the National Basketball Association, the Tropics, the worst team in the league, are in danger of dissolving. Jackie argues that the teams with the four best records should be merged, Jackie trades the teams washing machine to the Kentucky Colonels for Ed Monix, former backup point guard for the Boston Celtics. The Commissioner reveals that the Tropics will need at least 2,000 fans at every remaining home game, Jackie begins to stage extremely desperate stunts, like wrestling a bear named Dewie. The Tropics begin playing better with Monix, as well as the intensity of Clarence Withers.
Monix takes over as offensive and defensive coordinator and starting point guard, Monix trains the team rigorously with a play he calls the Puke as the players are to run it, until they throw up. From Monixs training, the Tropics go on a winning run, Jackie gets a visit from the Commissioner. The NBA does not think that Flint has a large media market. Jackie admits that he stole Love Me Sexy from a napkin his mother wrote on three weeks before she died, realizing that all his assets are basically stolen, Jackie trades Withers to the Spurs so that he may realize his dream in the NBA. Monix inspires the team to leave everything on the court, while they may not be able to continue the franchise after this season, they have come very far and still have a lot to prove. Going into the Spurs game, which Moon declares the MegaBowl, the game begins and the Tropics fall behind quickly. In the closing seconds of the first half, Jackie gets fouled hard by Petrelli while going up for a shot and is injured, Withers decides he has seen enough and rushes in to the Tropics locker rooms with the rest of the team, which angers the Spurs.
During halftime, an unconscious Jackie imagines that he is in heaven with his mother and he apologizes for stealing her song and she gives him a weapon in order to win. On the court, the Tropics reveal their new weapon, the alley-oop, with the return of Withers, it is very effective and he leads the charge. The referee calls the play a foul, but after persuasion by Jackie. The Tropics take advantage of new strategy and begin coming back
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Indoor American football
In the United States, indoor football is football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varied, the rules of football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena. The indoor football season typically begins in mid- to late-winter and ends by mid-summer, the first documented indoor football games were those played at Madison Square Garden in 1902 and 1903, known as the World Series of Pro Football. The games were played on a 70-yard by 35-yard dirt field, poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years. The first major football game was the 1932 NFL Playoff Game. A dirt floor was brought in, and to compensate for the 80-yard length of the field, in the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center. The Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one. The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, which had played at Municipal Stadium from 1959–1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia.
The game drew just over 6,000 fans and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, the end zones were slightly shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten. He devised his game while watching indoor soccer, another game derived from a sport played outdoors, when the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity. He staged a test game in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a league for a demonstration season in the spring of 1987. This resulted in the field being 50 yards long with eight-yard end zones, and the field being slightly over half as wide as a standard football field. Although it was not as much of an issue as it is now, Foster adopted artificial turf for the field, Foster adopted a modified version of eight-man football. He mandated a system that required at least six players go both ways, playing on both offensive and defensive downs. This had the desirable effect of limiting team payrolls. The placing of rebound nets around the ends of the surface and passed balls bounced off these nets.
This means that on every kicking play except an extra point attempt, either team may have a shot to regain the ball and advance it, only kicked or passed balls touching the slack nets behind the goalposts are ruled dead at that point. To further an offensive passing advantage over the defense, Foster imposed restrictions on the defensive formation
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States
Law & Order: Criminal Intent (season 1)
The first season comprises twenty-two episodes and concluded its initial airing on May 10,2002. Four actors received billing in the first season, Vincent DOnofrio, Kathryn Erbe, Jamey Sheridan. Episodes depict Detectives Robert Goren and Alexandra Eames as the lead investigators. Captain James Deakins is the direct supervisor and head of the Major Case Squad. Assistant District Attorney Ron Carver often attempts to obtain confessions from the suspects, Law & Order, Criminal Intent focusses on the actions and motives of the criminals, and divides screen time equally between the suspects and victims, and the polices investigation. The season was filmed on location in New York City, although scenes set inside the Major Case Squad department were filmed in a studio at Chelsea Piers, the season was nominated for four awards, and was described as the most impressive of all the Law & Order series. It was sold to television stations around the world, has been adapted into localized foreign versions in Russia and France.
A DVD box set of the season was released in America on October 21,2003, Law & Order, Criminal Intent is the third series in the Law & Order crime drama franchise, which was created by Dick Wolf in 1990. He developed it with René Balcer, who working on the original series during its first season. During his time on Law & Order, Balcer was promoted to head writer, show runner, episodes do not contain trials, and end in confessions rather than plea bargains or verdicts. Production began in January 2001, shooting on location in and around New York City using local color, the main set of One Police Plaza is located at Pier 62, Chelsea Piers, Manhattan. Thirteen episodes were ordered, and were completed by April 2001. Balcer was the runner, executive producer and head writer on the first season of Law & Order. Wolf was credited as a producer, as with all other Law & Order series. The first season gave co-executive producers credits to Peter Jankowski, Fred Berner, Geoffrey Neigher, John L. Roman, Roz Weinman, and Eric Overmyer were named producers, with Michael Kewley a co-producer.
