Oconee Nuclear Station
The Oconee Nuclear Station is a nuclear power station located on Lake Keowee near Seneca, South Carolina, has an energy output capacity of over 2,500 megawatts. It is the second nuclear power station in the United States to have its operating license extended for an additional twenty years by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; this plant has three Babcock & Wilcox pressurized water reactors, is operated by Duke Energy. Oconee was the first of three nuclear stations built by Duke Energy. According to Duke Energy's web site, the station has generated more than 500 million megawatt-hours of electricity, is "the first nuclear station in the United States to achieve this milestone."In the summer of 2011 it became the first nuclear power station in the United States to have its sensors controlled digitally. Oconee is unique as it is the only nuclear power plant in the United States that does not rely on emergency diesel generator sets for emergency power. Instead it relies on two hydroelectric units at the nearby Keowee hydroelectric station.
In the event the Keowee units are both out of service emergency power can alternatively be provided by combustion turbines at the nearby Lee fossil generating station. Both sources use alternative cables to supply Oconee's emergency systems that are independent of the Oconee switchyard and transmission lines which are the normal source of power; the NRC defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. The 2010 U. S. population within 10 miles of Oconee was 66,307, an increase of 11.5 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U. S. Census data for msnbc.com. This includes the main campus of Clemson University; the 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 1,404,690, an increase of 14.8 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Greenville.
The NRC's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Oconee was 1 in 23,256, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. Duke Energy has noted that a rapid failure of the Jocassee dam would flood the plant and cause the loss of power and safety equipment damaging its three reactor cores within 8 to 9 hours, it could further lead to reactor containment failure within 59 to 68 hours, triggering a significant release of radioactivity into the environment. Duke informed the NRC about this flooding hazard as early as January 1996. Duke Energy estimated the probability of a random failure of Jocassee Dam is 1.3/year, while the NRC puts the estimate at 2.8/year. Subsequent to Fukushima, improvements were made to the Oconee site such that flooding from the failure of Jocassee Dam would not result in reactor core damage; the NRC has expressed satisfaction as of June 2016 with the flood protection modifications which included new or enhanced flood walls and moving some power lines and equipment to less flood-prone locations.
List of largest power stations in the United States Largest nuclear power plants in the United States "Oconee Nuclear Power Plant, South Carolina". U. S. Department of Energy. October 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17. "Oconee 1 Pressurized Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17. "Oconee 2 Pressurized Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. NRC. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17. "Oconee 3 Pressurized Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. NRC. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Williams, Buzz. "Oconee Nuclear Station". The Chattooga Quarterly. Chattooga Conservancy. Retrieved 2008-11-17
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
Anderson, South Carolina
Anderson is a city in and the county seat of Anderson County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 26,686 at the 2010 census, the city was the center of an urbanized area of 75,702, it is one of the principal cities in the Greenville-Anderson--Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 824,112 at the 2010 census. It is further included in the larger Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, South Carolina Combined Statistical Area, with a total population of 1,266,995, at the 2010 census. Anderson is 120 miles from Atlanta and 140 miles from Charlotte. Anderson is the smallest of the three primary cities that makes up the Upstate region and is nicknamed "The Electric City" and "The Friendliest City in South Carolina". Anderson's spirit and quality of life have earned national recognition as Anderson County was named an "All-America City" in 2000. Anderson is the home of Anderson University, a selective private comprehensive university of 3,400 undergraduate and graduate students.
Cherokee first settled the area of. During the American Revolution the Cherokee sided with the British. After the American Revolutionary War the Cherokee's land was acquired as war reparations and colonized. In 1791 the South Carolina legislature created the Washington District which comprised Greenville, Anderson and Pickens counties; the Washington District was divided into Greenville and Pendleton districts. Anderson and Oconee comprised the newly created Pendleton district. Anderson was settled in 1826 and incorporated in 1828 as Anderson Court House separating from the Pendleton district; the name Anderson is in honor of Robert Anderson who fought in the American Revolutionary War and explored the Anderson region in the mid-18th century. Anderson District was established in 1826 out of the Pendleton district. In 1851 the Johnson Female Seminary was established in Anderson as the first college of the town and was named after William Bullein Johnson. One year the seminary was renamed Johnson University.
