Ng Eng Hen
Dr Ng Eng Hen is a Singaporean politician. A member of the governing People's Action Party, he has been the Minister for Defence since 2011 and continued in this role after the October 2015 elections, he has been a Member of Parliament representing the Bishan-Toa Payoh Group Representation Constituency since 2001. Ng lived in a rental flat in Zion Road during his childhood, he attended Anglo-Chinese School and National Junior College, before going on to medical school at the National University of Singapore and fellowship training in surgical oncology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. Ng was a consultant surgeon at the Singapore General Hospital from 1992 to 1997, maintained a private practice in Mount Elizabeth Hospital as a surgical oncologist from 1997 to 2001. In 2001, Ng was elected a Member of Parliament for Bishan-Toa Payoh Group GRC. In 2002, he was made a Minister of State at the Ministry of Ministry of Manpower. In August 2004, Ng became the Minister for Second Minister for Education.
In 2005, his Second Minister's portfolio was switched from Education to Defence. In April 2008, Ng was made the Minister for Education and relinquished the post of Minister for Manpower. Ng has served as Chairman of the Jobs Task Force at the Ministry of Manpower, Chairman of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Low Wage Workers. In June 2007, Ng travelled to France at the invitation of the French Ministry of Defence to visit the Paris Air Show and to visit a permanent Republic of Singapore Air Force detachment stationed at Cazaux Air Base in France. In March 2010, Ng mentioned that the weight of mother-tongue language examinations in the Singapore Primary School Leaving Examination might be reduced in order to benefit some students who are weak in their mother-tongue due to the emphasis on the English language in the Singapore education system; this sparked a debate among Singaporeans who support emphasis on mother-tongue languages in education. Ng subsequently assured Singaporeans that the weight of mother-tongue language in the PSLE would not be reduced.
In 2011, Ng was appointed as Minister for Defence. He was appointed as Leader of the House in Parliament. In 2018 Dr. Ng was awarded the French Legion of Honour. Ng is married to Ivy Lim Swee Lian, a paediatrician and geneticist, the CEO of SingHealth, they have four children, born between 1984 and 1994. Dr Ng Eng Hen - Official profile at cabinet.gov.sg Appearances on C-SPAN
Goh Chok Tong
Goh Chok Tong is a Singaporean politician. A member of the People's Action Party, he became Singapore's second Prime Minister on 28 November 1990, succeeding Lee Kuan Yew, served in the role until 12 August 2004, when he stepped down and was succeeded by Lee Hsien Loong, he subsequently served as Senior Minister until May 2011, as Chairman of the Monetary Authority Of Singapore. He continues to serve as a Member of Parliament representing the Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency and holds the honorary title of "Emeritus Senior Minister". In November 2018, he released his autobiography, Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story which will be the first volume of a two-part biography. Goh was born in Singapore in 1941 to Goh Kah Choon and Quah Kwee Hwa both hailing from the southern Fujian province of China, his family is Hokkien. Goh studied at Raffles Institution from 1955 to 1960, he was a competitive swimmer in his younger days and was given the nickname "Bold". Goh earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with first class honours in economics from the University of Singapore, a Master of Arts in development economics from Williams College in 1967.
After his studies, Goh returned to Singapore to serve in the Administrative Service. Goh's dream of getting a PhD was disrupted, as the government would not transfer his bursary bond to the university, where he had signed on as a research fellow after graduation. In 2015, Goh was awarded the highest recognition from his alma mater, NUS, the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, presented to him for his contributions to Singapore in public service. In 1969, Goh was seconded to the shipping company Neptune Orient Lines as the company's Planning and Projects Manager, his career advanced and by 1973, he became the Managing Director and led NOL to achieve impressive financial results during his tenure. Here Goh worked under Muhammad Jalaluddin Sayeed. In the 1976 Singapore general election, at the age of 35, Goh was elected as Member of Parliament for Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency, as a People's Action Party candidate, he was appointed a Senior Minister of State for Finance. In 1981, he was promoted to Minister for Trade and Industry and served in other appointments including Minister for Health and Minister for Defence.
