Peninsular Malaysia known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. Its area is 132,265 square kilometres, nearly 40% of the total area of the country - or bigger than England and South Korea, it shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the Sumatra Island and across the South China Sea to the east lies the Natuna Islands. Peninsular Malaysia accounts for the majority of Malaysia's economy. Peninsular Malaysia consists of the following 11 states and two federal territories: Northern Region: Perlis, Penang, Perak East Coast Region: Kelantan, Pahang Central Region: Selangor, federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya Southern Region: Negeri Sembilan, Johor Peninsular Malaysia is known as West Malaysia or the States of Malaya; the majority of people on Peninsular Malaysia are ethnic Malays, predominantly Muslim. Large Chinese and Indian populations exist.
The Orang Asli are the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia. The term East Coast is used in Malaysia to describe the following states in Peninsular Malaysia facing the South China Sea, a component of the Pacific Ocean: Kelantan Pahang TerengganuThe term West Coast refers informally to a collection of states in Peninsular Malaysia situated towards the western coast facing the Strait of Malacca, a component of the Indian Ocean, as opposed to the East Coast. Unlike the East Coast, the West Coast is partitioned further into three regions, including: The Northern Region: Perlis, Kedah and Perak; the Central Region: Selangor and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The Southern Region: Negeri Sembilan and Johor. Though Johor has a coastline facing the South China Sea on the Pacific Ocean, it is not regarded as an East Coast state, since the main coastline of the state is located on the Straits of Johor of the Indian Ocean; the distinction between West and East Malaysia is significant beyond the sphere of geography, because as well as they were separate regions before the formation of The Federation of Malaysia, thus having a different court structure, the eastern states have more autonomy than the original States of Malaya, for example, autonomy in immigration.
These rights were granted as part of Sarawak's 18-point agreement and Sabah's 20-point agreement with Federation of Malaya in forming the Federation of Malaysia. Malaya Malayan dollar Media related to Peninsular Malaysia at Wikimedia Commons Peninsular Malaysia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Kyushu Electric Power
Kyūshū Electric Power Company is a Japanese energy company that provides power to 7 prefectures, to some parts of Hiroshima Prefecture. Its shortened name of 九電 is sometimes used. In 2011 the company was criticised for attempting to manipulate public opinion in favor of reactivating two reactors at the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant. Kyushu Electric Power was founded on May 1, 1951; the company began supplying electricity to Hiroshima in November 2005 - the first provider in Japan to supply energy outside its area. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster Kagoshima Nanatsujima Mega Solar Power Plant Nuclear power in Japan
Thermal power station
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power. In most of the places in the world the turbine is steam-driven. Water turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; the greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different heat sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy. Certain thermal power stations are designed to produce heat energy for industrial purposes, or district heating, or desalination of water, in addition to generating electrical power. All coal, nuclear, solar thermal electric, waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power stations are thermal. Natural gas is combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers; the waste heat from a gas turbine, in the form of hot exhaust gas, can be used to raise steam, by passing this gas through a heat recovery steam generator the steam is used to drive a steam turbine in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency.
Power stations burning coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are called fossil fuel power stations. Some biomass-fueled thermal power stations have appeared also. Non-nuclear thermal power stations fossil-fueled plants, which do not use cogeneration are sometimes referred to as conventional power stations. Commercial electric utility power stations are constructed on a large scale and designed for continuous operation. All Electric power stations use three-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Large companies or institutions may have their own power stations to supply heating or electricity to their facilities if steam is created anyway for other purposes. Steam-driven power stations have been used to drive most ships in most of the 20th century until recently. Steam power stations are now only used in large nuclear naval ships. Shipboard power stations directly couple the turbine to the ship's propellers through gearboxes. Power stations in such ships provide steam to smaller turbines driving electric generators to supply electricity.
Nuclear marine propulsion is, with few exceptions. There have been many turbo-electric ships in which a steam-driven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion. Cogeneration plants called combined heat and power facilities, produce both electric power and heat for process heat or space heating, such as steam and hot water; the developed reciprocating steam engine has been used to produce mechanical power since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. When the first commercially developed central electrical power stations were established in 1882 at Pearl Street Station in New York and Holborn Viaduct power station in London, reciprocating steam engines were used; the development of the steam turbine in 1884 provided larger and more efficient machine designs for central generating stations. By 1892 the turbine was considered a better alternative to reciprocating engines. After about 1905, turbines replaced reciprocating engines in large central power stations.
