Mendelssohn-Bartholdy-Park (Berlin U-Bahn)
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy-Park is a Berlin U-Bahn station opened in 1998 on the U 2 line in the Tiergarten district, at the border with Kreuzberg. The station received its name after a small park east of the building, itself named in honor of the composer Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy known as Felix Mendelssohn. Though it is one of the youngest stations of the Berlin U-Bahn system, it is located on the first Stammstrecke line of 1902, where its northern branch crosses the Landwehr Canal on a viaduct and passes north through part of the Scandic Hotel before heading underground towards Potsdamer Platz. With the building of the Berlin Wall on 13 August 1961, train service was interrupted and for a brief time in 1991 the tracks served for the experimental M-Bahn maglev line, stopping at Bernburger Strasse station to the north. Following reunification, the M-Bahn was removed to allow the U-Bahn U2 to be reinstated; the line was reopened on 13 November 1993, the station with access to the debis headquarters of the former Daimler-Benz company however was not opened until 2 October 1998.
The station has disabled access with lifts on the South entrance of the station
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Bus transport in Berlin
Bus transport is the oldest public transport service in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, having been introduced in 1846. Since 1929, services have been operated by BVG, although during the Cold War-era division of the city they operated in West Berlin only. BVG's fleet consists of 1,300 vehicles. 30 October 1846 saw the first bus services from the Concessionierte Berliner Omnibus-Compagnie. In 1868, a new company was created, the ABOAG which on 1 January 1929 merged with other Berlin public transport companies to create the BVG. After the opening of Berlin Wall, the transport companies were no longer able to cope up with the traffic, so once again, solo buses by other transport companies and 100 hired coaches were used; the 3-digit numbering system was unified and implemented on June 2, 1991, just before the reunification of BVG in 1 January 1992. Normal bus routes make up most of the network and consist of around 300 lines, numbered from 100 to 399; the most famous line is the 100, which serves the tourist route from Alexanderplatz to the Zoological Garden passing many of Berlin's sights.
The suburban buses, operating outside Berlin and not managed by BVG, are included in the tariff area of Berlin public transport. Each bus line has a 3-digit number; the second digit indicates the borough in which the line runs: 0 = across more than 1 or 2 boroughs 1 = for the former boroughs of Wilmersdorf and Zehlendorf 2 = for the district of Reinickendorf 3 = for the district of Spandau 4 = for the districts of Mitte and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 5 = for the district of Pankow and the former one of Hohenschönhausen 6 = for the district of Treptow-Köpenick 7 = for the districts of Tempelhof-Schöneberg and Neukölln 8 = for the former district of Steglitz 9 = for the district of Marzahn-Hellersdorf and the former one of Lichtenberg As for the MetroTram lines, there are 17 MetroBus lines, each running every 10 minutes with a 24-hour service. Unlike the other bus lines, they are shown on many tramway maps and on some railway maps of the city; the list of Metrobus routes are: M11: Dahlem-Dorf - Schöneweide M19: Grunewald - Mehringdamm M21: Rosenthal - Jungfernheide M27: Pankow - Jungfernheide M29: Grunewald - Hermannplatz M32: Rathaus Spandau - Dallgow-Döberitz, Havelpark M37: Spandau - Staaken M41: Sonnenallee - Hauptbahnhof M44: Buckow - Hermannstraße M45: Spandau - Zoologischer Garten M46: Zoologischer Garten - Britz-Süd M48: Zehlendorf - Alexanderplatz M49: Heerstraße/Nennhauser Damm - Zoologischer Garten M76: Walter-Schreiber-Platz - Lichtenrade M77: Marienfelde, Waldsassener Straße - Alt-Mariendorf M82: Marienfelde, Waldsassener Straße - Rathaus Steglitz M85: Lichterfelde Süd - Hauptbahnhof The express buses are 13 rapid lines used to reach the airports or linking the suburbs to the city centre, with far fewer stops.
