David Humphreys Storer
David Humphreys Storer was an American physician and naturalist. He served as dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard Medical School from 1855-1864, published on the reptiles and fishes of New England; the colubrid snake genus. David Humphreys Storer, William Bourne Oliver Peabody.. Reports on the fishes and birds of Massachusetts. Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, State Printers. Storer, D. H.. A synopsis of the fishes of North America. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 253-550. Storer, D. H.. A History of the Fishes of Massachusetts. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 1 122-168. Storer, D. H.. A History of the Fishes of Massachusetts. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 2 309-372. Works by or about David Humphreys Storer at Internet Archive Works by or about David Humphreys Storer in libraries
Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows and relatives. This order contains 11-12 families, over 400 genera, more than 4,250 species, with new species being described every few months or so, new genera being recognized frequently, they are most diverse in southeastern Asia, are absent from Australia and South America. Their closest living relatives are the Gymnotiformes and the Siluriformes. Like other orders of the Ostariophysi, fishes of cypriniformes possess a Weberian apparatus, they differ from most of their relatives in having only a dorsal fin on their back. Further differences are the Cypriniformes' unique kinethmoid, a small median bone in the snout, the lack of teeth in the mouth. Instead, they have convergent structures called pharyngeal teeth in the throat. While other groups of fish, such as cichlids possess pharyngeal teeth, the cypriniformes' teeth grind against a chewing pad on the base of the skull, instead of an upper pharyngeal jaw; the most notable family placed here is Cyprinidae.
This is one of the largest families of fish, is distributed across Africa and North America. Most species are freshwater inhabitants, but a considerable number are found in brackish water, such as roach and bream. At least one species is found in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. Brackish water and marine cyprinids are invariably anadromous, swimming upstream into rivers to spawn. Sometimes separated as family Psilorhynchidae, they seem to be specially-adapted fishes of Cyprinidae. Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are families of mountain stream fishes feeding on algae and small invertebrates, they are found only in subtropical Asia. While the former are a speciose group, the latter contain only a handful of species; the suckers are found in temperate North eastern Asia. These large fishes are similar to carps in ecology. Members of Cobitidae common across Eurasia and parts of North Africa. A mid-sized group like the suckers, they are rather similar to catfish in appearance and behaviour, feeding off the substrate and equipped with barbels to help them locate food at night or in murky conditions.
Fishes in the families Cobitidae, Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are called loaches, although it seems that the last do not belong to the lineage of "true" loaches but are related to the suckers. These included all the forms now placed in the superorder Ostariophysi except the catfish, which were placed in the order Siluriformes. By this definition, the Cypriniformes were paraphyletic, so the orders Gonorhynchiformes and Gymnotiformes have been separated out to form their own monophyletic orders; the families of Cypriniformes are traditionally divided into two superfamilies. Superfamily Cyprinioidea contains the carps and minnows and the mountain carps as the family Psilorhynchidae. In 2012 Maurice Kottelat reviewed the superfamily Cobitoidei and under his revision it now consists of the following families: hillstream loaches, Botiidae, true loaches, Gastromyzontidae, sucking loaches, stone loaches, Serpenticobitidae and long-finned loaches. Catostomoidea is treated as a junior synonym of Cobitoidei.
But it seems that it could be split off the Catostomidae and Gyrinocheilidae in a distinct superfamily. While the Cyprinioidea seem more "primitive" than the loach-like forms, they were successful enough never to shift from the original ecological niche of the basal Ostariophysi. Yet, from the ecomorphologically conservative main lineage at least two major radiations branched off; these diversified from the lowlands into torrential river habitats, acquiring similar habitus and adaptations in the process. The mountain carps are apomorphic Cyprinidae close to true carps, or maybe to the danionins. While some details about the phylogenetic structures of this massively diverse family are known – e.g. that Cultrinae and Leuciscinae are rather close relatives and stand apart from Cyprininae – there is no good consensus yet on how the main lineages are interrelated. A systematic list, from the most ancient to the most modern lineages, can thus be given as: Superfamily Cyprinoidei Family Cyprinidae Bonaparte, 1840 and minnows incl.