In 1985, Goh became the first Deputy Prime Minister and began to assume the responsibility of the government in a managed leadership transition. According to Lee Kuan Yew, his preferred successor was Tony Tan. On 28 November 1990, Goh became the second Prime Minister of Singapore, taking over from Lee Kuan Yew. Lee remained an influential member of his Cabinet; the 1991 general elections, the first electoral test for Goh, led to the party winning 61% of the popular vote. In 1992, Lee Kuan Yew handed over the post of Secretary General of People's Action Party to Goh completing the leadership transition; as Prime Minister, Goh promised a more open-minded and consultative style of leadership than that of his predecessor. This greater openness extended to the socio-economic spheres of life, for instance, in his support for the rise of "little bohemias" in Singapore, enclaves where more creativity and entrepreneurship could thrive, his administration introduced several major policies and policy institutions, including: Medisave Non-Constituency Members of Parliament Government Parliamentary Committees Group representation constituency Nominated Members of Parliament Vehicle Quota Scheme Elected President Singapore 21During the period under Goh's administration, Singapore experienced several crises, such as the 1997 Asian financial crisis, threats of terrorism including the 2001 Singapore embassies attack plot by Jemaah Islamiyah, the 2001-2003 economic recession, the 2003 SARS outbreak.
As Secretary General, Goh led the PAP to three general election victories in 1991, 1997, 2001, in which the party won 61%, 65% and 75% of the votes respectively. After the general election in 2001, Goh indicated that he would step down as Prime Minister after leading the country out of the recession. During an interview with the magazine Time in July 2003, Goh surprised his nation by announcing that his government is now employing gays in sensitive jobs, despite homosexual acts remaining illegal under Section 377A of the Penal Code, his announcement drew a strong backlash from conservatives of the island nation but reinforced Goh's image as an open-minded leader. On 12 August 2004, Goh stepped down as Prime Minister and began service as Senior Minister in Lee Hsien Loong's Cabinet. On 20 August 2004, Goh assumed the post of Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore. After a number of threats of terrorism in Singapore, Goh met local Islamic religious leaders in 2004, made a visit to Iran, where he met Iranian president Mohammad Khatami, visited local mosques.
Goh subsequently visited other Middle-Eastern countries as Senior Minister, with a view to improving diplomatic relationships and thus gaining wider business opportunities for Singaporean businessmen in the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. On 1 February 2005, Goh was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia, Australia's highest civilian honour, "for eminent service to Australia/Singapore relations". On 19 May 2005, Goh signed a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement with Israel's Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on a visit to Israel, superseding the agreement signed in 1971. Improvem
Vivian Balakrishnan, is the Singapore Minister for Foreign Affairs and a member of the governing People's Action Party. He is the Minister-in-charge of the Smart Nation Programme Office, he has held appointments in the Singapore Cabinet as Minister for Environment and Water Resources and Minister for Community Development and Sports, as well as the Second Minister for Information and the Arts, Trade and Industry. In 2002, Balakrishnan was appointed a Minister of State at the Ministry of National Development, the Chairman of the Remaking Singapore Committee, he was the Chairman of the Young PAP from 2004 to 2008. He is a Member of Parliament representing the Holland-Bukit Timah Group Representation Constituency. Balakrishnan studied medicine at the National University of Singapore on a President's Scholarship, he pursued postgraduate education in ophthalmology and was admitted as a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He was appointed as an associate professor at the National University of Singapore and became the medical director of Singapore National Eye Centre.
He was the chief executive of Singapore General Hospital. Prior to the commencement of his political career, he served as the commanding officer of second Combat Support Hospital of the Singapore Armed Forces, his team was elected uncontested during his first and second candidacy for the Parliament at Holland-Bukit Panjang GRC and Holland-Bukit Timah GRC respectively. In the 2015 general election, Balakrishnan's team, including Liang Eng Hwa, Christopher de Souza and Sim Ann, defeated the opposing team from Singapore Democratic Party with 66.62% of the votes. He joined the cabinet on 12 August 2004 when Lee Hsien Loong was sworn in as Singapore's 3rd Prime Minister. Balakrishnan was born in 1961 to a Indian Tamil father and a Chinese mother with ancestry from Fuqing, Fujian, he had his primary and secondary education at Anglo-Chinese School, before going on to National Junior College. After graduating from junior college in 1980, he was awarded a President's Scholarship to study medicine at the National University of Singapore.