The most famous route is TXL. X7: Schönefeld - Rudow X9: Zoologischer Garten - Tegel Airport X10: Zoologischer Garten - Teltow, Rammrath-Brücke X11: Krumme Lanke - Schöneweide X21: Märkisches Viertel, Quickborner Straße - U Jakob-Kaiser-Platz X33: Märkisches Viertel, Wilhelmsruher Damm - Rathaus Spandau X34: Kladow - Zoologischer Garten X36: Rathaus Spandau - Haselhorst X49: Staaken - Messe Nord/ICC X54: Pankow - Hellersdorf X69: Marzahn - Köpenick, Müggelschlößchenweg X76: Walter-Schreiber-Platz - Lichtenrade X83: Königin-Luise-Straße/Clayallee - Lichtenrade The night buses, consisting of 45 lines, substitute the U-Bahn; the other lines serve suburban neighbourhoods not served by any public service running in daytime. Apart from the service buses managed by BVG and other local companies, in the city there are hundreds of private tourist coaches. For national and international routes an important company based in the city is the Berlin Linien Bus; the main bus station of Berlin is the Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin known as ZOB.
It is located in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and linked to the stations of Kaiserdamm and Messe Nord/ICC. On 18 February 2011 MR Software released "OMSI - The Bus Simulator" for Windows, it is a bus simulator set in the late 1980s in West Berlin that features the MAN SD200 and MAN SD202 double-decker buses with a complex set of functions and made in various years. The player operates these buses along line 92 that served the Staaken, Wilhelmstadt and Falkenhagener Feld localities in the borough of Spandau; as of 2015, the BVG bus fleet consisted of 1300 buses. Single Decker Long Bus Bendy Bus Double Decker Dieter Gammrath, Hein Jung: "Berliner Omnibusse". Alba, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-87094-334-3 Gammrath, Schmiedeke: "Berliner Omnibusse". Alba, Düsseldorf 1999, ISBN 3-87094-359-9 Route planner by WikiRoutes.info BVG official website Bus transport page on BVG website
Märkisches Museum (Berlin U-Bahn)
Märkisches Museum is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the Mitte district. Since 1935 it has been named after the nearby Märkisches Museum, the municipal museum of the history of Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg; the station called Inselbrücke, opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander designed a vaulted hall deep beneath street level due to the adjacent Spree underpass leading to Klosterstrasse, it was renamed in 1935 to Märkisches Museum. There was a slight damage to the ceiling on 24 May 1944, it is one of only 2 Berlin U-Bahn stations with no central columns, the other being Platz der Luftbrücke. In 1987 and 1988, as part of events for the 750th anniversary of Berlin, the GDR government commissioned decorations for the station with the theme of "the history of Berlin". Artist Jo Doese constructed twelve mosaics depicting maps of the city of Berlin, from its beginnings as the twin towns of Berlin and Cölln in 1237 through to the modern city in 1987, with each mosaic being constructed from building materials that would have been used in the city at the time.
There are two copies of each of six maps on opposite walls of one set near each track. In between the maps are reliefs by artists Karl-Heinz Schäfer and Ulrich Jörke, each in a style appropriate to the time period of the adjacent map. Märkisches Museum is operated by the provider of most of Berlin's rapid transit. Situated on the U 2 line, trains from Märkisches Museum serve Pankow to the north, stopping at significant destinations such as Alexanderplatz, Ruhleben to the west, stopping at Potsdamer Platz, Kurfürstendamm and the Olympic Stadium
The Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg is a transport association run by public transport providers in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It is a private limited company owned jointly by the states of Berlin and Brandenburg and the 18 counties and cities of Brandenburg with 1.85% each. It was founded on 30 December 1996. VBB claims to be one of the largest transport associations in Europe based on the area covered of 30,367 km² with nearly 6 million inhabitants. Common ticketing was launched on 1 April 1999; the 2005 number of passengers transported was 1.23 billion, with 3.37 million passengers per day.bnn Many lines are operated under the VBB fare structure. This includes all local traffic in Berlin, such as the Berlin S-Bahn and Berlin U-Bahn, as well as all regional train services, most of them RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn lines. There are several trolleybus and ferry lines within the VBB area; the number of lines, as of 2005, is as follows: 43 Regional rail lines 16 Berlin S-Bahn lines 10 Berlin U-Bahn lines 41 Tram lines 949 Omnibus lines 2 Trolleybus lines 7 Ferries The Berlin S-Bahn network amounted for 32.43 million train kilometres in 2005.