Theresa Rebeck and Marlane Meyer were consulting producers, twelve people directed, and nine people wrote the twenty-two episodes, Constantine Makris directed four episodes, and Balcer wrote or co-wrote ten episodes. Movie actor Vincent DOnofrio was offered the role of Detective Robert Goren. Other than a 1998 guest role on Homicide, Life on the Street that earned him an Emmy nomination, gorens partner, former vice squad detective Alexandra Eames, was played by Kathryn Erbe who had just completed a role on Oz as convicted murderer Shirley Bellinger
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration. The distinction is made between amateur sporting participants and professional sporting participants, who are financially remunerated for the time they spend competing and training, the majority of worldwide sporting participants are amateurs. Modern organized sports developed in the 19th century, with the United Kingdom, sporting culture was especially strong in private schools and universities, and the upper and middle class men who attended these institutions played as amateurs. Opportunities for working classes to participate in sport were restricted by their long six-day work weeks, in the UK, the Factory Act of 1844 gave working men half a day off, making the opportunity to take part in sport more widely available. Working class sportsmen found it hard to top level sport due to the need to turn up to work. On occasion, cash prizes, particularly in competitions, could make up the difference.
Proponents of the amateur ideal deplored the influence of money and the effect it has on sports, working class sportsmen didnt see why they shouldnt be paid to play. Hence there were competing interests between those who wished sport to be open to all and those who feared that professionalism would destroy the Corinthian spirit and this conflict played out over the course of more than one hundred years. Corinthian has come to describe the most virtuous of amateur athletes—those for whom fairness, to that end, club rules ensured that crews consisted of amateurs, while no professional or paid hand is allowed to touch the tiller or in any way assist in steering. The earlier origins of the term are somewhat murky, though it must certainly be linked to the Isthmian games of ancient Corinth, it more proximately originates from common slang usage in early 19th century England. The Seawhanaka Yacht Club—founded in 1874—added Corinthian to its name in 1881, the Corinthian Football Club was founded in 1882.
The Corinthian Yacht Club was founded in 1886 in Tiburon, California in the United States, the Yale Yacht Club was renamed the Yale Corinthian Yacht Club in 1893. By the early 21st century the Olympic Games and all the team sports accepted professional competitors. However, there are some sports which maintain a distinction between amateur and professional status with separate competitive leagues. The most prominent of these are golf and boxing, in particular, only amateur boxers could compete at the Olympics up to 2016. This may jeopardise their status as amateurs, and if allowed to let slide, where professionals are permitted, it is hard for amateurs to compete against them. Whether this is a triumph of capitalism or an example of corruption depends on the viewers perspective, to some an amateur means an incompetent or also-ran, and to others it means an idealist. To say that the athlete should not be paid can prevent performances only possible for an athlete who is free to pursue the sport full-time without other sources of income, the term shamateurism is used to describe state-sponsored athletes
Minor League Baseball
All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses. Most are members of the organization known as Minor League Baseball. Several leagues, known as independent baseball leagues, do not have any links to Major League Baseball. Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball teams may enter into a PDC for a two- or four-year term. At the expiration of a PDC term, teams may renew their affiliation, or sign new PDCs with different clubs, though many relationships are renewed and endure for extended time periods. Minor League teams that are owned directly by the major league club do not have PDCs with each other and are not part of the reaffiliation shuffles that occur every other year, several more independent leagues operate in the United States and Canada. The earliest professional baseball association, the National Association of 1871 to 1875 and this system proved unworkable, however, as there was no way to ensure competitive balance, and financially unsound clubs often failed in midseason.
This problem was solved in 1876 with the formation of the National League, with a membership which excluded less competitive. Professional clubs outside the National League responded by forming regional associations of their own, there was a series of ad hoc groupings, such as the New England Association of 1877 and the Eastern Championship Association of 1881. These were loose groups of independent clubs which agreed to play a series of games for a championship pennant, the first minor league is traditionally considered to be the Northwestern League of 1883 to 1884. Unlike the earlier minor associations, it was conceived as a permanent organization and it also, along with the National League and the American Association, was a party to the National Agreement of 1883. Included in this was the agreement to respect the reserve lists of clubs in each league, teams in the National League and the American Association could only reserve players who had been paid at least $1000. Northwest League teams could reserve players paid merely $750, implicitly establishing the division into major and minor leagues, over the next two decades, more minor leagues signed various versions of the National Agreement.
