Emotion is a mental state variously associated with thoughts, behavioural responses, a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotion is intertwined with mood, personality and motivation. Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, endocrinology, history, sociology of emotions, computer science; the numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain."Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience, associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival and kin selection.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Consciously experiencing an emotion is exhibiting a mental representation of that emotion from a past or hypothetical experience, linked back to a content state of pleasure or displeasure; the content states are established by verbal explanations of experiences, describing an internal state. Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior; the physiology of emotion is linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating to particular emotions.
Emotion is linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more to be more withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, so on. More emotion is said to consist of all the components; the different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline.
In psychology and philosophy, emotion includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels, expressive body actions, the appraisal of situations and contexts; the word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions and affections; the word emotion was coined in the early 1800s by Thomas Brown and it is around the 1830s that the modern concept of emotion first emerged for English Language. "No one felt emotions before about 1830. Instead they felt other things - "passions", "accidents of the soul", "moral sentiments" - and explained them differently from how we understand emotions today."Some cross cultural studies indicate that the categorization of "emotion" and classification of basic emotions such as "anger" and "sadness" are not universal and that the boundaries and domains of these concepts are categorized differently by all cultures.
However, others argue that there are some basic universal but spurious bases of emotions in some cultures. In anthropology, an inability to express or perceive emotion is sometimes referred to as alexithymia; the Oxford Dictionary definition of emotion is "A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others." Emotions are responses to significant external events. Emotions can be occurrences or dispositions, short-lived or long-lived. Psychotherapist Michael C. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity, thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame. Emotions have been described as consisting of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal, physiological and neural mechanisms. Emotions have been categorized, with some relationships existing between emotions and some direct oppos
Community organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest. Unlike those who promote more-consensual community building, community organizers assume that social change involves conflict and social struggle in order to generate collective power for the powerless. Community organizing has as a core goal the generation of durable power for an organization representing the community, allowing it to influence key decision-makers on a range of issues over time. In the ideal, for example, this can get community-organizing groups a place at the table before important decisions are made. Community organizers work with and develop new local leaders, facilitating coalitions and assisting in the development of campaigns. Organized community groups attempt to influence government and institutions, seek to increase direct representation within decision-making bodies, foster social reform more generally. Where negotiations fail, these organizations seek to inform others outside of the organization of the issues being addressed and expose or pressure the decision-makers through a variety of means, including picketing, sit-ins and electoral politics.
Organizing groups seek out issues they know will generate controversy and conflict, this allows them to draw in and educate participants, build commitment, establish a reputation for winning. Thus, community organizing is predominantly focused on more than just resolving specific issues. In fact, specific issues are vehicles for other organizational agendas as much as they are ends in themselves. Community organizers seek to build groups that are democratic in governance and accessible to community members, concerned with the general health of a specific interest group, rather than the community as a whole. Organizing seeks to broadly empower community members, with the end goal of "distributing" power more throughout the community; the four basic types of community organizing are grassroots or "door-knocking" organizing, faith-based community organizing, broad-based and coalition building. Political campaigns claim that their door-to-door operations are in fact an effort to organize the community, though these operations are focused on voter identification and turnout.
FBCOs and many grassroots organizing models are built on the work of Saul Alinsky, discussed below, from the 1930s into the 1970s. Grassroots organizing builds community groups from scratch, developing new leadership where none existed and organizing the unorganized, it is a values based process where people are brought together to act in the interest of their communities and the common good. Networks of community organizations that employ this method and support local organizing groups include National People's Action and ACORN. "Door knocking" grassroots organizations like ACORN organize poor and working-class members recruiting members one by one in the community. Because they go door-to-door, they are able to reach beyond established organizations and the "churched" to bring together a wide range of less privileged people. ACORN tends to stress the importance of constant action in order to maintain the commitment of a less rooted group of participants. ACORN has a reputation of being more forceful than faith-based groups, there are indications that their local groups were more staff directed than leader directed.
The "door-knocking" approach is more time-intensive than the "organization of organizations" approach of FBCOs and requires more organizers who as a result, can be lower paid with more turnover. Unlike existing FBCO national "umbrella" and other grassroots organizations, ACORN maints a centralized national agenda, exerts some centralized control over local organizations; because ACORN USA was a 5014 organization under the tax code, it was able to participate directly in election activities, but contributions to it were not tax exempt. Faith-based community organizing known as Congregation-based Community Organizing, is a methodology for developing power and relationships throughout a community of institutions: today congregations, but these can include unions, neighborhood associations, other groups. Progressive and centrist FBCO organizations join together around basic values derived from common aspects of their faith instead of around strict dogmas. There are now at least 180 FBCOs in the US as well as in South Africa, England and other nations.
Local FBCO organizations are linked through organizing networks such as the Industrial Areas Foundation, Gamaliel Foundation, PICO National Network, Direct Action and Research Training Center. In the United States starting in 2001, the Bush Administration launched a department to promote community organizing that included faith-based organizing as well other community groups. FBCOs tend to have middle-class participants because the congregations involved are mainline Protestant and Catholic. Holiness and other related denominations churches with poor and working-class members tend not to join FBCOs because of their focus on "faith" over "works," among other issues. FBCOs have expanded outside impoverished areas into churches where middle-class professionals predominate in an effort to expand their power to contest inequality; because of their "organization of organiz
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation and surveys. One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture; the anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture" and "nature", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature".
Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, teach such abstractions to others. Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global; the rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century, when questions regarding which cultures were "primitive" and which were "civilized" occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud, but many others. Colonialism and its processes brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with "primitive others."