During the American Civil War Johnson University was closed and converted into a Confederate treasury. On May 1, 1865 Union forces invaded Anderson looking for the Confederate treasury; the treasury office of Anderson was ransacked by Union forces and the main building of Johnson University was used as a Union headquarters. A minor skirmish erupted at the Battle of Anderson leading to two Union casualties. After the war a Union garrison was stationed in Anderson. Anderson became one of the first cities in the Southeastern United States to have electricity. Electricity to Anderson was established by William C. Whitner in 1895 at a hydroelectric plant on the Rocky River giving the city the name "The Electric City." Anderson became the first city in the world to supply a cotton gin by electricity. In 1895 Anderson Court House was renamed to Anderson. In 1897 Whitner's plant was upgraded with a 10,000 volt generating station at Portman Shoals. Whitner's power plant at Portman Shoals became the first hydroelectric plant in the United States to generate high voltage without step-up transformers.
The Portman Dam was swept away in 1901 forcing Anderson to be in darkness until it was rebuilt in 1902. In 1911 Anderson College was established by the Anderson Chamber of Commerce. Anderson College was a successor to the Johnson Female Seminary and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention in particular the First Baptist Church of Anderson. Anderson College became a co-ed two year junior college in 1930 and in 2006 it became Anderson University. Anderson is located in the northwest corner of South Carolina on the Piedmont plateau. Anderson is a 1-hour drive from the Blue Ridge Mountains and a four-hour drive from the South Carolina coast. Anderson lies at the midpoint of the busy I-85 corridor between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.6 square miles, of which 14.6 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.30%, is water. Anderson College Historic District Anderson Downtown Historic District Anderson Historic District McDuffie Street Historic District South Boulevard Historic District Westside Historic District Whitner Street Historic DistrictOther historical locations Caldwell-Johnson-Morris Cottage Denver Downs Farmstead Kennedy Street School North Anderson Historic District Dr. Samuel Marshall Orr House Ralph John Ramer House Anderson Memorial Stadium — A ballfield/stadium on 12 acres of land on White Road.
Renovated in 2007 with stadium-style seating. Home to the Anderson University Trojans. Anderson Sports and Entertainment Center — A 300-acre area that includes the Anderson Civic Center, a 37,000 square feet facility, as well as one of South Carolina's largest amphitheaters that can accommodate 15,000 people, a huge castle-like play structure with play equipment, a 64-acre sports center with 7 baseball/softball fields, 3 soccer fields, disc golf course, 8 tennis courts. There is a lake with park, picnic shelters, miles of nature trail; the ASCE is Anderson's largest recreational area. Anderson's economy revolves around manufacturing. Anderson has over 230 manufacturers, including 22 international companies. In the county, Anderson has a thriving business climate; the top major industries in Anderson include manufacturers of automotive products, metal products, industrial machinery, plastics and textiles. Two industries that many times interconnect are automotive sectors. There are more than 27 BMW suppliers in the Upstate region, recognized internationally as an automotive suppl
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Lake Jocassee is a 7,500-acre, 300-foot deep reservoir located in northwest South Carolina created by the state in partnership with Duke Power in 1973. The lake is known for the clean and cold Appalachian mountain rivers that feed the lake to keep its waters cool and clear year-round; the Jocassee Dam, which forms the lake, is 1,750 feet long. The lake is within Devils Fork State Park. Although most manmade structures were demolished before the creation of the lake, divers discovered the remains of a lodge, left intact until the lake rose. Mount Carmel Baptist Church Cemetery was a setting for a scene in the film Deliverance, starring Burt Reynolds and Jon Voight, produced before the lake was flooded; the site is now covered by 130 feet of water in the lake. A confluence of four rivers supplies Lake Jocassee's water; the farthest west of the rivers, the Whitewater River, flows southeast until it meets the northwest corner of Lake Jocassee. The Thompson River flows due south; the Horsepasture River feeds the lake from the northeast corner, along with the Toxaway River, directly east of the Horsepasture River.
