Teatro Calderón, Valladolid
The Teatro Calderón de la Barca is a theater in Valladolid, Spain. It is named after the playwright Pedro Calderón de la Barca; the site of the theater was occupied until the mid-nineteenth century by the palace of the Duke of Osuna, Admiral of Castile, demolished to make way for the theatre. Jerónimo de la Gándara was the architect. One of the largest theaters in Spain, the facade has an eclectic neo-classical style; the Calderón opened in 1864. The interior has a horseshoe shape in the Italian style; the paint work and sets were created by the celebrated decorator Augusto Ferri. The Art Nouveau side lamps date from the early twentieth century. Other rooms were a coffee shop, a library decorated with many paintings, a banquet room; the magnificent and lavishly decorated building became one of the main theaters in Spain when it opened. Over the years it experienced downs. Since 1973 the theater has been the permanent home of Seminci, the Semana Internacional de Cine de Valladolid, or Valladolid International Film Festival.
In the 1990s a major renovation was undertaken by the architects Jaime Nadal and Sebastian Araujo, on 9 April 1999 the theatre was reopened by Queen Sofía of Spain. Since its stage has been used by several national theater companies, by both national and international dance companies
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Cinema of Germany
The film industry in Germany can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema made major technical and artistic contributions to early film and television technology. Babelsberg became a household synonym for the early 20th century film industry in Europe, similar to Hollywood later. Germany witnessed major changes to its identity during the 21st century; those changes determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements. The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to the years shortly after the medium's birth. On November 1, 1895 Max Skladanowsky and his brother Emil demonstrated their self-invented film projector the Bioscop at the Wintergarten music hall in Berlin. A 15-minute series of eight short films, it was the first screening of films to a paying audience in Europe; this performance pre-dated the first paying public display of the Lumière brothers' Cinematographe in Paris on December 28 of the same year, a performance that Max Skladanowsky attended and at which he was able to ascertain that the Cinematographe was technically superior to his Bioscop.
Other German film pioneers included the Berliners Oskar Messter and Max Gliewe, two of several individuals who independently in 1896 first used a Geneva drive in a projector, the cinematographer Guido Seeber. In its earliest days, the cinematograph was perceived as an attraction for upper class audiences, but the novelty of moving pictures did not last long. Soon, trivial short films were being shown as fairground attractions aimed at the working class and lower-middle class; the booths in which these films were shown were known in Germany somewhat disparagingly as Kintopps. Film-makers with an artistic bent attempted to counter this view of cinema with longer movies based on literary models, the first German "artistic" films began to be produced from around 1910, an example being the Edgar Allan Poe adaptation The Student of Prague, co-directed by Paul Wegener and Stellan Rye, photographed by Guido Seeber and starring actors from Max Reinhardt's company. Early film theorists in Germany began to write about the significance of Schaulust, or "visual pleasure", for the audience, including the Dada movement writer Walter Serner: "If one looks to where cinema receives its ultimate power, into these strangely flickering eyes that point far back into human history it stands there in all its massiveness: visual pleasure."
Visually striking sets and makeup were key to the style of the expressionist films that were produced shortly after World War I. Cinemas themselves began to be established landmarks in the years before World War I. Before this, German filmmakers would tour with their works, travelling from fairground to fairground; the earliest ongoing cinemas were set up in cafes and pubs by owners who saw a way of attracting more customers. The storefront cinema was called a Kientopp, this is where films were viewed for the most part before World War I; the first standalone, dedicated cinema in Germany was opened in Mannheim in 1906, by 1910, there were over 1000 cinemas operating in Germany. Henny Porten and Asta Nielsen were the first major film stars in Germany. Prior to 1914, many foreign films were imported. In the era of the silent film there were no language boundaries and Danish and Italian films were popular in Germany; the public's desire to see more films with particular actors led to the development in Germany, as elsewhere, of the phenomenon of the film star.
