Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
African Growth and Opportunity Act
The African Growth and Opportunity Act, or AGOA is a piece of legislation, approved by the U. S. Congress in May 2000; the purpose of this legislation is to assist the economies of sub-Saharan Africa and to improve economic relations between the United States and the region. After completing its initial 15-year period of validity, the AGOA legislation was extended on 29 June 2015 by a further 10 years, to 2025. Rosa Whitaker, who served as the first Assistant U. S. Trade Representative for Africa in the administrations of Presidents George W. Bush and William J. Clinton took the final lead in developing and implementing the African Growth and Opportunity Act following nearly a decade of leadership on the part of activists such as Paul Speck at Environmental and Energy Institute, lawmakers, including Congressman Jim McDermott and Senator John Kerry, both senior lawmakers in the area of international trade. AGOA was signed by President Clinton into law in May 2000; the legislation was reviewed again in 2015, was renewed.
The revisions made it easier to become eligible and focused on improving the future business environment in developing African countries. The legislation authorized the President of the United States to determine which sub-Saharan African countries would be eligible for AGOA on an annual basis; the eligibility criteria was to improve labor rights and movement toward a market-based economy. Each year, the President evaluates the sub-Saharan African countries and determines which countries should remain eligible. Countries' inclusion has fluctuated with changes in the local political environment. In December 2009, for example, Guinea and Niger were all removed from the list of eligible countries. Notice was given that Burundi would lose its AGOA eligibility status as of 1 January 2016. In August, 2017, Togo was recognized as an eligible country. Having AGOA eligibility does not imply automatic eligibility for a "Wearing Apparel" provision. To export apparel and certain textile to the United States under the AGOA duty-free, an eligible country must have implemented a "Visa System" that satisfies American authorities and proves compliance with the AGOA Rules of Origin.
AGOA provides trade preferences for quota and duty-free entry into the United States for certain goods, expanding the benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences program. Notably, AGOA expanded market access for textile and apparel goods into the United States for eligible countries, though many other goods are included; this resulted in the growth of an apparel industry in southern Africa, created hundreds of thousands of jobs. However, the dismantling of the Multi Fibre Agreement's world quota regime for textile and apparel trade in January 2005 reversed some of the gains made in the African textile industry due to increased competition from developing nations outside of Africa China; some factories shut down in Lesotho. Orders from African manufacturers stabilised somewhat after the imposition of certain safeguard measures by U. S. authorities, but Africa's share of the U. S. market was still reduced after the phaseout. AGOA has resulted in limited successes in some countries. In addition to growth in the textile and apparel industry, some AGOA countries have begun to export new products to the United States, such as cut flowers, horticultural products, automotive components and steel.
While Nigeria and Angola are the largest exporters under AGOA, other countries South Africa's have been more diverse and unlike the former are not concentrated in the energy sector. To some countries, including Lesotho, Swaziland and Madagascar, AGOA remains of critical importance. Agricultural products are a promising area for AGOA trade. S. sanitary and phytosanitary standards. The U. S. government is providing technical assistance to AGOA eligible countries to help them benefit from the legislation, through the U. S. Agency for International Development and other agencies; the U. S. government has established three regional trade hubs in Africa in Accra, Ghana. AGOA was set to expire in 2008, but the United States Congress passed the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004, which extended the legislation to 2015, it has since been extended by 10 years from 2015 to 2025. The Act's apparel special provision, which permits lesser-developed countries to use foreign fabric for their garment exports, was to expire in September 2007.
However, legislation passed by Congress in December 2006 extended it through 2012, to 2025 as part of the general AGOA extension in June 2015. Every year an AGOA Forum is held, which brings together government leaders and private sector stakeholders from Africa and the United States; the Forum is held in Washington every other year, in an AGOA eligible African country in the other years. So far, the Forum has been held four times in Washington, once each in Mauritius, Ghana, Zambia, Ethiopia and Togo.. Statistics suggest a positive balance of trade for AGOA participant countries. In FY2008, the United States exported $17,125,389 in goods to the 41 AGOA countries, the U. S. imported $81,426,951 for a balance of $64,301,562 in favor of the AGOA countries. Some allege. Furthermore, it is seen as a one-sided agreement as there was little African involvement in its prep
Eritrea–United States relations
Eritrea–United States relations are bilateral relations between Eritrea and the United States. Natalie E. Brown is the current U. S. Ambassador to Eritrea; the U. S. government established a consulate in Asmara in 1942. In 1953, the USG signed a Mutual Defense Treaty with Ethiopia; the treaty granted the United States control and expansion of the important British military communications base at Kagnew near Asmara. In the 1960s, as many as 1,700 U. S. military personnel were stationed at Kagnew. In the 1970s, technological advances in the satellite and communications fields were making the communications station at Kagnew obsolete. In 1974, Kagnew Station drastically reduced its personnel complement. In early 1977, the United States informed the Ethiopian government that it intended to close Kagnew Station permanently by September 30, 1977. In the meantime, U. S. relations with the Mengistu regime worsened. In April 1977, Mengistu abrogated the 1953 mutual defense treaty and ordered a reduction of U.