Psilorhynchidae) Superfamily Cobitoidei Superfamily Catostomoidea Family Catostomidae Agassiz 1850 Superfamily Gyrinocheiloidea Family Gyrinocheilidae Gill 1905 Superfamily Cobitoidea Family Barbuccidae Kottelat 2012 Family Serpenticobitidae Kottelat 2012 Family Botiidae Berg 1940 Family Vaillantellidae Nalbant & Bănărescu 1977 Family Cobitidae Swainson 1838 Family Balitoridae Swainson 1839 Family Gastromyzontidae Fowler 1905 Family Ellopostomatidae Bohlen & Šlechtová 2009 Family Nemacheilidae Regan 1911 Phylogeny based on the work of the following works Cypriniformes include the most primitive of the Ostariophysi in the narrow sense. This is evidenced n
David Starr Jordan
David Starr Jordan was an American ichthyologist, educator and peace activist. He was president of the founding president of Stanford University. Jordan was born in Gainesville, New York, grew up on a farm in upstate New York, his parents made the unorthodox decision to educate him at a local girls' high school. He was inspired by Louis Agassiz to pursue his studies in ichthyology, he was part of the pioneer class of undergraduates at Cornell University, graduating in 1872 with a master's degree in botany. Jordan obtained a medical degree, M. D. from Indiana Medical College in 1875. Jordan married Susan Bowen in 1875 and she died in 1885 after 10 years of marriage, they had three children, Edith Monica, Harold Bowen, Thora. Jordan married Jessie Knight in 1887. Jordan and his second wife had three additional children, Knight Starr and Eric Knight. Jordan taught natural history courses at several small Midwestern colleges, he was accepted into the natural history faculty of Indiana University Bloomington as a professor of zoology in 1879.
Jordan's teaching included his version of eugenics, which "sought to prevent the decay of the Anglo-Saxon/Nordic race by limiting racial mixing and by preventing the reproduction of those he deemed unfit". Six years in 1885, he was named President of Indiana University, becoming the nation's youngest university president at age 34 and the first Indiana University president, not an ordained minister, he improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system which, like Cornell's, was an early application of the modern liberal arts curriculum. In March 1891, he was approached by Leland and Jane Stanford, who offered him the presidency of their about-to-open California university, Leland Stanford Junior University. Andrew White, the president of Cornell, had recommended Jordan to the Stanfords based on an educational philosophy fit with the Stanfords' vision of a non-sectarian, co-educational school with a liberal arts curriculum, he accepted the offer.
Jordan arrived at Stanford in June 1891 and set about recruiting faculty for the university's planned September opening. Pressed for time, he drew on his own acquaintances; that first year at Stanford he was instrumental in establishing the university's Hopkins Marine Station. He served Stanford as president until 1913 and chancellor until his retirement in 1916; the university decided not to renew his three-year-term as chancellor in 1916. As the years went on, Jordan became alienated from the university. While chancellor, he was elected president of the National Education Association. Jordan was the University Club in San Francisco. Jordan served as a Director of the Sierra Club from 1892 to 1903. In retirement, Jordan served as an evolution expert witness for the defense in the 1925 Scopes Trial, he continued promoting his views on eugenics. In 1928 Jordan served on the initial board of trustees of the Human Betterment Foundation, a eugenics organization that advocated compulsory sterilization legislation in the United States.
On September 19, 1931, Jordan died at his home on the Stanford campus after suffering a series of strokes over two years. In 1905, Jordan launched an apparent coverup of the murder by poisoning of Jane Stanford. While vacationing in Oahu, Stanford had died of strychnine poisoning, according to the local coroner’s jury. Jordan sailed to Hawaii, hired a physician to investigate the case, declared she had in fact died of heart failure, a condition whose symptoms bear no relationship to those observed, his motive for doing this has been a subject of speculation. One possibility is that he was acting to protect the reputation of the university, he had written the president of Stanford's board of trustees offering several alternate explanations for Mrs. Stanford's death, suggesting they select whichever would be most suitable. Given that Mrs. Stanford had a difficult relationship with him and planned to remove him from his position at the university, he might have had a personal motive to eliminate suspicions that might have swirled around an unsolved crime.
Jordan's version of Mrs. Stanford's demise was accepted until the appearance of several publications in 2003 emphasizing the evidence that she was murdered. Jordan promoted the concept of improving human genetics, through removal from the breeding pool of those deemed unworthy to reproduce, in his series of publications titled The Blood of the Nation, he chaired the first Committee on Eugenics of the American Breeder's Association, from which the California program of forced deportation and sterilization emerged. Jordan went on to help found the Human Betterment Foundation as a trustee; the Human Betterment Foundation published "Sterilization for Human Betterment." Jordan made a eugenics-based argument against warfare, contending that war was detrimental to the human species because it removed the strongest men from the gene pool. In 1910, Jordan asserted "Future war is impossible because the nations cannot afford it" and the war debt in Europe amounts to 26 billion US dollars, "all owed to the unseen vampire, which the nations will never pay and which taxes poor people 95 million dollars a year."