Public desire to see popular film stories being continued encouraged the production of film serials in the genre of mystery films, where the director Fritz Lang began his illustrious career. The outbreak of World War I and the subsequent boycott of, for example, French films left a noticeable gap in the market. By 1916, there existed some 2000 fixed venues for movie performances and film screenings were supplemented or replaced by variety turns. In 1917 a process of concentration and partial nationalisation of the German film industry began with the founding of Universum Film AG, a reaction to the effective use that the Allied Powers had found for the new medium for the purpose of propaganda. Under the aegis of the military, so-called Vaterland films were produced, which equalled the Allies' films in the matter of propaganda and disparagement of the enemy. Audiences however did not care to swallow the patriotic medicine without the accompanying sugar of the light-entertainment films which Ufa promoted.
The German film industry soon became the largest in Europe. The German film industry, protected during the war by the ban on foreign films import, became exposed at the end of the war to the international film industry while having to face an embargo, this time on its own films. Many countries banned the import of German films and audiences themselves were resisting anything, "German". In addition, the economic situation was unstable and the devaluation of the currency made it difficult for the smaller production companies to function. Film industry financing was a fragile business and expensive productions led to bankruptcy. In 1925 UFA itself was forced to go into a disadvantageous partnership called Parufamet with the American studios Paramount and MGM, before being taken over by the nationalist industrialist and newspaper owner Alfred Hugenberg in 1927; the German film industry enjoyed an unprecedented development – during the 14 years which comprise the Weimar period, an average of 250 film were being pro
Yasujirō Ozu was a Japanese film director and screenwriter. He began his career during the era of silent films, his last films were made in color in the early 1960s. Ozu first made a number of short comedies, before turning to more serious themes in the 1930s; the most prominent themes of Ozu's work are marriage and family the relationships between generations. His most acclaimed films include Late Spring, Tokyo Story, Floating Weeds, An Autumn Afternoon, his reputation has continued to grow since his death, he is regarded as one of the world's most influential directors. In the 2012 Sight & Sound poll, Ozu's Tokyo Story was voted the greatest film of all time by world directors. Ozu was born in the Fukagawa district of the second son of five brothers and sisters, his father sold fertilizer. Ozu attended primary school. In March 1913, at the age of nine, he and his siblings were sent by his father to live in his father's home town of Matsusaka in Mie Prefecture, where he remained until 1924. In March 1916, at the age of 12, he entered.
He did judo. He skipped classes to watch films such as Quo Vadis or The Last Days of Pompeii. In 1917, he decided that he wanted to be a film director. In 1920, at the age of 17, he was thrown out of the dormitory after being accused of writing a love letter to a good-looking boy in a lower class, had to commute to school by train. In March 1921, Ozu graduated from the high school, he attempted the exam for entrance into what is now Kobe University's economics department, but failed. In 1922, he failed it too. On 31 March, 1922, he began working as a substitute teacher at a school in the Mie prefecture, he is said to have traveled the long journey from the school in the mountains to watch films on the weekend. In December 1922, his family, with the exception of Ozu and his sister, moved back to Tokyo to live with his father. In March 1923, when his sister graduated, he returned to live in Tokyo. With his uncle acting as intermediary, Ozu was hired by the Shochiku Film Company, as an assistant in the cinematography department, on August 1, 1923, against the wishes of his father.
His family home was destroyed in the earthquake of 1923. On December 12, 1924, Ozu started a year of military service, he finished his military service on 30 November 1925. In 1926, he became a third assistant director at Shochiku. In 1927, he was involved in a fracas where he punched another employee for jumping a queue at the studio cafeteria, when called to the studio director's office, used it as an opportunity to present a film script he had written. In September 1927, he was promoted to director in the jidaigeki department, directed his first film, Sword of Penitence, which has since been lost. Sword of Penitence was written by Ozu, with a screenplay by Kogo Noda, who would become his co-writer for the rest of his career. On September 25, he was called up for service in the military reserves until November, which meant that the film had to be finished by another director. In 1928, Shiro Kido, the head of the Shochiku studio, decided that the company would concentrate on making short comedy films without star actors.
Ozu made many films in this particular series. The film Body Beautiful, released on 1 December 1928, was the first Ozu film to use a low camera position, which would become his trademark. After a series of "no star" pictures, in September 1929, Ozu's first film with stars, I graduated But... starring Minoru Takada and Kinuyo Tanaka, was released. In January 1930, he was entrusted with Shochiku's top star, Sumiko Kurishima, in her new year film, An Introduction to Marriage, his subsequent films of 1930 impressed Shiro Kido enough to invite Ozu on a trip to a hot spring. In his early works, Ozu used the pseudonym "James Maki" for his screenwriting credit, his film Young Miss, with an all-star cast, was the first time he used the pen name James Maki, was his first film to appear in film magazine Kinema Jumpo's "Best Ten" at third position. In 1932, his I Was Born, But... a comedy about childhood with serious overtones, was received by movie critics as the first notable work of social criticism in Japanese cinema, winning Ozu wide acclaim.
