A bondage hood is a fetishistic hood. It may be made from rubber, latex, PVC, darlexx or leather. Full-faced hoods are used for the practice of head bondage, to restrain and objectify the wearer through depersonalization, disorientation and/or sensory deprivation; the use of bondage hoods can be hazardous. Bondage hoods are referenced in popular culture, most notably in the film Pulp Fiction. Gas mask fetishism Total enclosure fetishism Gimp suit Hooding Media related to Bondage hoods at Wikimedia Commons
A whip is a tool, traditionally designed to strike animals or people to aid guidance or exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities, whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid or visual directional cue in equestrianism. Whips are of two types, either a firm stick designed for direct contact, or a flexible whip that requires a specialized swing to be effective, but has a longer reach and greater force, but may have less precision. There are whips which combine both a firm stick and a flexible line, such as hunting whips; the majority of whips are designed for use on animals, although whips such as the "cat o' nine tails" and knout were developed for flagellation as a means of inflicting corporal punishment or torture on human targets. Certain religious practices and BDSM activities involve the self-use of whips or the use of whips between consenting partners. Misuse on animals may be considered animal cruelty, misuse on humans may be viewed as assault.
Whips are used on animals to provide directional guidance or to encourage movement. Some whips are designed to control animals by imparting discomfort by tapping or pain by a full-force strike that produces pain compliance; some whips provide guidance by the use such as cracking of a bullwhip. Other uses of whips are to provide a visual directional cue by extending the reach and visibility of the human arm. In modern times, the pain stimulus is still used in some animal training, is permitted in many fields, including most equestrianism disciplines, some of which mandate carrying a whip; the whip can be a vital tool to back up riding aids when applied particularly when initial commands are ignored. However, many competition governing bodies limit the use of whips, severe penalties may be in place for over-use of the whip, including disqualification and fines. Improper overuse of whips may be considered animal cruelty in some jurisdictions. Whip use by sound never or strikes the animal; this usage functions as a form of operant conditioning: most animals will flinch away from the sound instinctively, making it effective for driving sled dogs and teams of harnessed animals like oxen and mules.
The sound is loud enough to affect multiple animals at once, making whip-cracking more efficient under some circumstances. This technique can be used as part of an escalation response, with sound being used first prior to a pain stimulus being applied, again as part of operant conditioning. Whips used without painful stimulus, as an extension of the human hand or arm, are a visual command, or to tap an animal, or to exert pressure; such use may be related to operant conditioning where the subject is conditioned to associate the whip with irritation, discomfort or pain, but in other cases, a whip can be used as a simple tool to provide a cue connected to positive reinforcement for compliant behavior. In the light of modern attitudes towards the potential for cruelty in whips, other names have gained currency among practitioners such as whips called a "wand" or a "stick," calling the lash a "string" or a "popper"; the loud sound of a whip-crack is produced by a ripple in the material of the whip travelling towards the tip escalating in speed until it breaches the speed of sound, more than 30 times the speed of the initial movement in the handle.
The crack is thus a small sonic boom. Whips were the first man-made objects to break the sound barrier. Most stick type whips cannot make a crack by themselves, unless they either have a long lash, such as a longe whip, or are flexible with a moderately long lash, like certain styles of buggy whip, but any design can be banged against another object, such as leather boot, to make a loud noise. Short, stiff crops have a wide leather "popper" at the end which makes a loud noise when slapped against an animal, boot, or other object. Stockwhips, including bullwhips and the Australian stockwhip, are a type of single-tailed leather whip with a long lash but a short handle. Stockwhips are used to make a loud cracking sound to move livestock away from the sound, it is not used to strike an animal, as it would inflict excessive pain and is difficult to apply with precision. The Australian stockwhip is said to have originated in the English hunting whip, but it has since become a distinct type of whip. Today, it is used by stockmen.
