An academy is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at institutes of higher learning; the name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece. The word comes from the Academy in ancient Greece, which derives from Akademos. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning; the sacred space, dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, had been an olive grove, hence the expression "the groves of Academe". In these gardens, the philosopher Plato conversed with followers. Plato developed his sessions into a method of teaching philosophy and in 387 BC, established what is known today as the Old Academy. By extension academia has come to mean the cultural accumulation of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations and its practitioners and transmitters.
In the 17th century, British and French scholars used the term to describe types of institutions of higher learning. Before Akademia was a school, before Cimon enclosed its precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, outside the city walls of ancient Athens; the archaic name for the site was Hekademia, which by classical times evolved into Akademia and was explained, at least as early as the beginning of the 6th century BC, by linking it to an Athenian hero, a legendary "Akademos". The site of Akademia was sacred to other immortals. Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were Speusippus, Polemon and Arcesilaus. Scholarchs include Lacydes of Cyrene, Carneades and Philo of Larissa. Other notable members of Akademia include Aristotle, Heraclides Ponticus, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philip of Opus and Antiochus of Ascalon. After a lapse during the early Roman occupation, Akademia was refounded as a new institution of some outstanding Platonists of late antiquity who called themselves "successors" and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching back to Plato.
However, there cannot have been any geographical, economic or personal continuity with the original Academy in the new organizational entity. The last "Greek" philosophers of the revived Akademia in the 6th century were drawn from various parts of the Hellenistic cultural world and suggest the broad syncretism of the common culture: Five of the seven Akademia philosophers mentioned by Agathias were Syriac in their cultural origin: Hermias and Diogenes, Isidorus of Gaza, Damascius of Syria, Iamblichus of Coele-Syria and even Simplicius of Cilicia; the emperor Justinian closed the school in AD 529, a date, cited as the end of Antiquity. According to the sole witness, the historian Agathias, its remaining members looked for protection under the rule of Sassanid king Khosrau I in his capital at Ctesiphon, carrying with them precious scrolls of literature and philosophy, to a lesser degree of science. After a peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empire in 532 guaranteed their personal security, some members found sanctuary in the pagan stronghold of Harran, near Edessa.
One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius, a pupil of Damascius, the last head of the Athenian school. It has been speculated. After his exile, may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa. From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method. Arcesilaus, a Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneades, another student, established the New Academy. In 335 BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium; the library of Alexandria in Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy and mathematics. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktu, present-day Mali, which comprised three schools: the Mosque of Djinguereber, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, the Mosque of Sankore.
During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25,000 students within a city of around 100,000 people. In China a higher education institution Shang Xiang was founded by Shun in the Youyu era before the 21st century BC; the Imperial Central Academy at Nanjing, founded in 258, was a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties in 470, which became Nanjing University. In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuan, which were privately owned. There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times; the degrees from them varied from one to another and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan can be classified as higher institutions of learning. Taxila or Takshashila, in ancient India, modern-day Pakistan, was an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila, it is considered as one
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
The Bengali Wikipedia or Bangla Wikipedia is the Bengali language edition of Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia. Launched in January 27, 2004, it surpassed 10,000 articles in October 2006, becoming the second South-Asian language to do so. In 14 April 2019, total article crossed 65,997 articles with 919 active editors per month. In 2018, Bengali Wikipedia was viewed about 190 million times from all over the world. On an average, the site was viewed over 500 thousand times a day; as of January 2019, Bengali Wikipedia is the only online free encyclopedia written in Bengali language. It is one of the largest Bengali content related sites on the internet; the mobile version of Bengali Wikipedia was launched in 2010. It has a phonetic Latin alphabet to Bengali script tool so Latin alphabet keyboards can be used to type Bengali without downloading any software. Community-produced news publications include WikiBarta. In February 2002, the developers started creating language-code based sub-domains for different language Wikipedias.
Along with other Wikipedia sub-domains, Bengali language sub-domain was created at that time. A placeholder page was created automatically in that sub-domain on June 1, 2002. On December 9, 2003, A Bangladeshi Ph. D. student of Canada's McGill University named Shah Asaduzzaman emailed Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales with a request to create Bengali Wikipedia. As a result, the developers created a test page on the Wikipedia named "Home Page" on December 26 of the same year; the Main Page of Bengali Wikipedia was created on January 27, 2004 from an IP address which marks the official beginning of Bengali Wikipedia.'বাংলা ভাষা' is the first article of Bengali Wikipedia, created on May 24, 2004. Bengali Wikipedia started its journey in January 27, 2004. Back the people of Bangladesh had a little interest in Wikipedia. A few students and scholars used the English Wikipedia, but it was not accountable. Besides that, there were various difficulties contributing in Bengali; the whole scenario has been changed in 2006.