In 1935 Ozu made a short documentary with soundtrack: Kagami Shishi, in which Kokiguro VI performed a Kabuki dance of the same title. This was made by request of the Ministry of Education. Like the rest of Japan's cinema industry, Ozu was slow to switch to the production of talkies: his first film with a dialogue sound-track was The Only Son in 1936, five years after Japan's first talking film, Heinosuke Gosho's The Neighbor's Wife and Mine. On September 9, 1937, at a time when Shochiku was unhappy about Ozu's lack of box-office success, despite the praise he received from critics, the thirty-four-year-old Ozu was conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army, he spent two years in China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. He arrived in Shanghai on September 27, 1937 as part of an infantry regiment which handled chemical weapons, he started as a corporal but was promoted to sergeant on June 1, 1938. From January until September 1938 he was stationed in Nanjing, where he met Sadao Yamanaka, stationed nearby.
In September, Yamanaka died of illness. In 1939, Ozu was dispatched to Hankou, where he fought in the Battle of Nanchang and the Battle of Xiushui River. In June, he was ordered back to Japan, arriving in Kobe in July, his conscription ended on July 16, 1939. In 1939, he wrote the first draft of the script f
Ermanno Olmi was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Olmi was born in the Lombardy region in northern Italy; when Olmi was three years old, his family moved to Milan, where he attended a scientific high school and took acting classes at the Academy of Dramatic Arts. He became interested in filmmaking while he was working at the Milanese electrical company Edisonvolta, where he began by producing 16mm documentaries about power plants. In 1963 he married Loredana Detto. Another early film was I fidanzati, his best known film is The Tree of Wooden Clogs, awarded the Palme d'Or at the 1978 Cannes Film Festival. The film drew on Olmi's grandmother's stories about peasant life in agricultural regions of Italy. In 1983 his film Walking, Walking was screened out of competition at Cannes. In 1988, his La leggenda del santo bevitore, based on the novella by Joseph Roth and starring Rutger Hauer, won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival as well as a David di Donatello award, his The Profession of Arms won a David di Donatello award.
In 2008 he received the Honorary Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. Olmi died after a long battle with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Olmi's films have been described as "humanistic and reflective, portraying everyday people in particular landscapes and locations, while at the same time being charged with social comment and poetic flashes."His films fit into the artistic mold of Italian neorealism, though Olmi argued, in an interview found on the Criterion Edition DVD of his 1961 film, Il Posto, that this was the artistic tradition he was responding against because he used non-actors in authentic locations whereas neorealism, he claimed, used professional actors. However, many neorealist directors used non-professional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles, his films, like most of those considered to be products of the neorealist movement, are shot in long, slow takes, contain some sort of social commentary, though do the neorealists wear their political opinions on their sleeves.
1978: Palme d'Or for The Tree of Wooden Clogs 1988: Golden Lion for The Legend of the Holy Drinker 2004: Leopard of Honour 2008: Honorary Golden Lion 1962: Best Director for Il Posto 1989: Best Director for The Legend of the Holy Drinker 2002: Best Director for The Profession of Arms 1979: Best Director for The Tree of Wooden Clogs 1989: Best Director for The Legend of the Holy Drinker Time Stood Still Il Posto The Fiances A Man Named John One Fine Day The Circumstance The Tree of Wooden Clogs Walking, Walking Long Live the Lady! The Legend of the Holy Drinker The Secret of the Old Woods Genesis: The Creation and the Flood The Profession of Arms Singing Behind Screens One Hundred Nails The Cardboard Village Greenery Will Bloom Again In February 2016, the Cinémathèque suisse honored Olmi with a retrospective at the cinema "Le Capitole" in Lausanne. From January 10 to February 28, 2019, the Austrian Film Museum conducted a complete retrospective of Olmi's work - together with the films of Federico Fellini - in collaboration with the "" and the "Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Vienna".