The Jocassee Hydro Station, located in the southeast corner of Lake Jocassee, separates it from the beginning of Lake Keowee known as the Keowee River. Lake Keowee's furthest extent to the south brings it close to the city of Seneca, with the old mill town of Newry on it. Unlike Lake Jocassee, Keowee is settled because most of the land adjacent to Lake Jocassee is owned by Duke Power and the State of South Carolina. A rare wildflower, the Oconee Bell, native to only a few counties in the Blue Ridge area, was discovered in the area in 1788 by French botanist André Michaux; the creation of Lake Jocassee is said to have caused the destruction of the heart of the species' range. More biologists have documented the occurrence of a number of rare and endangered species; the Eastatoee Gorge Heritage Preserve was transferred from Duke Power Company to the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources in 1979 due to the diverse flora occurring there. Wildlife management efforts in the Jocassee Gorges area began as early as the 1930s when the Chief Game Warden managed the stocking of trout from the Cleveland State Fish Hatchery, Table Rock State Hatchery, the Walhalla National Fish Hatchery.
This led to the improvement of fish populations in the area. People hiking, fishing, or nature watching benefit from the fish stocking and law enforcement of the Game Management Program; the name Jocassee comes from the legend of a Cherokee maiden. An Oconee tribe, the "Brown Vipers" led by Chief Attakulla, inhabited the west side of the Whitewater river, while a rival tribe, "The Green Birds", lived on the east. Legend says that a young Green Bird warrior, Nagoochee was not afraid to enter Brown Viper hunting grounds. On one occasion, he was convinced he was going to die, he heard Jocassee, Attakulla's daughter, who brought him back to her father's lodge and nursed him back to health. Jocassee fell in love with him, but in a battle, Jocassee's brother and brought Nagoochee's head back on his belt. Legend has it that Jocassee went into the water and did not sink but walked across the water to meet the ghost of Nagoochee; the name Jocassee means "Place of the Lost One." The Jocassee Gorges area was once home to the part of the Cherokee Nation.
Nearby Keowee Town was a major hub in the Cherokee Path that connected Cherokee towns and villages throughout the area. Early 18th Century traders delivered as many as 200,000 deerskins annually to Charleston, South Carolina and local Indians became well supplied with European firearms, ammunition and clothing as a result. However, mounting discord between Europeans and Cherokees led to war in 1759. In 1785, General Andrew Pickens hosted a large gathering of Indian chiefs leading to a treaty that gave all of the Jocassee gorges area, with the exception of northern Oconee County, to the United States. European settlers of Scottish and Irish descent, came from Virginia and Pennsylvania as well as from Charleston. Land grants in the Jocassee area go back to 1791. Lake Jocassee was one of the filming locations for the 2012 movie The Hunger Games. Lake Jocassee holds state records for 5 species including three in the sunfish family. In 2001 a 5 lb 2.5 oz Redeye bass and a 9 lb 7 oz Smallmouth bass were caught.
A 8 lb 2 oz Spotted bass was caught in 1996. The last two came from the salmon family. A 17 lb 9.5 oz Brown trout was caught in 1987 and a 11 lb 5 oz Rainbow trout was caught in 1993. The Jocassee Hydro Station, owned by Duke Power, in between Lake Jocassee and Lake Keowee, is a 610 megawatt pumped storage facility. Just off the Whitewater River, Bad Creek Hydroelectric Station is a 1,065 megawatt pumped-storage facility that started generating electricity in 1991 and is owned by Duke Power. Both facilities provide jobs for the surrounding area. Salem, South Carolina- pop. 126 Lake Keowee List of lakes in South Carolina Lake Jocassee History Devils Fork State Park website Lake Jocassee Website Area Boat and Kayak Rentals Lake Jocassee Vacation Rentals
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S
Spartanburg, South Carolina
Spartanburg is the most populous city in and the seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States, the 12th-largest city by population in the state. The city of Spartanburg has a municipal population of 37,013, Spartanburg County has an urban population of 180,786 as of the 2010 census; the Spartanburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, including Spartanburg and Union counties, had a population of 317,057 as of the 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Spartanburg is the second-largest city in the greater Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,385,045 as of 2014, it is part of a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate," and is located 98 miles northwest of Columbia, 80 miles west of Charlotte, North Carolina, about 190 miles northeast of Atlanta, Georgia. Spartanburg is a major city in South Carolina, it is the site of headquarters for Denny's. Spartanburg is home of the BMW Spartanburg factory.
Spartanburg was formed in 1785 and was named after a local militia called the Spartan Regiment in the American Revolutionary War. The Spartan Regiment, commanded by Andrew Pickens, participated in the nearby Battle of Cowpens. In 1831, Spartanburg was incorporated becoming known as the "Hub City": railroad lines radiated from the city forming the shape of a wheel hub, it became a center of textile manufacturing in the late 19th century, with around 40 textile mills being established through the early 1900s. During World War I Camp Wadsworth was used to train 100,000 soldiers for the war. Camp Croft trained soldiers during World War II; the facility was adapted as Croft State Park. By the 1950s, the production in these mills began to decline. Most textile manufacturing jobs were moved offshore by the companies. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 19.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.47%, is water. The city of Spartanburg has a humid subtropical climate with long and humid summers, cool to semi mild winters.
The average annual temperature is 61.6 °F. In the summer season from June through September, average highs are in the 80's to low 90's F, while in the winter months average highs are in the mid 50's F. Annual rainfall is spread evenly throughout the whole year. Spartanburg sees little snowfall, with the annual average being only 1.4 inches. Average precipitation is 51.3 inches and the average growing season is 231 days. Lawson's Fork Creek, a tributary of the Pacolet River, was once known for its plentiful wildlife and crystal clear waters. Parks and woodlands line much of its banks, rocky shoals and natural waterfalls can be found throughout its course, it stretches from the northern end of the county to the eastern end, where it empties into the Pacolet. The Cottonwood Trail is a walking trail located in the Edwin M. Griffin Nature Preserve that runs along part of Lawson's Fork Creek; the trail includes picnic areas, a raised path over an extensive wetlands area and access to sporadic sandbars.
Located just east of downtown, it is used by cyclists and walkers. Since the Lawson's Fork floodplain is not suitable for development, wildlife populate the area. Larger animals that can be found here include white-tailed deer, wild turkeys, pileated woodpeckers, mallard ducks, Canada geese and snapping turtles. Hatcher Garden and Woodland Preserve, is a preserve located in the midst of an urban environment. Retired social activist Harold Hatcher and his wife Josephine transformed an eroding gully into a thick woods and flower garden which now provides a haven for birds and other wildlife. Early European settlers to this area included French fur trappers, English woodsmen, Scots-Irish farmers. Few remnants survive from these early pioneering days, but traces can be found in the more rural areas of the county. Walnut Grove Plantation, an 18th-century farmhouse, has been preserved by The Spartanburg County Historical Association; the site of a locally famous skirmish during the American Revolutionary War, it was the home of the Moore family.
The plantation lies south of Spartanburg near the town of Roebuck, is open to the public for tours and during annual festivals. The Seay House, another 18th-century home, is a more typical representative of a pioneer home, its single stone fireplace and simple construction were common traits of farmsteads from this period. The Price House, the third 18th-century home maintained by the Historical Association, is unique, its sturdy Flemish-bond brick construction and three stories are less common in this area. By examining the original inventory lists of the house, the Historical Association has been able to retrieve period pieces that approximate the original contents of the house. First established in the 1780s as a courthouse village, Spartanburg may have been named for the Spartan regiment of the South Carolina militia; the city was incorporated in 1831, at the time of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Cowpens, a pivotal fight of the American Revolution that took place only a few miles away.
The city's streets and architectural record reflect the changes of the 20th centuries. Morgan Square, the city's primary downtown hub, is the original courthouse village, it was founded adjacent to a small spring on the western slope of a ridge, which forms the border of the Tyger and Pacolet River watersheds. The square's name derives from Daniel Morgan, the general who commanded the American forces at Cowpens. A statue of Morgan was placed in the square in 1881; the oldest