Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Saint Isaacs Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral in the city. It is the largest orthodox basilica and the fourth largest cathedral in the world and it is dedicated to Saint Isaac of Dalmatia, a patron saint of Peter the Great, who had been born on the feast day of that saint. The church on St Isaacs Square was ordered by Tsar Alexander I, to replace a structure by Vincenzo Brenna. A specially appointed commission examined several designs, including that of the French-born architect Auguste de Montferrand, Montferrands design was criticised by some members of the commission for the dry and allegedly boring rhythm of its four identical pedimented octastyle porticos. It was suggested that despite gigantic dimensions, the edifice would look squat, the members of the commission, which consisted of well-known Russian architects, were particularly concerned by necessity to build a new huge building on the old unsecure foundation. The emperor, who favoured the ponderous Empire style of architecture, had to step in, the cathedral took 40 years to construct, under Montferrands direction, from 1818 to 1858.
To secure the construction, the foundation was strengthened by driving 25,000 piles into the fenland of Saint Petersburg. Innovative methods were created to erect the giant columns of the portico, the construction costs of the cathedral totalled an incredible sum of 1000000 gold rubles. Under the Soviet government, the building was stripped of religious trappings, in 1931, it was turned into the Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism, the dove sculpture was removed, and replaced by a Foucault pendulum. On April 12,1931, the first public demonstration of the Foucault pendulum was held to visualize Copernicus’s theory, in 1937, the museum was transformed into the museum of the Cathedral, and former collections were transferred to the Museum of the History of Religion. During World War II, the dome was painted over in gray to avoid attracting attention from enemy aircraft, on its top, in the skylight, a geodesical intersection point was placed, to determine the positions of German artillery batteries.
With the fall of communism, the museum was removed and regular worship activity has resumed in the cathedral, the main body of the cathedral is used for services on feast days only. On January 10,2017 Georgy Poltavchenko, the Governor of St and it is similar to Andrea Palladios Villa La Rotonda, with a full dome on a high drum substituted for the Villas low central saucer dome. The rotunda is encircled by an accessible to tourists. 24 statues stand on the roof, and another 24 on top of the rotunda, the cathedrals main dome rises 101.5 metres and is plated with pure gold. The dome is decorated with statues of angels by Josef Hermann. These angels were likely the first large sculptures produced by the novel process of electrotyping. Montferrands design of the dome is based on a supporting cast iron structure and it was the third historical instance of cast iron cupola after the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk and Mainz Cathedral
Constitutional Court of Russia
Before the 1980s in the USSR the importance of judicial supervision over compatibility of legislation and executive actions with the provisions and principles of the constitution was not recognized. It was not until December 25,1989 when Constitutional Control in the USSR Act was passed, the Constitutional Supervision Committee was created. It started functioning mid-1990 and was dissolved towards the end of 1991, in December 1990 the Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was amended with provisions which provided for creation of Constitutional Court. On July 12,1991 Constitutional Court of the RSFSR Act was adopted, in October the Fifth Congress of Peoples Deputies of the Russian SFSR has elected 13 members of the Court and the Constitutional Court de facto started functioning. From November 1991 till October 1993 it rendered some decisions of great significance, for example, it declared unconstitutional certain decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which were adopted ultra vires, and forbade the practice of extrajudicial eviction.
On October 7,1993 Boris Yeltsins decree suspended work of the Constitutional Court, according to the decree, the Constitutional Court was in deep crisis. On December 24 another presidential decree repealed the Constitutional Court of the RSFSR Act itself, in July 1994 the new Constitutional Court Act was adopted. However, the new Constitutional Court started working only in February 1995, in 2005 the federal authorities proposed to transfer the court from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. The Constitutional Court forced Kononov to step down from the Constitutional Court on January 1,2010,7 years ahead of schedule, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges, one being the Chairman and another one being Deputy Chairman. The judges are nominated by the President and appointed by the Federation Council for 12 years, the Constitutional Court consists of two chambers with 10 and 9 judges respectively. The Chairman presides over one of the chambers, the Deputy Chairman presides over the other chamber, Constitutional Court may by its discretion submit to plenary sessions any other issue.
Certain powers of the Constitutional Court are enumerated in the Constitution of Russia, the Constitutional Court declares laws and governmental decrees and laws of federal subjects unconstitutional if it finds that they are contrary to the Constitution. In such instances, that particular law becomes unenforceable, and governmental agencies are barred from implementing it, before an international treaty is ratified by the State Duma, the constitutionality of the treaty may be observed by the Constitutional Court. Another power of the Constitutional Court is to resolve disputes concerning competence of governmental agencies, whenever the President of Russia is impeached, the Constitutional Court renders a resolution concerning complying with the due order of indictment. The Constitutional Court deals with either in chambers or in plenary sessions. All judges must be present unless he or she is sick or may have interest in the case, apart from judges and his representatives governmental agencies involved are present.
In order for resolution or decision to pass two-thirds of judges must be in favor of it
The Bronze Horseman is an equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Commissioned by Catherine the Great, it was created by the French sculptor Étienne Maurice Falconet, the name comes from an 1833 poem of the same name by Aleksander Pushkin, which is widely considered one of the most significant works of Russian literature. The statue is now one of the symbols of Saint Petersburg, the statues pedestal is the enormous Thunder Stone, the largest stone ever moved by humans. The stone originally weighed about 1500 tonnes, and was carved down to 1250 during transportation to its current site, the equestrian statue of Peter the Great is situated in the Senate Square, in Saint Petersburg. Catherine the Great, a German princess who married into the Romanov line, was anxious to connect herself to Peter the Great to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the people. Having gained her position through a coup, Catherine had no legal claim to the throne. In correspondence with Catherine the Great, Denis Diderot suggested French sculptor Étienne Maurice Falconet, the empress followed his advice and Falconet arrived in Russia in 1766.