Ermanno Olmi on IMDb
An auteur is an artist a film director, who applies a centralized and subjective control to many aspects of a collaborative creative work. The term is referenced to filmmakers or directors with a recognizable style or thematic preoccupation. Auteurism originated in the French film criticism of the late 1940s as a value system that derives from the film criticism approach of André Bazin and Alexandre Astruc—dubbed auteur theory by the American critic Andrew Sarris; the concept was invented to distinguish French New Wave filmmakers from studio-system directors that were part of the Hollywood establishment, has since been applied to producers of popular music as well as to video game creators. Before the auteur theory was defined, the director was considered to be the most important among the people working on a film. Early German film theorist Walter Julius Bloem credited this to film being an art for the masses, the masses being accustomed to regard someone who gives the final product as an artist, those who contribute before as apprentices.
James Agee, one of the most famous film critics of the 1940s, said that "the best films are personal ones, made by forceful directors". Around the same time, the French film critics André Bazin and Roger Leenhardt became advocates for the theory that it is the director that brings the film to life and uses the film to express their thoughts and feelings about the subject matter as well as a worldview as an auteur, they emphasised that an auteur can use lighting, camerawork and editing to add to their vision. The French magazine Cahiers du cinéma was founded in 1951 and became a focal point for discussion on the role of directors in cinema. François Truffaut criticized the prevailing "Cinema of Quality" trend in France in his 1954 essay Une certaine tendance du cinéma français, he characterised these films as being made by directors who were faithful to the script, which in turn was a faithful adaptation of a literary novel. The director was only used as a metteur en scene, a "stager" who adds the performers and pictures to an completed script.
Truffaut argued that the directors who had authority and flexibility over how to realise the script were the ones who made better films. He coined the phrase; these discussions took place at the beginning of the French New Wave in cinema. From 1960, with his first self-directed film The Bellboy, Jerry Lewis was one of the earliest Hollywood studio-system actor-turned-directors to be critiqued as an auteur, his attention to both the business and creative sides of production: writing, lighting and art direction coincided with the rise of the auteur theory. He earned consistent praise by French critics in Positif, his singular mis-en-scene, skill behind the camera, was aligned with Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Satyajit Ray. Jean-Luc Godard said, “Jerry Lewis...is the only one in Hollywood doing something different, the only one who isn’t falling in with the established categories, the norms, the principles.... Lewis is the only one today. He’s been able to do it because of his personal genius”.
Andrew Sarris coined the phrase "auteur theory" to translate la politique des auteurs and is credited for popularizing it in the United States and English-speaking media. He first used the phrase in his 1962 essay Notes on the Auteur Theory in the journal Film Culture, he began applying its methods to Hollywood films, expanded his thoughts in his book The American Cinema: Directors and Directions 1929–1968. The impact of Sarris's work was that critical and public attention on each film focused less on its stars and more on the overall product. In the 1960s and the 1970s, the filmmaking industry was revitalized by a new generation of directors. Known as the New Hollywood era, these directors were given increased control over their projects. Studios showed an increased willingness to let directors take risks; the phase came to end in the 1980s, when high-profile financial failures like Heaven's Gate prompted studios to reassert control. The auteur theory had detractors from the beginning. Pauline Kael was an early opponent and she debated it with Andrew Sarris in the pages of The New Yorker and various film magazines.
Kael opposed privileging the director and instead argued that a film should be seen as a collaborative process. In her 1971 essay Raising Kane, on Orson Welles's Citizen Kane, she points out how the film made extensive use of the distinctive talents of co-writer Herman J. Mankiewicz and cinematographer Gregg Toland. Richard Corliss and David Kipen have argued that writing is more important to a film's success than the directing. In his 2006 book, Kipen coined the term Schreiber theory to refer to the theory that the screenwriter is the principal author of a film. Film historian Georges Sadoul pointed out that the main author of a film is not the director, but can be the main actor, producer, or the author of the original story, he argued that the film can only be seen as a work of a collective and not as a work of a single person. Film historian Aljean Harmetz, referring to the creative input of producers and studio executives in classical Hollywood, argues that the auteur theory "collapses against the reality of the studio system".
Some criticize the auteur theory, the practice of praising auteurs, for being male-dominated. Writing for IndieWire in 2013, Maria Giese noted tha