A Panama hat is a traditional brimmed straw hat of Ecuadorian origin. Traditionally, hats were made from the plaited leaves of the Carludovica palmata plant, known locally as the toquilla palm or jipijapa palm, although it is a palm-like plant rather than a true palm. Panama hats are light-colored and breathable, worn as accessories to summer-weight suits, such as those made of linen or silk; the tightness, the finesse of the weave, the time spent in weaving a complete hat out of the toquilla straw characterize its quality. Beginning around the turn of the 20th century, these hats became popular as tropical and seaside accessories owing to their ease of wear and breathability; the art of weaving the traditional Ecuadorian toquilla hat was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists on 5 December 2012. Panama hat is an Intangible Cultural Heritage, a term used to define practices, traditions and skills communities passed down from generation to generation as part of their cultural heritage.
Beginning in the early to mid-1600s, hat weaving evolved as a cottage industry along the Ecuadorian coast as well as in small towns throughout the Andean mountain range. Hat weaving and wearing grew in Ecuador through the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1835, Manuel Alfaro, a man who in many ways can be considered the grandfather of the Panama hat, arrived in Montecristi to make his name and fortune in Panama hats, he set up a Panama hat business with his main objective being exportation. Cargo ships from Guayaquil and Manta were filled with his merchandise and headed to the Gulf of Panama, his business prospered as more and more Gold Rush prospectors arrived and passed through Panama needing a hat for the sun. One of the first towns to start weaving the hats in the Andes is Principal, part of the Chordeleg Canton in the Azuay province. Straw hats woven in Ecuador, like many other 19th and early 20th century South American goods, were shipped first to the Isthmus of Panama before sailing for their destinations in Asia, the rest of the Americas and Europe, subsequently acquiring a name that reflected their point of international sale—"panama hats"—rather than their place of domestic origin.
The term was being used by at least 1834. The popularity of the hats increased in the mid-19th century when many miners of the California Gold Rush traveled to California via the Isthmus of Panama and Pacific Mail Steamship Company. In 1906, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the construction site of the Panama Canal and was photographed wearing a Panama hat, which further increased the hats' popularity. Although the Panama hat continues to provide a livelihood for thousands of Ecuadorians, fewer than a dozen weavers capable of making the finest "Montecristi superfinos" remain. Production in Ecuador is dwindling, due to economic problems in Ecuador and competition from Chinese hat producers; the tamsui hat was a straw hat made in Formosa to directly compete with the Panama in the early 20th century. Tamsui hats were made from Pandanus odoratissimus fibre; as they retained their whiteness, were washable, could be folded and carried about without damage, Tamsui hats replaced the rather costlier Panama in East Asia in the early 20th century.
The two main processes in the creation of a Panama hat are blocking. The two most common types of weaves are the Brisa; the Cuenca weave has the appearance of a herringbone pattern and utilizes more straw than the Brisa weave. The Brisa weave has the appearance of small diamonds/squares; this type of weave is less intricate but perceived as finer than the Cuenca weave by some as it is lighter. Other types of weaves include the Crochet, Fancy and New Order; the quality of a Panama hat is defined by the tightness of the weave. The fine weave of the hat was ideal for protection against the tropical sun. To measure the tightness of the weave, a simple square tool that looks like a frame for a one-inch picture was used; the aperture of this frame was about 1 inch. The regulator would set this frame one inch from the edge of the hat's brim edge, count the peaks of the cross weaves, called carerra, moving in a parallel direction; the tighter the weave, the more carerras were counted. That number would be reconciled against a grading chart.
A refined grade 20 would consist of 16 carerras. The price of these hats depends on the quality that a weaver put in to the hat. A master weaver could take as long as eight months to weave a single hat. Weavers could sell a single hat to buyers for $200. Once the hat is sold to a buyer it would pass through more people who would "finish the brim, shape it, remove imperfections, bleach the straw, add interior and exterior brands." After this one hat has been through at least six people it can be sold outside of Ecuador for $450 to $10,000. The best hats can sell for up to fifty times more than what one weaver is paid for eight months of labor; the best quality hats are known as Montecristis, after the town of Montecristi, where they are produced. The rarest and most expensive Panama hats are hand-woven with up to 3000 weaves per square inch. In February 2014, Simon Espinal, an Ecuadorian 47-year-old Panama hat weaver considered to be among the best at his craft, set a world record by creating a Panama hat with four thousand weaves per inch that took eight months to handcraft from beginning to end.
According to popular lore, a "superfino" Panama hat can hold water, when rolled up, pass through a wedding ring. Despite their name, Panama hats have never been made in Panama, they originated in Ecuador. Throughout Central and South America, people refe
A halo hat is a millinery design in which the headgear acts as a circular frame for the face, creating a halo effect. The design is said to date back to the late 19th century, it may be known as the angel hat or bambini – the latter said to derive from Italian for terracotta plaques depicting the infant Christ. A halo hat may be a wide range of sizes – some lying close to the head in the style of a bonnet or cloche and others that are similar in dimensions to a picture or cartwheel hat. Designs are worn towards the back of the head to create the'halo' effect; some designs with open crowns may be referred to as halo hats or as diadems. Popular from the 1930s on, the halo hat was created in a variety of fabrics – knitted or crocheted versions could be made at home – and could be a circle or semi-circle in shape; the halo became popular with brides. The halo hat is said to have first come into fashion the late 1880s, when it was known as an aureole hat, this was a name that continued to be used to describe the circular or semi-circular shape into the 1930s.