Unlike the short, embedded handle of a bullwhip, the stockwhip handle is not fitted inside the lash and is longer. A stockwhip's handle is connected to the thong by a joint made of a few strands of thick leather; this allows the whip to hang across a stockman's arm. The handles are longer than those of a bullwhip, being between 38 and 53 cm; the thong can be from 1 to 3 metres long. Stockwhips are almost made from tanned kangaroo hide; the Australian stockwhip was shown internationally when lone rider Steve Jefferys reared his Australian Stock Horse and cracked the stockwhip to commence the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games Opening Ceremony. A bullwhip consists of a handle between 20 to 30 cm in length, a lash composed of a braided thong between 1 to 6 metres long; some whips have an exposed wooden grip, others have an intricately braided leather covered handle. Unlike the Australian stock whip, the thong connects in line with the handle, or engulfs the handle entirely. At
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons; the best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity. The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk is produced by several insects. There has been some research into other types of silk. Silk is produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some insects, such as webspinners and raspy crickets, produce silk throughout their lives. Silk production occurs in Hymenoptera, mayflies, leafhoppers, lacewings, fleas and midges. Other types of arthropods produce most notably various arachnids, such as spiders; the word silk comes from Old English: sioloc, from Ancient Greek: σηρικός, translit.
Sērikós, "silken" from an Asian source — compare Mandarin sī "silk", Manchurian sirghe, Mongolian sirkek. Several kinds of wild silk, which are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, have been known and used in China, South Asia, Europe since ancient times. However, the scale of production was always far smaller than for cultivated silks. There are several reasons for this: first, they differ from the domesticated varieties in colour and texture and are therefore less uniform. Thus, the only way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by tedious and labor-intensive carding. Commercial silks originate from reared silkworm pupae, which are bred to produce a white-colored silk thread with no mineral on the surface; the pupae are killed by either dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge or by piercing them with a needle. These factors all contribute to the ability of the whole cocoon to be unravelled as one continuous thread, permitting a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk.
Wild silks tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. A technique known as demineralizing allows the mineral layer around the cocoon of wild silk moths to be removed, leaving only variability in color as a barrier to creating a commercial silk industry based on wild silks in the parts of the world where wild silk moths thrive, such as in Africa and South America. Silk was first developed in ancient China; the earliest example of silk has been found in tombs at the neolithic site Jiahu in Henan, dates back 8,500 years. Silk fabric from 3630 BC was used as wrapping for the body of a child from a Yangshao culture site in Qingtaicun at Xingyang, Henan. Legend gives credit for developing silk to Leizu. Silks were reserved for the Emperors of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread through Chinese culture and trade both geographically and and to many regions of Asia; because of its texture and lustre, silk became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants.
Silk was in great demand, became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July 2007, archaeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, dated to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty 2,500 years ago. Although historians have suspected a long history of a formative textile industry in ancient China, this find of silk textiles employing "complicated techniques" of weaving and dyeing provides direct evidence for silks dating before the Mawangdui-discovery and other silks dating to the Han Dynasty. Silk is described in a chapter of the Fan Shengzhi shu from the Western Han. There is a surviving calendar for silk production in an Eastern Han document; the two other known works on silk from the Han period are lost. The first evidence of the long distance silk trade is the finding of silk in the hair of an Egyptian mummy of the 21st dynasty, c.1070 BC. The silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and North Africa; this trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia came to be known as the Silk Road.
The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. Nonetheless sericulture reached Korea with technological aid from China around 200 BC, the ancient Kingdom of Khotan by AD 50, India by AD 140. In the ancient era, silk from China was the most lucrative and sought-after luxury item traded across the Eurasian continent, many civilizations, such as the ancient Persians, benefited economically from trade. Chinese silk making process Silk has a long history in India, it is known as Resham in eastern and north India, Pattu in southern parts of India. Recent archaeological discoveries in Harappa and Chanhu-daro suggest that sericulture, employing wild silk threads from native silkworm species, existed in South Asia during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization dating between 2450 BC and 2000 BC, while "hard and fast evidence" for silk production in China dates back to around 2570 BC. Shelagh Vainker, a s
An interrogation scene is a form of BDSM roleplay in which the participants act out the parts of torturer and victim. As in real life torture chambers throughout the world over, the "torturer" uses threats and physical pain to extract whatever information he/she believes the "victim" possesses; the game is over when the victim has divulged the secret. The length and severity of the scene will vary according to the temperament of the players. Dedicated players attempt to replicate the atmosphere of a real torture session and, as in real life, the "victim" can expect to be stripped naked, tied up, mocked and abused. Popular methods of play in interrogation scenes include tickle torture, where the victim will be tied up and tickled continuously without relief until the victim submits and reveals the information. One form of torture is orgasm control or erotic sexual denial, where the submissive victim is sexually stimulated to the brink of orgasm by the torturer; the torturer may reduce the stimulation and keep the victim in a state of extended arousal for a long period of time.