He served two terms as the president of the NUS Student Union, served as chairman of the union council. He chose a postgraduate specialisation in ophthalmology and became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1991. From 1993 to 1995, Balakrishnan worked at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London as a specialist senior registrar, where he subspecialised in paediatric ophthalmology, he returned to Singapore, where he was appointed as a consultant ophthalmologist at the Singapore National Eye Centre and National University Hospital, an associate professor of ophthalmology at the National University of Singapore in 1998. In 1999, he was appointed the Medical Director of the Singapore National Eye Centre, became chief executive officer of the Singapore General Hospital in 2000. Balakrishnan was the Commanding Officer of the 2nd Combat Support Hospital of the Singapore Armed Forces from 1999 to 2002. In the 1990s, he hosted the series Health Matters on Singapore television. Balakrishnan's political career began at the 2001 general election, when he was part of the PAP's five-member team in the Holland-Bukit Panjang Group Representation Constituency, elected uncontested.
In 2002, Balakrishnan was appointed a Minister of State at the Ministry of National Development, the Chairman of the Remaking Singapore Committee. Two years he became the Senior Minister of State at the Ministry of Trade and Industry. In 2004, Balakrishnan was made the Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports, he was made a full member of the Cabinet in 2005. At the 2006 general election, Balakrishnan was a PAP candidate in the Holland-Bukit Timah Group Representation Constituency, was elected in a walkover. During the time he was Minister for Community Development and Sports, Balakrishnan raised the public assistance scheme from $260 for a single-person household in 2007, to $400 for a single-person household in 2011. In the 2011 general election, Balakrishnan's team, including Liang Eng Hwa, Christopher de Souza and Sim Ann, defeated the opposing team from Singapore Democratic Party with 60.1% of the votes. This was the first time since the seats for the constituency were contested since it was formed in 2001.
During the political campaign running up to the 2011 elections, Balakrishnan said that the opposition candidates from the Singapore Democratic Party did not have any plans for the constituency, their selection of Holland-Bukit Timah GRC was an opportunistic act. He suggested that they were trying to suppress a certain Youtube video featuring a member of the opposition team and that it raised questions about their agenda and motivation, it was discovered that the video included opposition member Vincent Wijeysingha at a forum discussing issues surrounding gay rights and section 377A of the Penal Code in Singapore. The People's Action Party team issued a statement asking the opposition whether they were pursuing a "gay agenda"; the opposition denied it, saying they were not pursuing the gay agenda and the issue was put to rest. The People's Action Party drew criticism from Internet users in Singapore for their election strategy; the opposition candidates raised the issue of government spending for the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, which Balakrishnan had overseen as the Minister for Community Development and Sports, saying that the budget exceeded the initial estimates of SGD 104 million by over three times.
Balakrishnan acknowledged that they had got the initial estimates wrong as it was the first time that an event of that scale was organized in Singapore. He asserted that the
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
The Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the deputy head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The role of Deputy Prime Minister is the second highest post and senior Cabinet Minister in Singapore; the holder will sometimes assume the role of Acting Prime Minister when the PM is temporarily absent from Singapore. Since the mid-1980s, Singapore has had two Deputy Prime Ministers at a time. Only Ong Teng Cheong and Tony Tan served under more than one Prime Minister during their time as Deputy Prime Minister; the office of Deputy Prime Minister dates back to 1959 and was appointed at first by the Governor of Singapore the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, when Singapore achieved self-governance as the State of Singapore within the British Empire. The title of Deputy Prime Minister remained unchanged after the merger with the Federation of Malaya and North Borneo, while Singapore was a state in the Federation of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965, after independence in 1965. Toh Chin Chye was the first deputy prime minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1968 and retired on 2 August 1968.
Prime Minister of Singapore Prime Minister's Office Cabinet of Singapore Prime Minister's Office
People's Action Party
The People's Action Party is a major centre-right political party in Singapore. It was founded in 1954 as a pro-independence political party descended from an earlier student organization, it has gone on to dominate the political system of the nation. Since the 1959 general elections, the PAP has dominated Singapore's politics and has been credited as being central to the city-state's rapid political and economic development. In the 2015 Singapore general election, the most recent election held in 2015, the PAP won 83 of the 89 constituency elected seats in the Parliament of Singapore, with 69.86% of total votes cast. Lee Kuan Yew, Toh Chin Chye and Goh Keng Swee were involved in the Malayan Forum, a London-based student activist group, against colonial rule in Malaya in the 1940s and early 1950s. Upon returning to Singapore, the group met to discuss approaches to attain independence in Malayan territories, started looking for like-minded individuals to start a political party. Journalist S. Rajaratnam was introduced to Lee by Goh.