In 1775 the casting of the statue began, supervised by caster Emelyan Khailov, at one point during the casting, the mould broke, releasing molten bronze that started several fires. All the workers ran except Khailov, who risked his life to salvage the casting, after being remelted and recast, the statue was finished. It took 12 years, from 1770 to 1782, to create the Bronze Horseman, including pedestal, the tsars face is the work of the young Marie-Anne Collot, only 18 years old. She had accompanied Falconet as an apprentice on his trip to Russia in 1766, a student of Falconet and Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, Collot was called Mademoiselle Victoire by Diderot. She modelled Peter the Greats face on his mask and numerous portraits she found in Saint Petersburg. The right hand of the statue was modelled from a Roman bronze hand, found in 1771 in Voorburg in the Netherlands at the site of the ancient Roman town Forum Hadriani. On 7 August 1782, fourteen years after excavation of the pedestal began, conspicuously absent was Falconet, as a misunderstanding between him and the empress turned into a serious conflict.
As a result, he was forced to leave Russia four years before the project was completed, Catherine largely forgot about him afterwards, and came to see the Bronze Horseman as her own oeuvre. The statue portrays Peter the Great sitting heroically on his horse, the sculptor wished to capture the exact moment of his horse rearing at the edge of a dramatic cliff. His horse can be seen trampling a serpent, variously interpreted to represent treachery, evil, or the enemies of Peter, the statue itself is about 6 m tall, while the pedestal is another 7 m tall, for a total of approximately 13 m. For the pedestal, an enormous granite monolith boulder known as the Thunder Stone was found at Lakhta,6 km inland from the Gulf of Finland in 1768
Admiralty building, Saint Petersburg
The Admiralty building is the former headquarters of the Admiralty Board and the Imperial Russian Navy in St. Petersburg and the current headquarters of the Russian Navy. The edifice was re-built in the century to support the Tsars maritime ambitions. The original design was a shipyard which was surrounded by five bastions. The Empire Style edifice visible today lining the Admiralty Quay was constructed to Andreyan Zakharovs design between 1806 and 1823, petersburgs three main streets - Nevsky Prospect, Gorokhovaya Street, and Voznesensky Avenue - underscoring the importance Peter I placed on Russias Navy. Vladimir Nabokov and native of St. Petersburg, wrote a story in May 1933 entitled The Admiralty Spire. Admiralty Embankment with the Lions at the Dvortsovaya pier
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas Is assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession, because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists. This uprising, which was suppressed by Nicholas I, took place in Peters Square in Saint Petersburg, in 1925, to mark the centenary of the event, the square was renamed as Decembrist Square, but in 2008 the name was changed to Senate Square. In 1816, several officers of the Imperial Russian Guard founded a society known as the Union of Salvation, or of the Faithful, the society acquired a more liberal cast after it was joined by the idealistic Pavel Pestel. After a mutiny in the Semenovsky Regiment in 1820, the society decided to suspend activity in 1821, P. Trubetskoy and Prince Eugene Obolensky. The political aims of the more moderate Northern Society were a British style constitutional monarchy with a limited franchise, at first, many officers were encouraged by Tsar Alexanders early liberal reformation of Russian society and politics.
In 1819 Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky was appointed as the Governor of Siberia, equally, in 1818 the Tsar asked Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev to draw up a constitution. This new lifestyle captured the spirit of the times, as a willingness to embrace both the peasant and ongoing reformative movements abroad and this was thought of on many occasions, but we soon came to realize that the nobility could not be persuaded. And as time went on we became more convinced, when the Ukrainian nobility absolutely rejected a similar project of their military governor. Historians have noted that the United States Declaration of Independence may have influenced the revolutionaries, when Tsar Alexander I died on 1 December 1825, the royal guards swore allegiance to the presumed heir, Alexanders brother Constantine. When Constantine made his public, and Nicholas stepped forward to assume the throne. These efforts would culminate in the Decembrist Revolt, the leaders of the society elected Prince Sergei Trubetskoy as interim dictator.
They expected to be joined by the rest of the troops stationed in Saint Petersburg, the revolt was further hampered when it was deserted by its supposed leader Prince Trubetskoy, who had a last minute change of heart, and failed to turn up at the Square. His second in command, Colonel Bulatov vanished from the scene, after a hurried consultation the rebels appointed Prince Eugene Obolensky as a replacement leader. For long hours there was a stand-off between the 3,000 rebels and the 9,000 loyal troops stationed outside the Senate building, a vast crowd of civilian on-lookers began fraternizing with the rebels, but did not join the action. Eventually Nicholas, the new Tsar, appeared in person, at the square, and sent Count Mikhail Miloradovich, Miloradovich was fatally shot by Pyotr Kakhovsky while delivering a public address to defuse the situation. At the same time, a rebelling grenadier squad, led by lieutenant Nikolay Panov, entered the Winter Palace but failed to seize it and retreated.
After spending most of the day in fruitless attempts to parley with the force, Nicholas ordered a cavalry charge which slipped on the icy cobbles
Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a called Ingermanland.
A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter.
However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Bolshaya Neva River
Bolshaya Neva is the largest armlet of Neva River. It starts near the Vasilievsky Islands Strelka, the Bolshaya Neva is 3.5 kilometres long, the width is from 200 to 400 metres and the depth up to 12.8 metres. Its tributaries are Fontanka and Novo-Admiralteysky Canal, there are two bridges across Bolshaya Neva, Palace Bridge and Blagoveshchensky Bridge