By varying the pace of the stimulation, the victim may be forced to undergo cycles of "up" and "down" arousal by the torturer. When satisfied with the experience, the victim may divulge the secret in order to be brought to the desired orgasm by the torturer; the interrogation may be continued past the orgasm if the victim orgasms without divulging the secret. The glans becomes sensitive after orgasm, continued stimulation may manifest more as an extreme tickling sensation; this can become quite uncomfortable for the victim, or even painful, providing them with an incentive to comply with the torturer's demands. In at least one legal case, interrogation fantasies have been raised as a defense to a civil lawsuit
Orgasm is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure. Experienced by males and females, orgasms are controlled by the involuntary or autonomic nervous system, they are associated with other involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and body movements and vocalizations. The period after orgasm is a relaxing experience, attributed to the release of the neurohormones oxytocin and prolactin as well as endorphins. Human orgasms result from physical sexual stimulation of the penis in males and of the clitoris in females. Sexual stimulation can be with a sex partner; the health effects surrounding the human orgasm are diverse. There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as changes in the central nervous system such as a temporary decrease in the metabolic activity of large parts of the cerebral cortex while there is no change or increased metabolic activity in the limbic areas of the brain.
There is a wide range of sexual dysfunctions, such as anorgasmia. These effects impact cultural views of orgasm, such as the beliefs that orgasm and the frequency/consistency of it are either important or irrelevant for satisfaction in a sexual relationship, theories about the biological and evolutionary functions of orgasm. In a clinical context, orgasm is defined by the muscular contractions involved during sexual activity, along with the characteristic patterns of change in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate and depth; this is categorized as the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region. However, definitions of orgasm vary and there is sentiment that consensus on how to classify it is absent. At least twenty-six definitions of orgasm were listed in the journal Clinical Psychology Review. There is some debate whether certain types of sexual sensations should be classified as orgasms, including female orgasms caused by G-spot stimulation alone, the demonstration of extended or continuous orgasms lasting several minutes or an hour.
The question centers around the clinical definition of orgasm, but this way of viewing orgasm is physiological, while there are psychological and neurological definitions of orgasm. In these and similar cases, the sensations experienced are subjective and do not involve the involuntary contractions characteristic of orgasm. However, the sensations in both sexes are pleasurable and are felt throughout the body, causing a mental state, described as transcendental, with vasocongestion and associated pleasure comparable to that of a full-contractionary orgasm. For example, modern findings support distinction between male orgasm. For this reason, there are views on both sides as to whether these can be defined as orgasms. Orgasms can be achieved by a variety of activities, including vaginal, anal or oral sex, non-penetrative sex or masturbation. Orgasm may be achieved by the use of a sex toy, such as a sensual vibrator or an erotic electrostimulation, it can additionally be achieved by stimulation of the nipples or other erogenous zones, though this is rarer.
In addition to physical stimulation, orgasm can be achieved from psychological arousal alone, such as during dreaming or by forced orgasm. Orgasm by psychological stimulation alone was first reported among people who had spinal cord injury. Although sexual function and sexuality after spinal cord injury is often impacted, this injury does not deprive one of sexual feelings such as sexual arousal and erotic desires. A person may experience multiple orgasms, they may experience an involuntary orgasm, such as in the case of rape or other sexual assault. Scientific literature focuses on the psychology of female orgasm more than it does on the psychology of male orgasm, which "appears to reflect the assumption that female orgasm is psychologically more complex than male orgasm," but "the limited empirical evidence available suggests that male and female orgasm may bear more similarities than differences. In one controlled study by Vance and Wagner, independent raters could not differentiate written descriptions of male versus female orgasm experiences".