Lee was introduced to several English-educated left-wing students and Chinese-educated union and student leaders while working on the Fajar sedition trial and the National Service riot case. The PAP was registered as a political party on 21 November 1954. Convenors of the party include a group of trade unionists and journalists such as Lee Kuan Yew, Abdul Samad Ismail, Toh Chin Chye, Goh Keng Swee, Devan Nair, S. Rajaratnam, Chan Chiaw Thor, Fong Swee Suan, Tann Wee Keng and Tann Wee Tiong; the political party was led by Lee Kuan Yew as its secretary-general, with Toh Chin Chye as its founding chairman. Other party officers include Lee Gek Seng, Ong Eng Guan and Tann Wee Keng; the PAP first contested the 1955 elections, in which 25 of 32 seats in the legislature were up for election. In this election, the PAP's four candidates gained much support from the trade union members and student groups such as the University Socialist Club, who canvassed for them; the party won three seats, one by its leader Lee Kuan Yew for the Tanjong Pagar division, one by co-founder of the PAP, Lim Chin Siong, for the Bukit Timah division.
22 years old, unionist Lim Chin Siong was and remained the youngest Assemblyman to be elected to office. The election was won by Labour Front, headed by David Marshall. In April 1956, Lim and Lee represented the PAP at the London Constitutional Talks along with Chief Minister Marshall, which ended in failure: the British declined to grant Singapore internal self-government. On 7 June 1956, David Marshall, disappointed with the constitutional talks, stepped down as Chief Minister, as he had pledged to do so earlier if self-governance was not achieved, he was replaced by another Labour Front member Lim Yew Hock. Lim pursued a anti-communist campaign and managed to convince the British to make a definite plan for self-government; the Constitution of Singapore was revised accordingly in 1958, replacing the Rendel Constitution with one that granted Singapore self-government and the ability for its own population to elect its Legislative Assembly. PAP, left-wing members who were communists, were criticised for inciting riots in the mid-1950s.
Lim Chin Siong, Fong Swee Suan and Devan Nair, as well as several unionists, were detained by the police after the Chinese middle schools riots. Following this, the PAP decided to re-assert ties with the labour faction of Singapore in the hope of securing the votes of working-class Chinese Singaporeans, many of whom were supporters of the jailed unionists. Lee Kuan Yew convinced the incarcerated union leaders to sign documents to state their support for the party and its policies, promising to release the jailed members of the PAP when the party came to power in the next elections. Ex-Barisan Sosialis member Tan Jing Quee claims that Lee was secretly in collusion with the British to stop Lim Chin Siong and the labour supporters from attaining power because of their huge popularity. Quee states that Lim Yew Hock deliberately provoked the students into rioting and had the labour leaders arrested. "Lee Kuan Yew was secretly a party with Lim Yew Hock" – adds Dr Greg Poulgrain of Griffiths University "in urging the Colonial Secretary to impose the subversives ban in making it illegal for former political detainees to stand for election".
Lee Kuan Yew accused Lim Chin Siong and his supporters of being communists working for the Communist United Front, but evidence of Lim being a communist cadre was a matter of debate as many documents have yet to be declassified. The PAP won the 1959 election under Lee Kuan Yew's leadership; the 1959 election was the first election to produce a elected parliament and a cabinet wielding powers of full internal self-government. The party has suspiciously won a majority of seats in every general election since then. Lee, who became the first prime minister, requested for the release of the PAP left-wing members to form the new cabinet. In 1961, disagreements on the proposed merger plan with Malaysia and long-standing internal party power struggle led to the split of the left-wing group from the PAP; the breakaway group of members formed the Barisan Sosialis with Lim Chin Siong as Secretary-General. Aside from the Chinese union leaders, lawyers Thampoe Thamby Rajah and Tann Wee Tiong, as well as several members from the University Socialist Club such as James Puthucheary and Poh Soo Kai joined the party.