During that time, the Bengali blogging world was growing and many people became accustomed to Bengali computing where a free and open-source Bengali typing tool, Avro Keyboard played a key role. On March 25, 2006, a Wiki team was created by the ‘Bangladesh Open Source Network’ to popularize Wikipedia throughout the country; the aim was to represent the country to the world through Wikipedia and build a complete encyclopedia in Bengali. At that time, Bengali Wikipedia had only 500 articles. ‘BdOSN wiki team’ managed to spread the word through some newspapers and start a Bengali Wiki mailing list. Soon, many Bengali-speaking people from Bangladesh and abroad joined them in this dynamic project; as a result, by the end of the October, Bengali Wikipedia got to 10,000 articles. Among the South Asian language Wikipedias, Bengali Wikipedia reached that milestone first, many of these articles were illustrated with photos from the demonstrator of Bengali Language Movement Dr. Rafiqul Islam, who donated all his historical photographs taken during the language movement to Wikimedia Commons.
One of the pioneer of the Bengali Wikipedia, Dr. Ragib Hasan said that “The biggest challenge was writing something on internet in Bengali; the Bengali Unicode was not supported on most operating systems, only few websites on the internet supported Bengali Unicode, users had difficulties configuring it. Moreover, the idea of writing something with Bengali Unicode was new. … in the beginning, the idea of a Wikipedia in Bengali was not workable.” Between 2009 and 2010, Bengali speakers from West Bengal, India started to contribute to Bengali Wikipedia. In the meantime, the Wikimedia Foundation started their operations and in October 3, 2011 a local chapter named Wikimedia Bangladesh was approved in Bangladesh by the Foundation to promote educational content in Bengali. On February 26, 2015, Jimmy Wales, the co-founder of Wikipedia—visited Bangladesh for a celebration program, organized by Wikimedia Bangladesh to mark the tenth year of Bengali Wikipedia. In his keynote, Jimmy said that according to the article depth, Bengali Wikipedia is rated quite well.
Bengali Wikipedia now has 65,997 articles on various topics with 919 active editors per month. As of January 2019, Bengali Wikipedia is the only online free encyclopedia written in Bengali language, it is one of the largest Bengali content related sites on the internet. Over the years, there have been confusion in Bangladeshi media regarding some information of Bengali Wikipedia. In April 2018, Bangladeshi print and electronic media reported that Wikipedia named Runa Laila, a renowned singer from Bangladesh, among it's Top 30 Bengali people of all time; this confusion arises due to the use of a collage image in the Bengalis article's infobox at Bengali and English version of Wikipedia. In August of the same year, an unregistered user added fake date of death in Muhammed Zafar Iqbal's article, which attracted media attention. Wikimedia Bangladesh History of Wikipedia Reliability of Wikipedia Wikipedia community Bengali Wikipedia Bengali Wikipedia mobile
Web conferencing may be used as an umbrella term for various types of online collaborative services including web seminars and peer-level web meetings. It may be used in a more narrow sense to refer only to the peer-level web meeting context, in an attempt to disambiguate it from the other types of collaborative sessions. Terminology related to these technologies is inexact, no agreed upon source or standards organization exists to provide an established usage reference. In general, web conferencing is made possible by Internet technologies on TCP/IP connections. Services may allow real-time point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers, it offers data streams of text-based messages and video chat to be shared across geographically dispersed locations. Applications for web conferencing include meetings, training events, lectures, or presentations from a web-connected computer to other web-connected computers. Web conferencing software is invoked by all participants in a web meeting.
Some technologies include functionality that differs for presenters and attendees. Software may run as a web browser application. Other web conferencing technologies require download and installation of software on each participant's computer, invoked as a local application. Many web conferencing vendors provide the central connectivity and provisioning of meeting "ports" or "seats" as a hosted web service, while others allow the web conference host to install and run the software on its own local servers. Another installation option from certain vendors allows for use of a proprietary computer appliance, installed at the hosting company's physical location. Depending on the technology being used, participants may speak and listen to audio over standard telephone lines or via computer microphones and speakers; some products allow for use of a webcam to display participants, while others may require their own proprietary encoding or externally provided encoding of a video feed, displayed in the session.
Vendor-hosted web conferencing is licensed as a service based on one of three pricing models: a fixed cost per user per minute, a monthly or annual flat fee allowing unlimited use with a fixed maximum capacity per session, or a sliding rate fee based on the number of allowed meeting hosts and per-session participants. Presentation of visual materials most is accomplished through one of two primary methodologies; the web conferencing software may show participants an image of the presenter's computer screen. Again, depending upon the product, the software may show the entire visible desktop area or may allow selection of a physical area or application running on the presenter's computer; the second method relies on an conversion process. The term "webinar" is a portmanteau of web and seminar, meaning a presentation, lecture, or workshop, transmitted over the web; the coined term has been attacked for improper construction. Webinar was included on the Lake Superior University 2008 List of Banished Words, but was included in the Merriam-Webster dictionary that same year.
The term "webcast" derives from its original similarity to a television broadcast. Early usage referred purely to transmission and consumption of streaming audio and video via the World Wide Web. Over time, webcast software vendors have added many of the same functional capabilities found in webinar software, blurring the distinction between the two terms. Webcasts are now to allow audience response to polls, text communication with presenters or other audience members, other two-way communications that complement the consumption of the streamed audio/video content. Other typical features of a web conference include: Slideshow presentations - where images are presented to the audience and markup tools and a remote mouse pointer are used to engage the audience while the presenter discusses slide content. Live or streaming video - where full motion webcam, digital video camera or multi-media files are pushed to the audience. VoIP - Real time audio communication through the computer via use of headphones and speakers.