The Milwaukee Sentinel used the term to describe a new hat style in 1937. Describing the outfits worn by racegoers at a Sandown Park meet in 1937, The Times referred to an: "aureole-brimmed" hat design; the halo shape became popular again from the start of the 1930s in both the United States and Europe. It was a distinct move away from the cloche style, worn low over the brow, as the halo exposed the face and brow showing off more elaborate curled hairstyles becoming popular during this era. "Halo hats are so new" declared an advert in a US newspaper in 1931. A 1934 Sears catalogue featured a halo hat design as part of its Loretta Young collection, adding: "Take advantage of Loretta Young's fashion judgement and wear this new off-the-face hat! It's different... There's something of the angel's halo and something of the bucaneer's bravado in its dramatic, folded-back brim". In 1933 The Times reviewed the Christmas catalogues, saying: "the new season millinery, with its leading novelty, the'halo' hat, is specially interesting".
The following year, the Duchess of York was described as wearing a velvet halo hat to attend a charity matinee with Princess Elizabeth. Three years Wallis Simpson would wear an iconic gown and halo bridal headpiece, made by Caroline Reboux's studio in Paris and trimmed with pink and blue feathers; the halo was a flexible design. While it could create a large frame around the face – as with the circular straw design that featured on the Picture Post in 1940 – it could have more modest proportions. Like the draped turban, the halo style lent itself to adaptations – feathers, trims or flowers could be added – making it a versatile hat style, it could be made at home. Larger versions suited the post-war New Look designs, balancing the proportions of the full skirts that were fashionable after wartime austerity; the halo-style hat became popular for wedding outfits – future First Lady of the United States Betty Ford wore a large-brimmed halo wedding hat in 1938 – and half halos would become a staple design for more traditional wedding headpieces, remaining popular in bridal designs.
In the mid 1960s, British Pathé's 1964 film Hats on for Winter featured a large-scale halo design with sunburst pattern, alongside visors and caps. Designers such as Graham Smith created oversized examples during the late 1980s. Among the most memorable modern halo-shaped hats are the design created by Philip Treacy for influential fashion editor Isabella Blow, the wheatsheaf halo-effect headpiece he designed for the wedding of Camilla Parker Bowles to Prince Charles. Cartwheel hat Half hat Bumper brim Halo-shape bonnet from 1903, from Brooklyn Museum costume collection and now Metropolitan Museum of Art collection Halo beret crochet pattern from 1934 Life magazine 4 March 1940, large halo hat or'spring sailor' British Pathé film Hats on for Winter, 1965 Hatatorium Gallery, halo hat
A pillbox hat is a small hat worn by women, with a flat crown, upright sides, no brim. It is named after hexagonal cases that pills used to be sold in; the precursor to the pillbox hat was military headgear. During the late Roman Empire, the pileus pannonicus or "Pannonian cap" – headgear similar to the modern pillbox hat – was worn by Roman soldiers. A similar hat was popular with the Flemish in the Middle Ages. In some countries those of the Commonwealth of Nations, a pillbox-like forage cap with a chin strap, can still be seen on ceremonial occasions; the Royal Military College of Canada dress uniform includes such a hat, similar caps were standard issue for the Victorian era British Army. Another cap called a kilmarnock is a modern version of the traditional headdress worn by members of all Gurkha regiments; the modern woman's pillbox hat was invented by milliners in the 1930s, gained popularity due to its elegant simplicity. Pillbox hats were made out of wool, organdy, lynx or fox fur, leopard skin, among many other materials.
They were designed in solid colors and were unaccessorized, but could include a veil. Jacqueline Kennedy, First Lady of the United States from 1961 to 1963, was well known for her "signature pillbox hats", designed for her by Halston, was wearing a pink one to match her outfit on the day of her husband President John F. Kennedy's assassination in Dallas, Texas. Pillbox hats are a satirical subject of the song "Leopard-Skin Pill-Box Hat" by Bob Dylan; the song first appeared on his 1966 album Blonde on Blonde. Actress Natalie Portman wore the pillbox hat in the film Jackie. Bell-boy hat Pillbox Notes Media related to Pillbox hats at Wikimedia Commons
A homburg is a hat of stiff wool felt, characterized by a single dent running down the center of the crown, a wide silk grosgrain hatband ribbon, a flat brim shaped in a "pencil curl", a ribbon-bound trim about the edge of the brim. It is in dark colours, although variations are common; the original homburg was of more generous proportions than seen in 21st-century versions. Although the homburg is considered a formal hat, it is not an equivalent alternative to the top hat for formal attire; the Homburg is worn with clothing appropriate for semi-formal occasions, as well as informal attire. The name originates from Bad Homburg in Hesse, from where it originates and was popularised in the late 19th century by King Edward VII; the Homburg was popularised in the 1890s by Edward VII after he visited Bad Homburg in Hesse and brought back a hat of this style. He was flattered when his hat style was mimicked, at times he insisted on being copied. Anthony Eden made the dark homburg so fashionable in the 1930s that it became known as "the Eden" on Savile Row.