Regional trains accumulated a total amount of 38.07 million train kilometres. The percentage of rail passengers transported per company is 47.16% for DB Regio 45.79% for Berlin S-Bahn 4.80% for Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn 1.33% for Prignitzer Eisenbahn 0.52% for Niederbarnimer Eisenbahn 0.40% for LausitzBahn List of German transport associations Official website Live map of VBB
Schlesisches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Schlesisches Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1 and U 3 lines. It is located in eastern Kreuzberg, near Oberbaumbrücke, in the Bohemian quarter known as SO36; the station is named after one of the former city gates of Berlin built in the early 18th century. The exceptionally richly designed station opened on 18 February 1902, on the first Berlin U-Bahn line erected by the Siemens & Halske company. On 11/12 March 1945, this station was directly hit, the track area was damaged. During the division of Berlin after 13 August 1961, the station was the eastern terminus of the U1, as the final station, Warschauer Straße, was in East Berlin; the link was reopened in 1995. An intermediate station at the Spree river, Stralauer Tor, had been destroyed in 1945 and never reopened. Schlesisches Tor was an atmospheric location in the 1966 espionage film The Quiller Memorandum starring George Segal and Alec Guinness
Berlin Alexanderplatz station
Berlin Alexanderplatz is a German railway station in the Mitte district of Berlin's city centre. It is one of the busiest transport hubs in the Berlin area; the station is named for the Alexanderplatz on which it is located, near the Fernsehturm and the World clock. Like other long-distance stations, Alexanderplatz is a shopping centre for selling merchandise to travelers. Due to its importance and central location, it is a site where tourists change. Alexanderplatz thereby became beside Nollendorfplatz station the second major hub of the Berlin U-Bahn network. Four Regional-Express and Regionalbahn lines as well as the S-Bahn rapid transit lines S 3, S 5, S 7, S 9 call at the overground station; the adjacent underground station is one of the largest on the Berlin U-Bahn network, with the lines U 2, U 5 and U 8 calling. The station is served by four tram lines, two of which run continuously, as well as five bus lines during the day, one of which runs continuously and three night bus lines. Alexanderplatz is connected through the two tunnel links, from U2 to U5 and U5 to U8.
Alexanderplatz station opened on 7 February 1882 on the Berlin Stadtbahn viaduct from Charlottenburg to Ostbahnhof. In 1926 the station hall spanning two platforms with four tracks was rebuilt in its present plain style. Damaged in World War II, train service at the station was resumed on 4 November 1945, while the reconstruction of the hall continued until 1951; the first U-Bahn station of the present U2 line designed by Alfred Grenander entered service on 1 July 1913. The platforms of the U8 and the U5 opened on 18 April 1930 and 21 December 1930 also built according to Grenander's conception, but in a distinct Modern style; the U2 station was renovated after the Alexanderplatz fire in 1972. The eastern entrances were destroyed on 15 March 1945; the U8 station was a ghost station during the division of Berlin from 13 August 1961 to 1 July 1990. The station master offices were built; the access at Dirksenstraße had to be made accessible again, just like the connecting stairs to the mall and to the platforms of Line E.
Other than that, the intercommunication staircase was built towards Line E so that it goes through the dimly lit platforms. Stainallee was renamed a few months after the closure of the stairs. In all cases, the metro stations had to be recognizable as such on the surface; the U-Bahn logo has been removed in recent years. This station had to undergo renovation works from 17 May to 30 June 1990 before the full reopening on 1 July 1990; the U2 station had undergone renovation work in January 2001 to March 2001. The U5 station underwent renovation works from February 2003 to September 2004, it is a U5 westbound terminus from 1930 to 2019, where it will be replaced by Berlin Hauptbahnhof. The station is served by the following service: Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Erkner – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam – Wannsee – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Ahrensfelde Berlin S-Bahn services S 9 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Schöneweide - Flughafen Schönefeld