He thought burdens of militarism in time of peace are exhausting the strength of the leading nations overloaded with debts and the certain result of
The fallfish is a North American freshwater fish, a chub in the family Cyprinidae. The fallfish is the largest minnow species native to Eastern North America. Average specimens measure about 5 in in length, but individuals grow to 15 in with exceptional specimens of 19 in have been recorded. Juvenile fallfish have a dark stripe, they have a white shading on the belly. Breeding males develop a pinkish tone on the opercular region, although the species does not develop bright breeding colors. Spawning males build stone nests, known as a redd, which form a prominent part of the bottom on many streams throughout the northeast. Spawning is communal with both females joining the nest builder, it is found in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, where it inhabits clear streams and ponds. It prefers swift currents however. Fallfish are encountered when fishing for more desirable species, but their large size, dogged fighting style, powerful runs on light tackle, willingness to strike make them a worthy quarry in their own right.
They will take bait and flies, have been known to strike lures as large as themselves. The IGFA All Tackle World Record for Fallfish is 3lb 9oz caught by Jonathan McNamara in the Susquehanna River near Owego, New York, USA in April 2009. Previous records come from New Pennsylvania. Smith, L. C; the Inland Fishes of New York State. New York: The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1985, pp. 155, 156 Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Semotilus corporalis" in FishBase. Apr 2007 version. Fallfish at Virtual Aquarium
Samuel L. Mitchill
Samuel Latham Mitchill was an American physician and politician who lived in Plandome, New York. Samuel Mitchill was born in Hempstead, New York the son of Robert Mitchill and his wife Mary Latham, both Quakers, he was sent to Scotland graduated in 1786 from the University of Edinburgh Medical School with an M. D. an education paid for by a wealthy uncle. Returning to the United States after medical school, Mitchill completed law school; as a lawyer he oversaw the purchase of lands in western New York from the Iroquois Indians in 1788. Mitchill taught chemistry and natural history at Columbia College from 1792 until 1801 and was a founding editor of The Medical Repository, the first medical journal in the United States. In 1793 he was elected a Foreign Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were James Gregory, Dugald Stewart, John Rotherham. In addition to his Columbia lectures on botany and mineralogy, Mitchill collected and classified many plants and animals aquatic organisms.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1797. From 1807 to 1826, he taught at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York and helped organize the short-lived Rutgers Medical College of New Jersey, which he served as vice president until 1830. While at Columbia, Mitchill developed a fallacious theory of disease, which however resulted in his promotion of personal hygiene and improved sanitation. Mitchill served in the New York State Assembly in 1791 and again in 1798 and was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1801 until his resignation on November 22, 1804. In November 1804, Mitchill was elected a U. S. Senator from New York to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Armstrong, served from November 23, 1804, to March 4, 1809, he served again in the House of Representatives from December 4, 1810, to March 4, 1813. Mitchill was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814.
On January 29, 1817, Mitchill convened the first meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences called the Lyceum of Natural History, of which he was elected President. Mitchill endorsed the building of the Erie Canal, sponsored by his friend and political ally DeWitt Clinton. Mitchill suggested renaming the United States of America Fredonia, combining the English "freedom" with a Latinate ending. Although the suggestion was not considered, some towns adopted the name, including Fredonia, New York; some freebooters established a short-lived republic under that name in Texas in the late 1820s. Mitchill was a man of "irrepressible energies...polyglot enthusiasms... distinguished eccentricities", not "a man afraid to speak out loud about the loves of plants and animals. In the early nineteenth century, Mitchill was New York's "most publicly universal gentleman...a man known variously as the'living encyclopedia,' as a'stalking library,' and as the'Congressional Dictionary.'" "Once described as a'chaos of knowledge,' Mitchill was more admired for his encyclopedic breadth of understanding than for much originality of thought."
As a personality he was affable but egotistical and pedantic. Mitchill enjoyed popularizing scientific knowledge and promoting practical applications of scientific inquiry. United States Congress. "Samuel L. Mitchill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Francis, John W. Reminiscences of Samuel Latham Mitchell. From the Digital Collections of the National Library of Medicine. Finding aid for the Samuel Latham Mitchill papers at the Museum of the City of New York
In zoological nomenclature, a type species is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e. the species that contains the biological type specimen. A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen, the type of a species name; the species name that has that type can be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus; every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.