The largest reciprocating engine-generator sets built were completed in 1901 for the Manhattan Elevated Railway. Each of seventeen units was rated 6000 kilowatts; the energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered salable energy produced as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is 33% to 48%. As with all heat engines, their efficiency is limited, governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Other types of power stations are subject to different efficiency limitations, most hydropower stations in the United States are about 90 percent efficient in converting the energy of falling water into electricity while the efficiency of a wind turbine is limited by Betz's law, to about 59.3%. The energy of a thermal power station not utilized in power production must leave the plant in the form of heat to the environment; this waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration.
An important class of thermal power station are associated with desalination facilities. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. Sub-critical fossil fuel power stations can achieve 36–40% efficiency. Supercritical designs have efficiencies in the low to mid 40% range, with new "ultra critical" designs using pressures of 4400 psi and multiple stage reheat reaching about 48% efficiency. Above the critical point for water of 705 °F and 3212 psi, there is no phase transition from water to steam, but only a gradual decrease in density. Most of the nuclear power stations must operate below the temperatures and pressures that coal-fired plants do, in order to provide more conser
Johor Bahru known as Tanjung Puteri or Iskandar Puteri, is the capital of the state of Johor, Malaysia. It is situated along the Straits of Johor at the southern end of Peninsular Malaysia. Johor Bahru has a population of 497,097, while its metropolitan area, with a population of 1,638,219, is the third largest in the country. Johor Bahru was founded in 1855 as Iskandar Puteri when the Sultanate of Johor came under the influence of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim; the area was renamed "Johor Bahru" in 1862 and became the capital of the Sultanate when the Sultanate administration centre was moved there from Telok Blangah. During the reign of Sultan Abu Bakar, there was modernisation within the city. Johor Bahru was occupied by the Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945. Johor Bahru became the cradle of Malay nationalism after the war and gave birth to a political party named United Malays National Organisation in 1946. After the formation of Malaysia in 1963, Johor Bahru retained its status as state capital and was granted city status in 1994.
The present area of Johor Bahru was known as Tanjung Puteri, was a fishing village of the Malays. Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim renamed Tanjung Puteri to Iskandar Puteri once he arrived in the area in 1858 after acquiring the territory from Sultan Ali; the British preferred to spell its name as Johore Bahru or Johore Bharu, but the current accepted western spelling is Johor Bahru, as Johore is only spelt Johor in Malay language. The city is spelt as Johor Baru or Johor Baharu; the city was once known as "Little Swatow" by the Chinese community in Johor Bahru, as most of Johor Bahru's Chinese residents are Teochew people whose ancestry can be traced back to Shantou, China. They arrived during the reign of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim. Due to a dispute between the Malays and the Bugis, the Johor-Riau Sultanate was split in 1819 with the mainland Johor Sultanate came under the control of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim while the Riau-Lingga Sultanate came under the control of the Bugis; the Temenggong intended to create a new administration centre for the Johor Sultanate to create a dynasty under the entity of Temenggong.
As the Temenggong had a close relationship with the British and the British intended to have control over trade activities in Singapore, a treaty was signed between Sultan Ali and Temenggong Ibrahim in Singapore on 10 March 1855. According to the treaty, Ali would be crowned as the Sultan of Johor and receive $5,000 with an allowance of $500 per month. In return, Ali was required to cede the sovereignty of the territory of Johor to Temenggong Ibrahim; when both sides agreed on Temenggong acquiring the territory, he renamed it Iskandar Puteri and began to administer it from Telok Blangah in Singapore. As the area was still an undeveloped jungle, Temenggong encouraged the migration of Chinese and Javanese to clear the land and to develop an agricultural economy in Johor; the Chinese planted the area with black pepper and gambier, while the Javanese dug parit to drain water from the land, build roads and plant coconuts. During this time, a Chinese businessman and gambier cultivator, Wong Ah Fook arrived.