S. personnel in Ethiopia, including the closure of Kagnew Communications Center and the consulate in Asmara. In August 1992, the United States reopened its consulate in Asmara, staffed with one officer. On April 27, 1993, the United States recognized Eritrea as an independent state, on June 11, diplomatic relations were established with the appointment of a chargé d'affaires; the first U. S. Ambassador arrived that year. U. S. interests in Eritrea include consolidating the peace with Ethiopia, encouraging progress toward establishing a democratic political culture, supporting Eritrean efforts to become constructively involved in solving regional problems, promoting economic reform. The U. S. Embassy is in Asmara. Micheal Veasy is the Deputy Chief of Mission. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Eritrea This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Eritrea - U. S. relations
Rwanda–United States relations
Rwanda–United States relations are bilateral relations between Rwanda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 76% of Rwandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 17% disapproving and 7% uncertain. U. S. Government interests have shifted since the 1994 genocide from a humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development; the largest U. S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities support good governance and decentralization. Overall U. S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years. A major focus of bilateral relations is the U. S. Agency for International Development's program. In support of the overall Government of Rwanda development plan, USAID aims to improve the health and livelihoods of Rwandans and increase economic and political development.
To achieve this, USAID activities focus on: Prevention and care of HIV/AIDS. The Mission is implementing a number of activities related to the goals above, is working with the Millennium Challenge Corporation to obtain approval of the Threshold Country Plan submitted by the Government of Rwanda in November 2007. Once approved, the plan will be implemented by USAID and will focus on strengthening the justice sector and civic participation, promoting civil rights and liberties; the State Department's Public Affairs section maintains a cultural center in Kigali, which offers public access to English-language publications and information on the United States. American business interests have been small. S. investment is limited to the tea industry and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns. Annual U. S. exports to Rwanda, under $10 million annually from 1990–93, exceeded $40 million in 1994 and 1995. Although exports decreased in the years after the genocide, in 2007 they were estimated at $17 million, a 20% increase over 2006.
Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Donald W. Koran, Deputy Chief of Mission Jessica Lapenn, USAID Program Director George Lewis; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Rwanda. In July 2013, the US warned Rwanda to end its support for the March 23 Movement rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after evidence was found that Rwandan military officials were involved. In November 2015, the US criticized a vote by Rwandan lawmakers to approve a change to their constitution to allow President Paul Kagame to serve a third term. A State Department spokesman did not explicitly threaten that US aid to its traditionally close African friend would be cut, but warned ties could be reviewed. Foreign relations of Rwanda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Rwanda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Rwanda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
United States–Zambia relations
The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. Several U. S. administrations cooperated with Zambia's first president, Kenneth Kaunda, in hopes of facilitating solutions to the conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. The United States works with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic, ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government; the United States is supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of Opportunity Act; the U. S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support, managed by the Department of State, U. S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, Peace Corps; the majority of U. S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.
In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought and flooding through the World Food Program and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 59% of Zambians approve of U. S. leadership, with 30% disapproving and 11% uncertain. In 2007, U. S. assistance to Zambia exceeded $259 million. USAID's program in Zambia included over $116 million for HIV/AIDS programs utilizing PEPFAR funding and $11 million to fight corruption and increase trade under the MCA Threshold Program. In addition to programs funded through PEPFAR, the President's Malaria Initiative, the Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, USAID's program in Zambia supported training and technical assistance to promote economic growth through trade and investment. A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993.
The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. The Peace Corps program in Zambia has continued to increase with more than 200 American volunteers working to promote sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management and sanitation, rural education, humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in all of Zambia's nine provinces to build the local capacity to manage family fish farms, develop an innovative paradigm via appropriate technologies, to promote food security and promote positive resource management practices, to implement health reforms at the village level, to promote and support rural education, to extend HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts through full participation in PEPFAR. Volunteers live in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. Peace Corps Zambia has one of the highest rates of extension and enjoys successful partnerships with many other aid organizations in Zambia.
Ambassador--Donald Booth Deputy Chief of Mission—Michael Koplovsky Public Affairs Officer—Christopher Wurst Political/Economic Section Chief—Jill Derderian Consular Officer—Malia Heroux Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. David Dougherty Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—vacant USAID Mission Director—Melissa Williams Peace Corps Director—Thomas Kennedy The U. S. Embassy in Zambia is in Lusaka; the US Embassy realizes Zambia's potential to become one of Africa's leading free market democracies, they are committed to aiding critical areas of Zambia's development like human and financial resources. Zambia is one of the 15 countries promised a total of 1.5 billion dollars for AIDS Relief under President Bush's Emergency Plan. In education, the Ambassador's Scholarship Program provides education for 1,500 Zambian boys and girls; the Embassy's Public Affairs Section sends about 15 Zambians a year to the US to participate in International Visitor programs, brings speakers from the US to Zambia about 4 times a year.