After gaining independence from Britain, Singapore joined the federation of Malaysia in 1963. Although the PAP was the ruling party in the state of Singapore, the PAP functioned as an opposition party at the federal level in the larger Malaysian political landscape. At that time
Kasiviswanathan Shanmugam SC, better known as K. Shanmugam, is a Singaporean politician and lawyer. A member of the governing People's Action Party, he has been the Minister for Law since May 2008 and the Minister for Home Affairs since October 2015, a post which he had served from November 2010 to May 2011, he served as the Minister for Foreign Affairs from May 2011 to September 2015. He has been a Member of Parliament since 1988 representing the Sembawang Group Representation Constituency and the Nee Soon Group Representation Constituency, serving the Chong Pang ward in both constituencies. Shanmugam was educated in Raffles Institution from 1972 to 1977, before going onwards to study law at the National University of Singapore where he graduated at the top of his class with a First Class Honours degree in 1984. After being admitted to the Singapore Bar as an advocate and solicitor in 1985, Shanmugam went into private practice and became a Senior Partner and Head of Litigation and Dispute Resolution at the Singapore law firm Allen & Gledhill.
Shanmugam had a successful practice and was recognised in various international publications as one of the top litigation and insolvency counsel in Asia. While he was in private practice, he handled trial work in major corporate, insolvency disputes for private and public listed companies, major international and Singaporean banking and financial institutions, multinational corporations and professional practices. In 1998, Shanmugam became one of the youngest lawyers to be appointed a Senior Counsel of the Supreme Court of Singapore at the age of 38. Shanmugam became a Member of Parliament in 1988 when he was elected as a member for the Group Representation Constituency of Sembawang. Shanmugam served as an MP and continued to practise law until 2008, when he was brought into the Cabinet to replace S. Jayakumar as Minister for Law, he was concurrently made the Second Minister for Home Affairs in 2008, succeeded Wong Kan Seng as Minister for Home Affairs in 2010. Following the 2011 general election, Shanmugam relinquished his portfolio as Minister for Home Affairs and was made the Minister for Foreign Affairs, while continuing to serve as Minister for Law.
As of 2015, Shanmugam remains as a Member of Parliament serving Chong Pang. Following Shanmugam's remarks on changes to the qualifying criteria for Singapore's elected presidency, he was criticized by former presidential candidate Tan Cheng Bock for pre-empting the legislative process and the Presidential Elections Committee, which decides the eligibility of candidates for the Singapore presidential elections. In February 2018, Shanmugam said that Singapore would change its criminal breach of trust laws to address concerns that company directors and key officers of charities would face less harsh maximum punishments for CBT offences than their employees. Shanmugam was a member of the Select Committee on Deliberate Online Falsehoods, where he questioned Simon Milner, Facebook's Vice President of Public Policy for Asia-Pacific, about the misuse of online data by Cambridge Analytica. Shanmugam served on the board of directors for several companies before his appointment to the Singapore Cabinet.
Non-Executive Director of Sembcorp Industries Director of Asia Food & Properties Director of Golden Agri-Resources A part of the Tamil diaspora, Shanmugam has been married to psychologist Dr Seetha Shanmugam since 2008. He was married to Dr Jothie Rajah, a legal academic and daughter of former Judicial Commissioner K. S. Rajah. K. Shanmugam on Facebook Profile of K Shanmugam at Prime Minister's Office website
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004, he took over the leadership of the People's Action Party when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections, he began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew. Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 and earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general, he won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.
The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born in Singapore on 10 February 1952. His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Nyonya, his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District, Fujian, China. According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore following his father to the rally grounds since 1963. Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College. In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, he was Senior Wrangler in 1973, graduated in 1974 with first-class honours on a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction. In 1980, he completed a Master of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces in 1971, served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate, Chief of Staff of the General Staff. Lee rose through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer of 23rd Singapore Artillery in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics. In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party leadership transition, taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.
Lee was first elected Member of Parliament for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of thirty-two. Following his first election, he was appointed as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father Lee Kuan Yew, the prime minister at that time. In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, experiencing a recession at the time; the committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax. In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence. Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said that the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent, in which otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.
On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers. He continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992. In 1992, Lee underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy; when his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a Deputy Prime Minister. His chemotherapy was successful, his cancer has since gone into remission. Lee was appointed Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore in 1998, in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance. To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004. Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less r