The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists. Parallel with the rise of cultural anthropology in the United States, social anthropology, in which sociality is the central concept and which focuses on the study of social statuses and roles, groups and the relations among them—developed as an academic discipline in Britain and in France; the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. Anthropology is concerned with the lives of people in different parts of the world in relation to the discourse of beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must have learned from one another somehow, however indirectly.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of creating similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not have arisen before others. For example, industrial farming could not have been invented before simple farming, metallurgy could not have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. 20th-century anthropologists reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.
Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers reached a consensus that both processes occur, that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities. But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, they noted that traits that spread through diffusion were given different meanings and function from one society to another. Analyses of large human concentrations in big cities, in multidisciplinary studies by Ronald Daus, show how new methods may be applied to the understanding of man living in a global world and how it was caused by the action of extra-European nations, so highlighting the role of Ethics in modern anthropology. Accordingly, most of these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativi
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, cognitive and social processes and behavior by observing and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. To become a psychologist, a person completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions can evaluate, diagnose and study mental processes. Psychologists can be seen as practicing within two general categories of psychology: applied psychology which includes "practitioners" or "professionals", research-orientated psychology which includes "scientists", or "scholars"; the training models endorsed by the American Psychological Association require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, that they possess advanced degrees. Psychologists have one of two degrees; the PhD prepares a psychologist to conduct scientific research for a career in academia. Both PsyD and PhD programs can prepare students to be licensed psychologists, training in these types of programs prepares graduates to take state licensing exams.
Within the two main categories are many further types of psychologists as reflected by the 56 professional classifications recognized by the APA, including clinical and educational psychologists. Such professionals work with persons in a variety of therapeutic contexts. People think of the discipline as involving only such clinical or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just two branches in the larger domain of psychology. There are other classifications such as industrial and community psychologists, whose professionals apply psychological research and techniques to "real-world" problems of business, social benefit organizations and academia. Clinical and counseling psychologists can offer a range of professional services, including: Providing psychological treatment Administering and interpreting psychological assessment and testing Conducting psychological research Teaching Developing prevention programs Consulting Program administration Providing expert testimony In practice and counseling psychologists might work with individuals, families, or groups in a variety of settings, including private practices, mental health organizations, schools and non-profit agencies.
Most clinical and counseling who engage in research and teaching do so within a college or university setting. Clinical and counseling psychologists may choose to specialize in a particular field. Common areas of specialization, some of which can earn board certification, include: Specific disorders Neuropsychological disorders Child and adolescent psychology Family and relationship counseling Health psychology Sport psychology Forensic psychology Industrial and organizational psychology Educational psychologyClinical and counseling psychologists receive training in a number of psychological therapies, including behavioral, humanistic, existential and systemic approaches, as well as in-depth training in psychological testing, to some extent, neuropsychological testing. Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training and methodologies are different; the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians, and, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems.
Psychologists do not prescribe medication, although in some jurisdictions they do have prescription privileges. In five US states, psychologists with post-doctoral clinical psychopharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for mental health disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring and reporting, while psychiatrists are not trained in psychological testing; such tests help to inform treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation, being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to help the psychiatrist determine the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/Ph. D. programs, it is not included in standard medical education, although psychiatrists may develop research skills during their residency or a psychiatry fellowship.
Psychologists from Psy. D. Programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice than those from Ph. D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
A donation is a gift for charity, humanitarian aid, or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including money, services, or goods such as clothing, food, or vehicles. A donation may satisfy medical needs such as blood or organs for transplant. Charitable donations of goods or services are called gifts in kind. In the United States, in 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that American households in the lowest fifth in terms of wealth, gave on average a higher percentage of their incomes to charitable organizations than those households in the highest fifth. Charity Navigator writes that, according to Giving USA, Americans gave $298 billion in 2011; the majority of donations were from individuals from bequests and less than 1% from corporations. The largest sector to receive donations was religious organizations education. Giving has increased in 3 out of 4 years since 1971. Blackbaud reports; the percentage of total fundraising that comes from online giving was about 7% in 2012.
This was an increase from 6% in 2011 and is nearing the record level of 8% from 2010 when online giving spiked in response to Haitian earthquake relief efforts. Steve MacLaughlin notes in the report that "the Internet has now become the first-response channel of choice for donors during disasters and other emergency events." Blackbaud's 2015 Charitable Giving report revealed a 9% increase in online giving compared to 2014. In addition, online giving represented 7% of overall fundraising, with 14% of online donations made on mobile devices. Donations made on the international online giving day #GivingTuesday were up 52% from the previous year. Donations are given without return consideration; this lack of return consideration means that, in common law, an agreement to make a donation is an "imperfect contract void for want of consideration." Only when the donation is made does it acquire legal status as a transfer or property. In politics, the law of some countries may prohibit or restrict the extent to which politicians may accept gifts or donations of large sums of money from business or lobby groups.
Donations of money or property to qualifying charitable organizations are usually tax deductible. Because this reduces the state's tax income, calls have been raised that the state should pay more attention towards ensuring that charities use this'tax money' in suitable ways. There have been discussions on whether a donation of time should be tax deductible; the person or institution giving a gift is called the donor, the person or institution getting the gift is called the donee. It is possible to donate in the name of a third party, making a gift in honor or in memory of someone or something. Gifts in honor or memory of a third party are made for various reasons, such as holiday gifts, wedding gifts, in memory of somebody who has died, in memory of pets or in the name of groups or associations no longer existing. Memorial gifts are sometimes requested by their survivors directing donations to a charitable organization for which the deceased was a donor or volunteer, or for a cause befitting the deceased's priorities in life or manner of death.
Memorial donations are sometimes given by people if they are unable to attend the ceremony. Collaborative Consumption Audience effect Charitable contribution Crowdfunding & Humanitarian Crowdfunding Donation Gift economy Micro-donations Philanthropy Money-free economy Effective altruism