A type species is both a concept and a practical system, used in the classification and nomenclature of animals. The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species; the term "type species" is regulated in zoological nomenclature by article 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which defines a type species as the name-bearing type of the name of a genus or subgenus. In the Glossary, type species is defined as The nominal species, the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus; the type species permanently attaches a formal name to a genus by providing just one species within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked. The species name in turn is fixed, to a type specimen. For example, the type species for the land snail genus Monacha is Helix cartusiana, the name under which the species was first described, known as Monacha cartusiana when placed in the genus Monacha.
That genus is placed within the family Hygromiidae. The type genus for that family is the genus Hygromia; the concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by Pierre André Latreille. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states that the original name of the type species should always be cited, it gives an example in Article 67.1. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775 was designated as the type species of the genus Homarus, thus giving it the name Homarus marinus. However, the type species of Homarus should always be cited using its original name, i.e. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants does not contain the same explicit statement, examples make it clear that the original name is used, so that the "type species" of a genus name need not have a name within that genus, thus in Article 10, Ex. 3, the type of the genus name Elodes is quoted as the type of the species name Hypericum aegypticum, not as the type of the species name Elodes aegyptica.
Glossary of scientific naming Genetypes – genetic sequence data from type specimens. Holotype Paratype Principle of Typification Type Type genus
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, their relatives. Called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera.. They range from about 12 mm to the 3-meter Catlocarpio siamensis; this family of fish is one of the few. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make more than two-thirds; the family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. So, food can be chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow; these pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a bony process of the skull. The pharyngeal teeth are used by scientists to identify species. Strong pharyngeal teeth allow fish such as the common carp and ide to eat hard baits such as snails and bivalves.
Hearing is a well-developed sense in the cyprinids since they have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebral processes that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. The vertebral processes of the Weberian organ permit a cyprinid to detect changes in motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes; the cyprinids are considered physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder, or they can dispose excess gas to the gut. Cyprinids are native to North America and Eurasia; the largest known cyprinid is the giant barb, which may grow up to 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight. Other large species that can surpass 2 m are the golden mahseer and mangar; the largest North American species is the Colorado pikeminnow, which can reach up to 1.8 m in length. Conversely, many species are smaller than 5 cm; the smallest known fish is Paedocypris progenetica, reaching 10.3 mm at the longest. All fish in this family most do not guard their eggs.
The bitterlings of subfamily Acheilognathinae are notable for depositing their eggs in bivalve molluscs, where the young develop until able to fend for themselves. Most cyprinids feed on invertebrates and vegetation due to the lack of teeth and stomach. Many species, such as the ide and the common rudd, prey on small fish when individuals become large enough. Small species, such as the moderlieschen, are opportunistic predators that will eat larvae of the common frog in artificial circumstances; some cyprinids, such as the grass carp, are specialized herbivores. For this reason, cyprinids are introduced as a management tool to control various factors in the aquatic environment, such as aquatic vegetation and diseases transmitted by snails. Unlike most fish species, cyprinids increase in abundance in eutrophic lakes. Here, they contribute towards positive feedback as they are efficient at eating the zooplankton that would otherwise graze on the algae, reducing its abundance. Cyprinids are important food fish.
In land-locked countries in particular, cyprinids are the major species of fish eaten because they make the largest part of biomass in most water types except for fast-flowing rivers. In Eastern Europe, they are prepared with traditional methods such as drying and salting; the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products made this less important now than it was in earlier times. Nonetheless, in certain places, they remain popular for food, as well as recreational fishing, have been deliberately stocked in ponds and lakes for centuries for this reason. Cyprinids are popular for angling for match fishing and fishing for common carp because of its size and strength. Several cyprinids have been introduced to waters outside their natural ranges to provide food, sport, or biological control for some pest species; the common carp and the grass carp are the most important for example in Florida. In some cases, such as the Asian carp in the Mississippi Basin, they have become invasive species that compete with native fishes or disrupt the environment.
Carp in particular can stir up sediment, reducing the clarity of the water and making it difficult for plants to grow. Numerous cyprinids have become important in the aquarium and fishpond hobbies, most famously the goldfish, bred in China from the Prussian carp. First imported into Europe around 1728, it was much fancied by Chinese nobility as early as 1150 AD and after it arrived there in 1502 in Japan. In the latter country, from the 18th century onwards, the common carp was bred into the ornamental variety known as koi – or more nishikigoi, as koi means "common carp" in Japanese. Other popular aquarium cyprinids include danionins and true barbs. Larger species are bred by the thousands in outdoor ponds in Southeast Asia, trade in these aquarium fishes