In men, the most common way of achieving orgasm is by physical sexual stimulation of the penis. This is accompanied by ejaculation, but it is possible, though rare, for men to orgasm without ejaculation or to ejaculate without reaching orgasm. Men may achieve orgasm by stimulation of the prostate; the traditional view of male orgasm is that there are two stages: emission following orgasm instantly followed by a refractory period. In 1966, Masters and Johnson published pivotal research about the phases of sexual stimulation, their work included women and men, unlike Alfred Kinsey in 1948 and 1953, tried to determine the physiological stages before and after orgasm. Masters and Johnson argued that, in the first stage, "accessory organs contract and the male can feel the
Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. Forceps are used when fingers are too large to grasp small objects or when many objects need to be held at one time while the hands are used to perform a task; the term "forceps" is used exclusively within the medical field. Outside medicine, people refer to forceps as tweezers, pliers, clips or clamps. Mechanically, forceps employ the principle of the lever to apply pressure. Depending on their function, basic surgical forceps can be categorized into the following groups: Non-disposable forceps, they should withstand various kinds of physical and chemical effects of body fluids, cleaning agents, sterilization methods. Disposable forceps, they are made of lower-quality materials or plastics which are disposed after use. Surgical forceps are made of high-grade carbon steel, which ensures they can withstand repeated sterilization in high-temperature autoclaves; some are made of other high-quality stainless steel and vanadium alloys to ensure durability of edges and freedom from rust.
Lower-quality steel is used in forceps made for other uses. Some disposable forceps are made of plastic; the invention of surgical forceps is attributed to Stephen Hales. There are two basic types of forceps: non-locking and locking, though these two types come in dozens of specialized forms for various uses. Non-locking forceps come in two basic forms: hinged at one end, away from the grasping end and hinged in the middle, rather like scissors. Locking forceps are always hinged in the middle, though some forms place the hinge close to the grasping end. Locking forceps use various means to lock the grasping surfaces in a closed position to facilitate manipulation or to independently clamp, grasp or hold an object. Thumb forceps are held between the thumb and two or three fingers of one hand, with the top end resting on the first dorsal interosseous muscle at the base of the thumb and index finger. Spring tension at one end holds; this allows one to and grasp small objects or tissue to move and release it or to grasp and hold tissue with variable pressure.
Thumb forceps are used to hold tissue in place when applying sutures, to move tissues out of the way during exploratory surgery and to move dressings or draping without using the hands or fingers. Thumb forceps can have cross-hatched tips or serrated tips. Common arrangements of teeth are 1×2, 7×7 and 9×9. Serrated forceps are used on tissue. Smooth or cross-hatched forceps are used to move remove sutures and similar tasks. Locking forceps, sometimes called clamps, are used to hold objects or tissue; when they are used to compress an artery to forestall bleeding, they are called hemostats. Another form of locking forceps is the needle holder, used to guide a suturing needle through tissue. Many locking forceps use finger loops to facilitate handling; the finger loops are grasped by the thumb and middle or ring fingers, while the index finger helps guide the instrument. The most common locking mechanism is a series of interlocking teeth located near the finger loops; as the forceps are closed, the teeth engage and keep the instrument's grasping surfaces from separating.
A simple shift of the fingers is all, needed to disengage the teeth and allow the grasping ends to move apart. Forceps are used for surgery. Kelly forceps are a type of hemostat made of stainless steel, they resemble a pair of scissors with the blade replaced by a blunted grip. They feature a locking mechanism to allow them to act as clamps. Kelly forceps may be as such not used for surgery, they may be sterilized and used in operations, in both human and veterinary medicine. They may be either straight. In surgery, they may be used for occluding blood vessels, manipulating tissues, or for assorted other purposes, they are named for Howard Atwood Kelly, M. D. first professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. The "mosquito" variant of the tool has smaller, finer tips. Other varieties with similar, if more specialized, uses are Allis clamps, Kochers and tonsils. Other types of forceps include: Magill forceps, which are angled forceps used to guide a tracheal tube into the larynx or a nasogastric tube into the esophagus under direct vision.