After Temenggong's death on 31 January 1862, the town was renamed "Johor Bahru" and his position was succeeded by his son, Abu Bakar, with the administration centre in Telok Blangah being moved to the area in 1889. In the first phase of Abu Bakar's administration, the British only recognised him as a maharaja rather than a sultan. In 1855, the British Colonial Office start to recognise his status as a Sultan after he met Queen Victoria, he managed to regain Kesang territory for Johor after a civil war with the aid of British forces and he boosted the town's infrastructure and agricultural economy. Infrastructure such as the State Mosque and Royal Palace was built with the aid of Wong Ah Fook, who had become a close patron for the Sultan since his migration during the Temenggong reign; as the Johor-British relationship improved, Abu Bakar set up his administration under a British style and implemented a constitution known as Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor. Although the British had long been advisers for the Sultanate of Johor, the Sultanate never came under direct colonial rule of the British.
The direct colonial rule only came into effect when the status of the adviser was elevated to a status similar to that of a Resident in the Federated Malay States during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim in 1914. In Johor Bahru, the Malay Peninsula railway extension was finished in 1909, in 1923 the Johor–Singapore Causeway was completed. Johor Bahru developed at a modest rate between the Second World Wars; the secretariat building—Sultan Ibrahim Building—was completed in 1940 as the British colonial government attempted to streamline the state's administration. The continuous development of Johor Bahru was, halted when the Japanese under General Tomoyuki Yamashita invaded the town on 31 January 1942; as the Japanese had reached northwest Johor by 15 January, they captured major towns of Johor such of
Project commissioning is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building or industrial plant are designed, tested and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects but to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or revamping. In practice, the commissioning process is the integrated application of a set of engineering techniques and procedures to check and test every operational component of the project: from individual functions up to complex amalgamations. Commissioning activities in the broader sense are applicable to all phases of the project from the basic and detailed design, procurement and assembly until the final handover of the unit to the owner, sometimes including an assisted operation phase; the main objective of commissioning is to affect the safe and orderly handover of the unit from the constructor to the owner, guaranteeing its operability in terms of performance, reliability and information traceability.
Additionally, when executed in a planned and effective way, commissioning represents an essential factor for the fulfillment of schedule, costs and quality requirements of the project. For complex projects, the large volume and complexity of commissioning data, together with the need to guarantee adequate information traceability leads to the use of powerful IT tools, known as commissioning management systems, to allow effective planning and monitoring of the commissioning activities; the International Association of Commissioning Engineers was formed in 2015 by a group of Commissioning Professionals, launched in January 2016. IACE is preparing accredited qualifications to fill the gap in the academic landscape for Commissioning Engineers. There is no formal education or university degree which addresses the training or certification of a Project Commissioning Engineer. Various short training courses and on-line training are available, but they are designed for qualified engineers. Commissioning for buildings is a specific discipline in itself, there are qualifications available for this.
Commissioning of large civil and industrial projects is a complex and sophisticated technical specialty which may be considered as a specific and independent engineering discipline. It can be as important as the more traditional ones, i.e. civil, chemical, electrical, instrumentation, automation, or telecom engineering. Large projects for which this statement can be made include chemical and petrochemical plants and gas platforms and pipelines, metallurgical plants and cellulose plants, coal handling plants and hydroelectric plants, bridges and railroads. Building commissioning Building enclosure commissioning Ship commissioning
Marubeni Corporation is a sōgō shōsha headquartered in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan. It is the fifth-largest sogo shosha and has leading market shares in cereal and paper pulp trading as well as a strong electrical and industrial plant business. Marubeni is a member of the Mizuho keiretsu. Marubeni was established in 1918 as Itochu Shoten, Ltd. in a spin-off of certain sales divisions of C. Itoh & Co. into a separate entity. Itochu Shoten merged with Itoh Chobei Shoten in 1921 to form Marubeni Shoten, Ltd. under the leadership of Chobei Itoh IX. Marubeni started out as a textile trading firm and expanded to trade in other consumer and industrial goods during the 1920s. Marubeni was re-combined with Itochu during World War II to form Sanko Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. and Daiken Company, Ltd.. This conglomerate was dismantled in the wake of the war and Marubeni again emerged as a separate trading company in 1949. Post-war Marubeni was predominantly a textile trading firm at its outset, but diversified into machinery and chemicals, with textiles forming a majority of its business by the end of the decade.
