An aponeurosis is a type or a variant of the deep fascia, in the form of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles needing a wide area of attachment. Their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts they act upon, whether it be bone or other muscles, they have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, are sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are peel off by sections; the primary regions with thick aponeuroses are in the ventral abdominal region, the dorsal lumbar region, the ventriculus in birds, the palmar and plantar regions. The anterior abdominal aponeuroses are located just superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle, it has for its borders the external oblique, pectoralis muscles, the latissimus dorsi. The posterior lumbar aponeuroses are situated just on top of the epaxial muscles of the thorax, which are multifidus spinae and sacrospinalis; the palmar aponeuroses occur on the palms of the hands.
The extensor hoods are aponeuroses at the back of the fingers. The plantar aponeuroses occur on the plantar aspect of the foot, they extend from the calcaneal tuberosity diverge to connect to the bones and the dermis of the skin around the distal part of the metatarsal bones. The anterior and posterior intercostal membranes are aponeuroses located between the ribs and are continuations of the external and internal intercostal muscles, respectively; the epicranial aponeurosis, or galea aponeurotica, is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly. Pennate muscles, in which the muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action have two aponeuroses. Muscle fibers connect one to the other, each aponeurosis thins into a tendon which attaches to bone at the origin or insertion site. Like tendons, aponeuroses attached to pennate muscles can be stretched by the forces of muscular contraction, absorbing energy like a spring and returning it when they recoil to unloaded conditions.
Serving as an origin or insertion site for certain muscles e.g latissimus dorsi. Aponeurosis of the obliquus externus abdominis Aponeurosis of the serratus posterior superior muscle Plantar aponeurosis Inguinal aponeurotic falx Bicipital aponeurosis Palatine aponeurosis Fascia Gray's s104 - Aponeuroses
Biceps femoris muscle
The biceps femoris is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back. As its name implies, it has two parts, it has two heads of origin: the long head arises from the lower and inner impression on the posterior part of the tuberosity of the ischium. This is a common tendon origin with the semitendinosus muscle, from the lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament; the short head, arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera, between the adductor magnus and vastus lateralis extending up as high as the insertion of the gluteus maximus, from the lateral prolongation of the linea aspera to within 5 cm. of the lateral condyle. The two muscle unite in an intricate fashion; the fibers of the long head form a fusiform belly, which passes obliquely downward and lateralward across the sciatic nerve to end in an aponeurosis which covers the posterior surface of the muscle and receives the fibers of the short head. Inferiorly, the aponeurosis condenses to form a tendon which predominantly inserts onto the lateral side of the head of the fibula.
There is a second small insertional attachment by a small tendon slip into the lateral condyle of the tibia. At its insertion the tendon divides into two portions, which embrace the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. Together, this joining of tendons is referred to as the conjoined tendon of the knee. From the posterior border of the tendon a thin expansion is given off to the fascia of the leg; the tendon of insertion of this muscle forms the lateral hamstring. The short head may be absent; the tendon of insertion may be attached to the Iliotibial band and to retinacular fibers of the lateral joint capsule. A slip may pass to the gastrocnemius, it is a composite muscle as the short head of the biceps femoris develops in the flexor compartment of the thigh and is thus innervated by common fibular branch of the sciatic nerve, while the long head is innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve. The muscle's vascular supply is derived from the anastomoses of several arteries: the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery, the inferior gluteal artery, the popliteal artery.
Both heads of the biceps femoris perform knee flexion. Since the long head originates in the pelvis it is involved in hip extension; the long head of the biceps femoris is a weaker knee flexor. For the same reason the long head is a weaker hip extender; when the knee is semi-flexed, the biceps femoris in consequence of its oblique direction rotates the leg outward. Avulsion of the biceps femoris tendon is common in sports that require explosive bending of the knee as seen in sprinting; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 478 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Kumakura, Hiroo. "Functional analysis of the biceps femoris muscle during locomotor behavior in some primates". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 79: 379–391. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330790314. PMID 2504047. Marshall, John L.. "The Biceps Femoris Tendon and Its Functional Significance". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 54: 1444–1450. Sneath, R. S.. "The insertion of the biceps femoris". J. Anat. 89: 550–553. PMC 1244747. PMID 13278305.
UWash - long head UWash - short head Anatomy photo:14:06-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy photo:14:st-0402 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Inferior gluteal artery
The inferior gluteal artery, the smaller of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. It passes down on the sacral plexus of nerves and the piriformis muscle, behind the internal pudendal artery, to the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, through which it escapes from the pelvis between the piriformis and coccygeus, it descends in the interval between the greater trochanter of the femur and tuberosity of the ischium, accompanied by the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, covered by the gluteus maximus, is continued down the back of the thigh, supplying the skin, anastomosing with branches of the perforating arteries. Superior gluteal artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 620 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Inferior_gluteal_artery at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Anatomy figure: 43:07-12 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Sagittal view of the internal iliac artery and its branches in the female pelvis.
" pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The popliteal fossa is a shallow depression located at the back of the knee joint. The bones of the popliteal fossa are the tibia. Like other flexion surfaces of large joints, it is an area where blood vessels and nerves pass superficially, with an increased amount of lymph nodes; the boundaries of the fossa are: The roof is formed by: skin superficial fascia, which contains the small saphenous vein, the terminal branch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, posterior division of the medial cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, medial sural cutaneous nerve deep fascia or popliteal fascia The floor is formed by: the popliteal surface of the femur the capsule of the knee joint and the oblique popliteal ligament strong fascia covering the popliteus muscle Structures within the popliteal fossa include,: tibial nerve common fibular nerve popliteal vein popliteal artery, a continuation of the femoral artery small saphenous vein Popliteal lymph nodes and Dharmy vesselsIt is of note that the common fibular nerve begins at the superior angle of the popliteal fossa.
Hamstring postthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman MedicalMnemonics.com: 2747 9
Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
Deep fascia of leg
The deep fascia of leg, or crural fascia forms a complete investment to the muscles, is fused with the periosteum over the subcutaneous surfaces of the bones. The deep fascia of the leg is continuous above with the fascia lata, is attached around the knee to the patella, the patellar ligament, the tuberosity and condyles of the tibia, the head of the fibula. Behind, it forms the popliteal fascia, it receives an expansion from the tendon of the biceps femoris laterally, from the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis and semimembranosus medially. It is thick and dense in the upper and anterior part of the leg, gives attachment, by its deep surface, to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus, it gives off from its deep surface, on the lateral side of the leg, two strong intermuscular septa, the anterior and posterior peroneal septa, which enclose the peroneus longus and brevis muscles and separate them from the muscles of the anterior and posterior crural regions, several more slender processes which enclose the individual muscles in each region.
A broad transverse intermuscular septum, called the deep transverse fascia of the leg, intervenes between the superficial and deep posterior crural muscles. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 480 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy