The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who lived south of Lake Ontario. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. In the 21st century, more than 10,000 Seneca live in the United States, which has three federally recognized Seneca tribes. Two are in New York: the Seneca Nation of New York, with two reservations in western New York near Buffalo; the Seneca-Cayuga Nation is located in Oklahoma, where their ancestors were relocated from Ohio during Indian Removal. 1,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, at the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. They are descendants of Seneca who resettled there after the American Revolution, as they had been allies of the British and forced to cede much of their lands. A legend of the Seneca tribe states that the tribe originated in a village called Nundawao, near the south end of Canandaigua Lake, at South Hill.
Close to South Hill stands the 865 foot -high Bare Hill, known to the Seneca as Genundowa. Bare Hill is part of the Bare Hill Unique Area, which began to be acquired by the state in 1989. Bare Hill had been the site of a pre-Seneca indigenous fort; the first written reference to this fort was made in 1825 by David Cusick in his history of the Seneca Indians. The traces of an ancient fort, covering about an acre, surrounded by a ditch, by a formidable wall, are still to be seen on top of Bare Hill, they indicate defenses raised by Indian hands, or more belong to the labors of a race that preceded the Indian occupation. The wall is now about tumbled down, the stones seem somewhat scattered, the ground is overgrown with brush. In the early 1920s, the material that made up the Bare Hill fort was used by the Town of Middlesex highway department for road fill; the Seneca traditionally lived in what is now New York state between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. The dating of an oral tradition mentioning a solar eclipse yields 1142 AD as the year for the Seneca joining the Iroquois.
Some recent archaeological evidence indicates their territory extended to the Allegheny River in present-day northwestern Pennsylvania after the Iroquois destroyed both the Wenrohronon and Erie nations in the 17th century, who were native to the area. The Seneca were by far the most populous of the Haudenosaunee nations, numbering about four thousand by the seventeenth century. Seneca villages were located as far east as current-day Schuyler County, south into current Tioga and Chemung counties and east into Tompkins and Cayuga counties, west into the Genesee River valley; the villages were the headquarters of the Seneca. While the Seneca maintained substantial permanent settlements and raised agricultural crops in the vicinity of their villages, they hunted through extensive areas, they prosecuted far-reaching military campaigns. The villages, where hunting and military campaigns were planned and executed, indicate the Seneca had hegemony in these areas. Major Seneca villages were protected with wooden palisades.
Ganondagan, with 150 longhouses, was the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, while Chenussio, with 130 longhouses, was a major village of the 18th century. The Seneca had two branches; each branch distinct, they were individually incorporated and recognized by the Iroquois Confederacy Council. The western Seneca lived predominately in and around the Genesee River moving west and southwest along the Erie and Niagara rivers south along the Allegheny River into Pennsylvania; the eastern Seneca lived predominantly south of Seneca Lake. They moved east into Pennsylvania and the western Catskill area; the west and north were under constant attack from their powerful Iroquoian brethren, the Huron To the South, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of the Susquehannock threatened constant warfare. The Algonkian tribes of the Mohican blocked access to the Hudson River in the northeast. In the southeast, the Algonkian tribes of the Lenape people threatened war from eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the Lower Hudson.
The Seneca used the Genesee and Allegheny rivers, as well as the Great Indian War and Trading Path, to travel from southern Lake Ontario into Pennsylvania and Ohio. The eastern Seneca had territory just north of the intersection of the Chemung, Susquehanna and Delaware rivers, which converged in Tioga; the rivers provided passage deep into all parts of eastern and western Pennsylvania, as well as east and northeast into the Delaware Water Gap and the western Catskills. The men of both branches of the Seneca wore the same head gear. Like the other Haudenosaunee, they wore hats with dried cornhusks on top; the Seneca had one feather sticking up straight. Traditionally, the Seneca Nation's economy was based on hunting and gathering activities and the cultivation of varieties corn and squash; these vegetables were the staple of the Haudenosaunee diet and were called "the three sisters". Seneca women grew and harvested varieties of the three sisters, as well as gathering and processing medicinal plants, berries and fruit.
Seneca women held sole ownership of the homes. The women tended to any domesticated animals such as dogs and turkeys; the Iroquois had a matrilineal kinship system. Women we
In mythology, in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story, which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour. Tricksters are archetypal characters. Lewis Hyde describes the trickster as a "boundary-crosser"; the trickster crosses and breaks both physical and societal rules. Tricksters "...violate principles of social and natural order, playfully disrupting normal life and re-establishing it on a new basis."Often, the bending/breaking of rules takes the form of tricks or thievery. Tricksters can be foolish or both; the trickster questions and mocks authority. They are male characters, are fond of breaking rules and playing tricks on both humans and gods. All cultures have tales of the trickster, a crafty creature who uses cunning to get food, steal precious possessions, or cause mischief. In some Greek myths Hermes plays the trickster, he is the patron of thieves and the inventor of lying, a gift he passed on to Autolycus, who in turn passed it on to Odysseus.
In Slavic folktales, the trickster and the culture hero are combined. The trickster figure exhibits gender and form variability. In Norse mythology the mischief-maker is Loki, a shape shifter. Loki exhibits gender variability, in one case becoming pregnant, he becomes a mare who gives birth to Odin's eight-legged horse Sleipnir. British scholar Evan Brown suggested that Jacob in the Bible has many of the characteristics of the trickster:The tricks Jacob plays on his twin brother Esau, his father Isaac and his father-in-law Laban are immoral by conventional standards, designed to cheat other people and gain material and social advantages he is not entitled to; the Biblical narrative takes Jacob's side and the reader is invited to laugh and admire Jacob's ingenuity–as is the case with the tricksters of other cultures". In a wide variety of African language communities, the rabbit, or hare, is the trickster. In West Africa, the spider is the trickster; the trickster or clown is an example of a Jungian archetype.
In modern literature the trickster survives as a character archetype, not supernatural or divine, sometimes no more than a stock character. Too, the trickster is distinct in a story by his acting as a sort of catalyst, in that his antics are the cause of other characters' discomfiture, but he himself is left untouched. A once-famous example of this was the character Froggy the Gremlin on the early children's television show "Andy's Gang". A cigar-puffing puppet, Froggy induced the adult humans around him to engage in ridiculous and self-destructive hi-jinks. In folklore, the trickster/clown is incarnated as a clever, mischievous man or creature, who tries to survive the dangers and challenges of the world using trickery and deceit as a defense, he is known for entertaining people as a clown does. For example, many typical fairy tales have the king who wants to find the best groom for his daughter by ordering several trials. No brave and valiant prince or knight manages to win them, until a simple peasant comes.
With the help of his wits and cleverness, instead of fighting, he evades or fools monsters and villains and dangers with unorthodox manners. Therefore, the most unlikely candidate receives the reward. More modern and obvious examples of that type include Pippi Longstocking. Modern African American literary criticism has turned the trickster figure into an example of how it is possible to overcome a system of oppression from within. For years, African American literature was discounted by the greater community of American literary criticism while its authors were still obligated to use the language and the rhetoric of the system that relegated African Americans and other minorities to the ostracized position of the cultural "other." The central question became one of how to overcome this system when the only words available were created and defined by the oppressors. As Audre Lorde explained, the problem was that "the master's tools never dismantle the master's house."In his writings of the late 1980s, Henry Louis Gates Jr. presents the concept of Signifyin'.
Wound up in this theory is the idea that the "master's house" can be "dismantled" using his "tools" if the tools are used in a new or unconventional way. To demonstrate this process, Gates cites the interactions found in African American narrative poetry between the trickster, the Signifying Monkey, his oppressor, the Lion. According to Gates, the "Signifying Monkey" is the "New World figuration" and "functional equivalent" of the Eshu trickster figure of African Yoruba mythology; the Lion functions as the authoritative figure in his classical role of "King of the Jungle." He is the one. Yet the Monkey is able to outwit the Lion continually in these narratives through his usage of figurative language. According to Gates, "he Signifying Monkey is able to signify upon the Lion because the Lion does not understand the Monkey's discourse…The monkey speaks figuratively, in a symbolic code. In this way, the Monkey uses the same language as the Lion, but he uses it on a level that the Lion cannot comprehend.
This leads to the Lion's "trounc" at the hands of a third party, the Elephant. The net effect of all of this is "the reversal of status as the King of the Jungle." In this way, the "
Hiawatha was a precolonial Indian leader and co-founder of the Iroquois Confederacy. He was a leader of the Mohawk people, or both. According to some accounts, he was adopted into the Mohawks. Hiawatha was a follower of the Great Peacemaker, a Huron prophet and spiritual leader who proposed the unification of the Iroquois peoples, who shared common ancestry and similar languages, but he suffered from a severe speech impediment which hindered him from spreading his proposal. Hiawatha was a skilled orator, he was instrumental in persuading the Senecas, Onondagas and Mohawks to accept the Great Peacemaker's vision and band together to become the Five Nations of the Iroquois confederacy; the Tuscarora people joined the Confederacy in 1722 to become the Sixth Nation. Hiawatha, a sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Hiawatha Council, former name of the Longhouse Council, BSA in Onondaga County Hiawatha Boulevard is a street in Syracuse NY, in Onondaga County. Hiawatha Lake, in Onondaga Park in Syracuse, NY In 1950, plans for a film about the historical Hiawatha by Monogram Pictures were scrapped.
The reason given was. A film was released in 1997 based on the Longfellow poem, it was a joint production of the U. S. and Canada, filmed in Canada. The 26.66-mile Hiawatha bike trail in northern Idaho and Montana is over a former railroad right-of-way on old bridges and through old tunnels. A 52-foot tall, 16,000 lb fiberglass statue of Hiawatha was built in 1964 and stands in Ironwood, MI, it is billed as the "World's Tallest and Largest Indian". Hiawatha National Forest is a 894,836-acre National Forest in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Amtrak, a railroad serving the continental United States and parts of Canada, has a train called "Hiawatha Service", which runs several times daily between Chicago, IL and Milwaukee, WI, it was named for a series of trains operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad; the Metro Blue Line in Hennepin County, Minnesota was known as the Hiawatha Line. The line runs along its namesake Hiawatha Avenue in Minneapolis; the Island of Hiawatha is the former name of the Toronto Islands.
Hiawatha appears as a playable leader for the Iroquois in the video games Sid Meier's Civilization III, Age of Empires 3, Sid Meier's Civilization V, serves as the visual representation of the Iroquois in Europa Universalis IV Hiawatha Elementary School in Essex Jct. VT. Hiawatha Park, Chicago Park District park, northwest City of Chicago Hiawatha Beach neighborhood was established in 1926; these homes surround Buck Lake and line the Huron River in Hamburg Township, MI. The Links at Hiawatha Landing. A golf course in Apalachin, NY; the USS Hiawatha is the name of several ships of the United States Navy, as well as a Starfleet starship that appeared on a 2019 episode of Star Trek: Discovery. The Song of Hiawatha, which includes the fictitious Aboriginal woman Minnehaha Bonvillain, Nancy. Hiawatha: founder of the Iroquois Confederacy. ISBN 1-59155-176-5 ISBN 9781591551768 Hale, Horatio. Hiawatha and the Iroquois confederation: a study in anthropology. Hatzan, A. Leon; the true story of Hiawatha, history of the Six Nations Indians.
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. The Myth of Hiawatha, Other Oral Legends and Allegoric, of the North American Indians. Laing, Mary E.. The hero of the longhouse. Saraydarian and Joann L Alesch. Hiawatha and the great peace. ISBN 0-911794-25-5 ISBN 9780911794250 ISBN 0-911794-28-X ISBN 9780911794281 Siles, William H.. Studies in local history: tall tales and legend of upstate New York. Juvenile audience Bonvillain, Nancy. Hiawatha: founder of the Iroquois Confederacy. ISBN 0-7910-1707-9 ISBN 9780791017074 Fradin, Dennis B.. Hiawatha: messenger of peace. ISBN 0-689-50519-1 ISBN 9780689505195 McClard, George Ypsilantis and Frank Riccio. Hiawatha and the Iroquois league. ISBN 0-382-09568-5 ISBN 9780382095689 ISBN 0-382-09757-2 ISBN 9780382097577 Malkus, Alida. There was a Hiawatha. St. John and Mildred Mellor Bateson. Romans of the West: untold but true story of Hiawatha. Taylor, C. J.. Peace walker: the legend of Hiawatha and Tekanawita. ISBN 0-88776-547-5 ISBN 9780887765476 Historica’s Heritage Minute Peacemaker, a mini-docudrama about the co founders of the Iroquois Confederacy.
Chapter V, The Iroquois Confederacy History of the Mohawk Valley: Dekanawida and Hiawatha, Schenectady Digital History Archive Google Books overview of Ancient Society The Great Peacemaker Deganawidah and his follower Hiawatha, theater play by Living Wisdom School Hiawatha at Find a Grave
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
The Flying Head is a cannibalistic spirit from Iroquois and Wyandot mythology. According to both Iroquois and Wyandot mythology, Flying Heads are described as being ravenous spirits, that are cursed with an insatiable hunger; the physical appearance of the Flying Head somewhat varies depending on the storyteller however, it is described as resembling a human head with long dark hair, "terrible eyes", a large mouth filled with razor sharp fangs. In some versions, the Flying Head has a pair of bat wings jutting from each side of its cheek, bird-like talons. Other versions replace its bat wings with those of a bird. In all instances, they're described as being larger in size than that of the tallest man, possessing a hide than no weapon can penetrate. According to folklore, the Flying Head drove the original native inhabitants who lived in the area of the state of New York near the source of the Hudson River, in the Adirondack Mountains away from their hunting grounds before the Europeans came.
In the early nineteenth century a Mohawk guide in the town of Lake Pleasant, New York, who called himself Capt. Gill, claimed it was Lake Sacandaga where the legend took place; the tribe had their village on a hill, now located behind the Hamilton County buildings. The name of the previous inhabitants has been lost to history, the legend of The Flying Head ensured that every neighboring tribe steered clear for many years; the Flying Head legend survives. The hill where the unknown tribe's village was located, is considered cursed. Three different hotels were built on the sacred site and all three had a short life span and burned to the ground mysteriously. Capt. Gill lived in a wigwam at the outlet of Lake Pleasant, he had a wife named Molly, Molly had a daughter named Molly Jr. whom Capt. Gill didn't claim as his own. "The Great God hath sent us signs in the sky we have heard uncommon noise in the heavens and have seen HEADS fall down upon the earth" Speech of Tahayadoris a Mohawk sachem at Albany October 25, 1689One version of the story says that there was once a severe winter, that killed off plants and drove the moose and deer to other areas.
Local native hunters decided against following them. The fishing too failed, according to legend, the famine became so severe that whole families began to die. Young members of the community began to talk of migrating from the area, surrounded as they were by hostile tribes to shift their hunting ground for a season was not possible, they proposed a secret march to the great lake off to the west. They believed. According to legend, the old men of the tribe were opposed to leaving their homelands and said that the journey was madness, they said too that the famine was a scourge which the Master of Life inflicted upon his people for their crimes. The legend states that the old men added that they would rather perish by inches on their native hills, that they would rather die that moment, than leave their land forever, to live with plenty upon strange lands; the legend promptly killed the old men. After killing the elders, the question of the disposal of their remains was a problem. According to the legend, they wished in some way to sanctify the deed by offering up the bodies to the Master of Life.
They agreed to decapitate the bodies, burn them, to sink the heads together to the bottom of the lake. One of the young chiefs who planned the crime died when he became entangled in the ropes that bound the heads together and drowned; the legend goes on to say that bubbles and slime appeared on the lake, heralding a terrible monster: a giant head with wings, which the tribe could never escape. The legend states that the problems brought on by the Flying Head did not stop with this group alone; the Flying Head chose to terrorize neighboring peoples as well for no particular reason. Many of the Iroquois were troubled by the Flying Head which, when it rested upon the ground, was taller than a man; this supposed monster was coated in thick black hair, it had wings like a bat, talons. One evening after they had been plagued a long time with fearful visitations, the Flying Head came to the door of a lodge occupied by a single female, she was sitting before the fire roasting acorns which, as they became cooked, she took from the fire and ate.
Terrified by the power of the woman, who he thought was eating live coals, the Flying Head left and bothered them no more. An alternate version of this part of the legend says that, rather than seeing a woman eating acorns and thinking she was eating live coals, the Flying Head stole live coals from her and tried to eat them, thinking they were acorns; the results of course disastrous, the Flying Head flees in agony, never to be seen again. Bibliography Krasue Leyak Penanggalan Zardoz