Eventually, the minor leagues joined together to negotiate jointly, in the late 1890s, the Western League run by the fiery Ban Johnson decided to challenge the National Leagues position. Representatives of the different minor leagues met at the Leland Hotel in Chicago on September 5,1901, in response to the National–American battle, they agreed to form the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, called the NAPBL, or NA for short. The purpose of the NA at the time was to maintain the independence of the leagues involved, several did not sign the agreement and continued to work independently. Powers was made the first president of the NAPBL, whose offices were established in Auburn, in 1903, the conflict between the American and National Leagues ended in the National Agreement of 1903. The NAPBL became involved in the stages of the negotiations to develop rules for the acquisition of players from their leagues by the National
Rugby league in England
Rugby league is played across England but is most popular in Northern England, especially Yorkshire and Lancashire where the game originated. These areas are the heartland of rugby league and in many northern English towns the code is as, if not more, the sport is popular in Cumbria where the amateur game is particularly powerful. See also, History of rugby league Rugby has long been popular in the North of England, the game was popular amongst working class people, unlike the clubs in Southern England whose players belonged to the middle or upper class. The principle of amateurism, and issues of class ensured that the Rugby Football Union would not countenance professional rugby, in August 1895, representatives of the northern clubs met at the George Hotel, Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union. The NRFU was initially vehemently anti-professional, allowing payments for time missed from other employment. A thriving amateur scene developed, as local amateur clubs wished to maintain links with their Northern Union neighbours.
The Northern Union made reforms to the laws in 1897 and again in 1906 in an effort make the more exciting. This resulted in Northern Union football becoming a sport in its own rather than a form of rugby union. The sport spread outside England and soon international matches began to be played, the first international match was played in 1904 as England was beaten 9-3 at Central Park, Wigan by Other Nationalities. This was followed by a tour of Britain by New Zealand in 1907, New Zealand met Great Britain in Great Britains first ever Test match at Headingley, Leeds on 18 January 1908. The same year the first Australian Kangaroos tourists visited Britain, in 1910 the first British tour to Australia and New Zealand took place. The Challenge Cup began in 1897 with Batley beating St Helens to win the first title, the final was first broadcast by BBC radio in 1927. The Wembley tradition was started in 1929 when Wigan beat Dewsbury 13-2 at the first Rugby League Challenge Cup to be held at Wembley, the NRFU became the Rugby Football League in 1922.
The 1930s saw a series of failed attempts to introduce rugby league football to London, in 1948 the first televised rugby league match was played when Wigans 8–3 Challenge Cup Final victory over Bradford Northern was broadcast to the Midlands. In another first this was the first rugby match to be attended by the reigning monarch, King George VI. Nonetheless the game survived, and continued to maintain popularity in its home regions, the introduction of regular internationals as other countries took up the sport provided a fillip. Rugby league experienced a surge in interest following the end of the Second World War, large crowds came to be the norm for a period of around 20 years. The total crowds for the British season hit a record in 1949–50, the boom had begun to subside by the early 1960s, rugby league now had to compete against television and other new forms of entertainment and attendances began to fall
A semiprofession is an occupation that requires sophisticated knowledge and skills, but is not regarded as a true profession. Traditional examples of semiprofessions include social work, librarianship, the question of whether nursing is properly considered a semiprofession in the present day is hotly debated. Arguments in favor of continuing to regard nursing as a semiprofession have included the toleration of part-time work, one group especially tied to this term, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, published a list of twelve checkpoints they believe help define a semiprofession. Historical Dictionary of Womens Education in the United States
Football in England
Today Englands top domestic league, the Premier League, is one of the most popular and richest sports leagues in the world, with six of the ten richest football clubs in the world. The England national football team is one of only 8 teams to win the World Cup, a total of five English club teams have won the UEFA Champions League. Football was played in England as far back as medieval times, kicking ball games are described in England from 1280. An account of an exclusively kicking game from Nottinghamshire in the fifteenth century bears similarity to association football. By the 16th centuries references to organised teams and goals had appeared, there is evidence for refereed, team football games being played in English schools since at least 1581. The eighteenth-century Gymnastic Society of London is, the worlds first football club, the Cambridge rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football.
The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby, during the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised a set of rules. These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, the Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games. A match between Sheffield and Hallam F. C. on 29 December 1862 was one of the first matches to be recorded in a newspaper, on 8 March 1873, the England national teams 4–2 win over Scotland at the Oval was the first ever victory in international football. The late nineteenth century was dominated by the split between the amateur and professional teams, which was roughly aligned along a North-South divide. Northern clubs were keen to adopt professionalism as workers could not afford to play on an amateur basis, preston North End were inaugural winners in 1888–89, and were the first club to complete the double of both winning the league and the FA Cup.
Aston Villa repeated the feat in 1896–97 and it remained at 40 until the league was suspended after the 1914–15 season with the outbreak of World War I. Other clubs to win titles in this period include Sheffield United, Manchester United. During the war, competitive football was suspended, however, an unofficial Wartime Football league was played from 1915–16 to 1918–19, although the FA Cup was suspended until after the war. The next season the league was expanded with the Third Division divided into North and South sections. In the 1923–24 season the Third Division North was expanded to 22 clubs, Bolton Wanderers defeated West Ham United to win this landmark game. Bolton Wanderers would win the FA Cup on three occasions during the 1920s, by the turn of the 1930s, the national side regularly played against other national teams from outside the British Isles