It provides for scholars from the US to come to Zambia for longer stays, sends Zambians to study in the US on Humphrey and Fulbright Fellowships. To promote economic development, The US government is prepared to forgive 100% of Zambia's bilateral debt when Zambia completes the Highly Indebted Poor Country initiative; until the US government has forgiven all payments of interest and principal on Zambia's half billion dollar debt to the US, in 2003, $34 million in payments were forgiven. Zambian Americans Foreign relations of Zambia Foreign relations of the United States New York Times: "For the hungry in Zambia, U. S. law may hinder urgent food aid" This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Zambia - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of the United States and Zambia at Wikimedia Commons
Kenya–United States relations
Kenya–United States relations are bilateral relations between Kenya and the United States. Kenya and the United States have long been close allies and have enjoyed cordial relations since Kenya's independence. Relations became closer after Kenya's democratic transition of 2002 and subsequent improvements in human rights; this was preceded by sometimes frosty interludes during President Moi's regime when the two countries clashed over bad governance issues, resulting in aid suspension and many diplomatic rows. Following the election of the new government of Uhuru Kenyatta in 2013, relations somewhat took a dip when the new president forged a new foreign policy looking east away from traditional western allies. Kenya–United States relations have been cemented through cooperation against Islamist terrorism and a visit by President Obama to Kenya, the homeland of his father. Kenya's athletic mastery of some auspicious American events such as the Boston Marathon and New York Marathon have increased ordinary Americans' consciousness of Kenya paving the way for a warm mutual regard between the two peoples.
An attack on Kenya by Al-Qaeda in 1998 as well as subsequent more attacks by Al-Shabaab, has drawn the two countries politically closer due to the shared fate the U. S. has had of similar targeting in the horrific September 11 attacks by Al-Qaeda in Lower Manhattan and The Pentagon. Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa and the world more so than the U. S. itself. According to the Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, 87% of Kenyans view the U. S. favorably in 2007, decreasing down to 83% in 2011 and 81% viewing the U. S. favorably in 2013. and according to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 68% of Kenyans approve of U. S. leadership, with 14% disapproving and 18% uncertain. In a 2013 BBC World Service poll, 69% of Kenyans view U. S. influence positively, with only 11% viewing U. S. influence negatively. After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the United States recognized the new nation. However, it was not until March 2, 1964 that diplomatic relations were established with William Atwood establishing the U.
S. Embassy at Nairobi; the United States provided the fledgling nation with $21 million in funds and technical aid, with Kenya seeking more loans from the United States. The United States soon found itself invested in Kenyan politics due to the power struggle between Tom Mboya and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga; the United States had been impressed by Mboya since the 1950s, sought to empower him in the new administration instead of the more leftist Odinga. The United States was successful, Mboya began wooing Kenya's prime minister Jomo Kenyatta into becoming more favorable with the United States and the CIA. After Odinga's fall from power, Kenya found itself squarely in the Western bloc during the Cold War period; the fact that Soviet ideals never gained traction in post-independence Kenya meant that there was little to no jockeying between the United States and the U. S. S. R. in this region. This meant there was little need for Kenya and United States relations, since the United States took Kenyan support for granted.
However, the 1980s saw. After Jomo Kenyatta's death, the new president of Kenya Daniel arap Moi sought to further strengthen relations with the United States Moi joined the United States' Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, allowing for the construction of United States military installations in Kenya; the most notable development of this military construction was allowing United States naval access to Mombasa, which resulted in the United States paying Kenya $26 million. Good relations, fell into jeopardy with the deteriorating civil rights picture in Kenya. In 1987, the chairman of the Congress subcommittee on Africa, Michigan congressman Howard Wolpe, accused Daniel arap Moi of bankrolling criminals and committing human rights abuses; the issue was placed on the agenda for Ronald Reagan's talks with Moi, but nothing came of it at this time. In 1991, the United States joined with a coalition of other nations who gave financial assistance to Kenya to pressure for reforms. In a 1991 meeting in Paris, Kenya's aid donors insisted on ending corruption and human rights abuses, threatening to pull their aid.
These concerns caused the United States to suspend its aid in 1992. When United States pressure forced multiparty elections in 1992, relations were tense all throughout the 1990s due to international discontent with the tactics of the Moi regime; the United States reacted positively to the Kenyan elections of 2000, the first democratic transition of power in Kenya's history. The new president, Mwai Kibaki was honored as the first African head of state to be invited to Washington D. C. for a state visit. On August 7, 1998, al Qaeda terrorists detonated a car bomb outside the United States embassy in Nairobi, leaving 200 dead and thousands wounded; the immediate aftermath strained relations between the United States and Kenya, as Kenyans felt that the United States only cared about the Americans who lost their lives, not the Kenyans. The situation was worsened when the American ambassador, Prudence Bushnell, implied that Kenyans were attempting to loot the embassy. However, since that event, the Kenyan and U.
S. governments have intensified cooperation to address all forms of insecurity in Kenya, including terrorism. The United States provides equipment and training to Kenyan security forces, both civilian and military. In its dialog with the Kenyan Government, the United States urges effective action against corruption and insecurity as the two greatest impediments to Kenya achieving sustained, rapid economic growth. Families and victims of the attack have severally appealed to the Kenyan government to petition the U. S. gov