Web tours - where URLs, data from forms, cookies and session data can be pushed to other participants enabling them to be pushed through web-based logons, etc. This type of feature works well when demonstrating websites where users themselves can participate. Meeting Recording - where presentation activity is recorded on the client side or server side for viewing and/or distribution. Whiteboard with annotation Text chat - For live question and answer sessions, limited to the people connected to the meeting. Text chat may be private. Polls and surveys Screen sharing/desktop sharing/application sharing Web conferencing technologies are not standardized, which has reduced interoperability and t
A poster presentation, at a congress or conference with an academic or professional focus, is the presentation of research information peer-reviewed work, in the form of a paper poster that conference participants may view. A poster session is an event. Poster sessions are prominent at scientific conferences such as medical congresses. A separate room or area of a trade show floor is reserved for the poster session where researchers accompany a paper poster, illustrating their research methods and outcomes; each research project is presented on a conference schedule for a period ranging from 10 minutes to several hours. Large events may feature a few thousand poster presentations over a matter of a few days. Presentations consist of affixing the research poster to a portable wall with the researcher in attendance answering questions posed by passing colleagues; the poster itself varies in size according to conference guidelines from 2x3 feet to 4x8 feet in dimensions. Posters are created using a presentation program such as PowerPoint and may be printed on a large format printer.
Posters are printed on a glossy base and laminated with plastic to improve durability. During the last couple of years, traditional paper poster sessions have started a transition to digital interactive posters, using browser-based platforms; the authors create their posters through an online tool and these posters are presented on touchscreens at the event. As opposed to their predecessor, these posters contain multimedia components, such as audio files, HD-video, high-resolution images and live links to other web pages. Thanks to its online nature, the poster can be shared with everyone, before and after the event. Abstract management Academic conference Creating Effective Poster Presentations, North Carolina State University
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
An academic conference or scientific conference is a event for researchers to present and discuss their work. Together with academic or scientific journals, conferences provide an important channel for exchange of information between researchers. Conferences encompass various presentations, they tend to be concise, with a time span of about 10 to 30 minutes. The work may be bundled in written form as academic papers and published as the conference proceedings. A conference will include keynote speakers; the keynote lecture is longer, lasting sometimes up to an hour and a half if there are several keynote speakers on a panel. In addition to presentations, conferences feature panel discussions, round tables on various issues, poster sessions and workshops; some conferences take more interactive formats, such as the participant driven "unconference" or various conversational formats. Some academic conferences include the Artificial Intelligence International Conference, TED, Festival of Marketing, AliensFest.
Prospective presenters are asked to submit a short abstract of their presentation, which will be reviewed before the presentation is accepted for the meeting. Some disciplines require presenters to submit a paper of about 6–15 pages, peer reviewed by members of the program committee or referees chosen by them. In some disciplines, such as English and other languages, it is common for presenters to read from a prepared script. In other disciplines such as the sciences, presenters base their talk around a visual presentation that displays key figures and research results. A large meeting will be called a conference, while a smaller is termed a workshop, they might be single track or multiple track, where the former has only one session at a time, while a multiple track meeting has several parallel sessions with speakers in separate rooms speaking at the same time. The larger the conference, the more it is that academic publishing houses may set up displays. Large conferences may have a career and job search and interview activities.
At some conferences, social or entertainment activities such as tours and receptions can be part of the program. Business meetings for learned societies or interest groups can be part of the conference activities. Academic conferences fall into three categories: the themed conference, small conferences organized around a particular topic; these conferences are organized by regional, national, or international learned societies, held annually or on some other regular basis. The professional conference, large conferences not limited to academics but with academically related issues. Increasing numbers of amplified conferences are being provided which exploit the potential of WiFi networks and mobile devices in order to enable remote participants to contribute to discussions and listen to ideas. Advanced technology for meeting with any yet unknown person in a conference is performed by active RFID that may indicate wilfully identified and located upon approach via electronic tags. Conferences are organized either by a scientific society or by a group of researchers with a common interest.
Larger meetings may be handled on behalf of the scientific society by a Professional Conference Organiser or PCO. The meeting is announced by way of a Call For Papers or a Call For Abstracts, sent to prospective presenters and explains how to submit their abstracts or papers, it describes the broad theme and lists the meeting's topics and formalities such as what kind of abstract or paper has to be submitted, to whom, by what deadline. A CFP is distributed using a mailing list or on specialized online services. Contributions are submitted using an online abstract or paper management service. There has been a call for more sustainable academic conferencing, as flying to and consumption at conferences is one of the largest components of an academics environmental footprint. However, few conferences have enacted practices to reduce their environmental impact, despite guidelines being available. An analysis of academic conferences taking place in 2016, showed that only 4% of 116 conferences sampled offered carbon offset options and only 9% of these conferences implemented any form of action to their reduce environmental impact.
There have been accusations for scam, or fraudulent conferences.