Marubeni merged with Takashimaya-Iida, a trading company that owned the Takashimaya department store chain, in 1955, changing its name to Marubeni-Iida from 1955 to 1972. The merger was orchestrated by Fuji Bank in order to create a stronger trading company partner for the bank's corporate customers. Marubeni and Fuji Bank developed a network of corporate clients, formalized as the Fuyo Group keiretsu in the 1960s, paralleling the development of the DKB Group and Sanwa Group; the Fuyo Group included Hitachi, Canon, Showa Denko and Nippon Steel. Marubeni was rocked by a series of scandals in the 1980s. In the early 1970s Marubeni was accused of hoarding rice on the black market for profiteering purposes. In 1976, numerous Marubeni and All Nippon Airways executives were arrested in connection with the bribery of Japanese government officials to support the sales of Lockheed aircraft in Japan. In 1986, Marubeni was found to have bribed Filipino President Ferdinand Marcos and several of his friends and associates in connection with Japanese ODA work in the Philippines.
Marubeni, like other sogo shosha, was hit hard by the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in the early 1990s and recorded its first annual net loss in 1998. The company again booked massive losses as part of a restructuring in 2001, with its stock price plummeting to 58 yen per share in December 2001. Marubeni acquired a large minority stake in the Daiei supermarket chain in 2006, which it sold to Æon Group in 2013. In January 2012, Marubeni Corporation agreed to pay a US$54.6 million criminal penalty to settle multiple US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act charges relating to its work as an agent for the TSKJ joint venture. The TSKJ joint venture comprising Technip, Snamprogetti Netherlands, Kellogg Brown & Root and JGC Corporation hired Marubeni to bribe lower-level Nigerian government officials to help it obtain and retain contracts to build liquefied natural gas facilities on Bonny Island in Nigeria. TSKJ paid Marubeni US$51 million, intended, in part, to be used to bribe Nigerian government officials.
Two years and just months after its final settlement in the Nigerian case, Marubeni was charged under the FCPA for bribing Indonesian officials in order to secure a $118 million power project contract for a joint venture between Marubeni and Alstom. The Tokyo Stock Exchange recognized Marubeni as the best Japanese company at increasing enterprise value in 2013, citing management's efforts to maximize return on equity. In September 2018, The Russian Direct Investment Fund, Marubeni Corporation and Russia's AEON Corporation agreed to develop an industrial facility in Volgograd; the total investment is estimated at over $800 million with construction due to start in 2020. In September 2018, Marubeni announced to shift from coal to renewable energy resources. Marubeni's head office moved to the Tokyo Nihombashi Tower in 2016; the company plans to construct a dedicated head office building in the future. The company has a total of eleven offices in Japan, 59 overseas offices and 30 overseas subsidiaries with 61 offices, for a total of 120 offices in 66 countries.
Marubeni's business is organized in five groups: Food & Consumer Products Group - Trades in grain and food products, functional materials and rubber, provides logistics, insurance and real estate services. Has a strategic partnership with Want Want China. Chemical & Forest Products Group - Trades in chemicals and paper and distributes solar panels and energy storage units. One major unit is the Helena Chemical Company, the second-largest agricultural chemical distributor in the US, which Marubeni acquired from Bayer in 1987. Energy & Metals Group - Trades in oil, nuclear fuel, iron and other metals and minerals. Power Projects & Plant Group - Develops power plants, environmental plants, marine projects, industrial plants and transport infrastructure. Projects include the Westermost Rough Wind Farm in the UK, FSRU and FPSO projects in South America, operation of the G:link light rail in Australia. Transportation & Industrial Machinery Group - Trades in aircraft, ships and construction and industrial machinery.
The Marubeni Aerospace Corporation is a major component of this group, making up part of the group's Aerospace & Ship Division. MAC was formed in 1998 when Marubeni acquired the trading rights and other assets of the former aerospace division of Oku