They are used to remove foreign bodies. Alligator forceps Anesthesia forceps Artery forceps Atraumatic forceps Biopsy forceps Bone-cutting forceps Bone-reduction forceps Bone-holding forceps Bulldogs forceps Catheter forceps Cilia forceps Curettes forceps Cushing forceps Debakey forceps Dermal forceps & nippers Dressing forceps Ear forceps Eye forceps Gallbladder forceps Gerald forceps Hemostatic forceps Hysterectomy forceps Intestinal forceps Microsurgery forceps Nasal forceps Obstetrical forceps Postmortem forceps Splinter forceps Sponge forceps Spreading forceps Sterilizer forceps Suture sundries forceps Tenaculum forceps Thoracic forceps Thoracic surgical forceps Thumb forceps Tissue forceps Tongue forceps Tooth extracting forceps Tubing for
Animal roleplay is a form of roleplay where at least one participant plays the part of a non-human animal. As with most forms of roleplay, its uses include psychodrama. Animal roleplay may be found in BDSM contexts, where an individual may take part in a dominant/submissive relationship by being treated as an animal; the activity is referred to as petplay. However, not all types of animal roleplay within BDSM are petplay and not all petplay in BDSM involves roleplaying as an animal; the origins of animal roleplay and petplay are various and diverse, again depending upon the participants involved. However, its origins are influenced by costuming, fiction and legend, roleplay and psychodrama in their various aspects; some of the earliest published images of animal play are to be found in the work of John Willie in Bizarre magazine published from 1946 to 1959. Some of the equipment that can be used in animal roleplay include leash, bit gag, neck collar, bondage harness, bodystocking, butt plug, ballet boots, etc.
Non-sexual animal roleplay was a common and integral part of ritual in many tribal cultures both in recent and prehistoric times, where a member of the tribe would take the role physically and spiritually of an animal, either revered or hunted. Examples of the former include many of Arctic native peoples. Examples of the latter are evidenced by cave paintings. In 1911, Julia Tuell photographed the last Animal Dance performed by the Northern Cheyenne of Montana, it is sometimes used in education physical education, as a way to encourage people to exercise the body in unusual ways, by mimicking various animals. Some superheroes and villains feature elements related to pet play. All involve animal qualities taken on by a human; some would count the enactment or spiritual belief in therianthropy as falling under human animal roleplay or transformation play as well. Peter Shaffer's 1973 play Equus tells the story of a young man who has a pathological religious fascination with horses, but this appears closer to zoophilia than pet play.
Andrew Lloyd Webber's 1981 musical Cats traces a tribe of urban cats, in 2007 War Horse used full size puppets to play horses on stage. Like much of erotic play and roleplay, animal roleplay in an erotic or relational context is defined by the people involved and by their mood and interests at the time of play, it ranges from the simple imitation of a vocal "whinnying" of a horse to the barking, panting or playful nudging of a puppy, or playful behaviour of a kitten, to crawling around on all fours and being fed, or petted, by hand. To the greater extremes of dressing up as a pony in modified horse tack, masks and temporary bondage based body modification. Public participation in human animal roleplay is varied. A couple could inconspicuously role-play a pet play scene in public, which would look to the casual observer like one partner is stroking the other's neck. In the case of some BDSM fetishists, one partner may wear a dog collar with a leash attached; the reasons for playing such a character or animal can vary as much as the physical manifestations and intensity of the play.
Some people enjoy being able to "cut loose" into a more dynamic personality. In some cases, pet play is seen as a loving, quiet cuddling time where there is no need for verbalizations and the simple act of stroking and holding the other partner is satisfying or reassuring in and of itself for those involved. For others, there may be a spiritual side to it; some feel closer to their animal totem, while others may identify with something akin to a deeper side or part of their own psyche. For still others, there is the experience of power exchange setup in a context or structure which they can accept; some cases could be considered a type of animal transformation fantasy. They can have strong elements of exhibitionism, be enjoyed in the privacy of the home, or lie somewhere between either boundary. While not widespread, erotic human-animal roleplay is still enjoyed by a sizable number of people. However, it is still identified with BDSM practice. Though misinterpreted as being associated with furry or other alternative lifestyle activities, not the case though some instances may exist.
For most participants, it has no connection whatsoever with bestiality, controversial and would be considered edgeplay in BDSM circles. Autozoophilia is sexual arousal that depends on imagining one's self as an animal. Paraphilic interests that involve being in another form have been referred to as erotic target location errors, autozoophilia would represent an autoerotic form of zoophilia. Autozoophilia is practised by wearing an animal costume, such as a latex mask, mascot costume or fursuit; each type of play can focus on a certain "strength" of an animal character. Pony play involves the practice and training that a horse owner or trainer would put their horse through to learn how to walk, etc. as modified for human limbs. Puppy and kitten play can involve BDSM related discipline. Cow Play involves fantasies of lactation and