At his 1953 inauguration, Dwight D. Eisenhower broke with tradition by wearing a black homburg instead of a top hat, he wore a homburg at his second inauguration, a hat that took three months to craft and was dubbed the "International Homburg" by hatters, since batters in ten countries participated in its manufacture. Like other formal Western male headgear, the homburg ceased to be as common in the 21st century as it once was. Al Pacino gained some renewed fame for the homburg by wearing one in the film The Godfather, for which reason the hat is sometimes called a "Godfather"; some Orthodox Jewish rabbis wear black homburgs, though this practice is in decline. The homburg was always considered to be more distinguished than the fedora. Anthony Eden hat Boss of the Plains Bowler hat Fedora Stetson Tyrolean hat Shovel hat List of headgear Cap <ref name=CBS>"Eisenhower Second Inaugural Speech". "Felt dress hats" at Hat History "Homburg Hat – Past and Future" at Gentleman's Gazette
A cartwheel hat is a wide brimmed circular or saucer-shaped design. It may be made in a variety of materials, including straw or felt and has a low crown, it may be similar to halo-brimmed hat in shape. It is worn at an angle to show off the curve of the brim, rather than being worn at the back of the head in the manner of a halo hat; the cartwheel hat became popular in the years leading up to World War I. The Milwaukee Sentinel described the new fashion in 1914: "Do not be astounded if you notice a smartly gowned woman with a hat of huge proportions... The new large hats are broad brimmed and have low crowns, which are not discernible when the hat is worn, hence they resemble cartwheels tilted at a becoming angle"; these early versions might be covered in taffeta or silk. The cartwheel hat appeared in films and fashion during the 1930s – an American newspaper described the latest Paris fashion for straight and curled-brim cartwheel designs in 1934; the correspondent described crowns so shallow that hats had to be secured with a rubber band above or below the hair, which must be "perfectly coiffed" as it was revealed by the hat.
In 1936, an Australian newspaper report about racegoers at Brisbane's Ascot racing meeting noted the abundance of: "wide-brimmed shady hats of the cartwheel type". The following year, The Observer described: "cartwheel hats with exceedingly low crowns and brims which slope slightly downwards" noting that London milliner Aage Thaarup was showing versions for Ascot in straw and lemon-yellow felt. One of the most influential showcases of the potential of the style was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, in which Vivien Leigh wore a huge cartwheel with green ribbons designed by celebrity milliner Mr. John. While a Hattie Carnegie cartwheel design appeared on the cover of American Vogue in 1938, the style is most associated with the period after World War II austerity and make-do-and-mend was over. By 1945, new cartwheel styles were being offered with open crowns. Four years Rita Hayworth wore a variation on the cartwheel made of sheer material to match the pleated Jacques Fath dress for her'low key' wedding to Aly Khan – an event that generated huge interest and replica designs of her outfit.
By spring 1950, the cartwheel hat was being tipped in Life alongside pleated dresses as the: "new silhouette". The hat designs featured were by Mr. John. A month Life noted: "The recent tendency to go bareheaded has been reversed because the new season's narrow silhouette looks better when balanced with a hat." The article singled out the cartwheel in a new "unseasonal" coral velvet. The cartwheel became closely associated with New Look fashions. Dior's Y-line collection of autumn 1955 showcased cartwheel hats, paired with pearls, princess-line dresses and stoles. While the size and shape of hats could be extreme, such designs were made not just for day but evening wear. High-profile wearers of the style included Queen Elizabeth who wore a straw cartwheel shape on her tour of Australia the year after her coronation – although her hat was less extreme than some of the Dior models; the cartwheel hat has continued as a favourite showstopper for weddings and events – with designers such as Philip Somerville, Graham Smith and Frederick Fox including them in their millinery ranges.
There have been notable revivals in high fashion. He featured cartwheel shapes in neon orange and shocking pink in 2002. Halo hat Mushroom hat Cartwheel hat at University of North Texas archive New South Wales museum collection, black cartwheel design, c. 1950 Getty image of 1946 cartwheel hat and evening gown British Pathé film showing cartwheel models, 1950 Stephen Jones contemporary cartwheel hat in Ryerson Fashion Research Collection
A lampshade hat is a millinery design in which the hat has a small circular crown – flat, but sometimes rounded – and flares outwards to create a cone-like profile. In shape, it may have some similarities to the pillbox and bucket hat, both of which were popular at around the same time, although the classic lampshade design is longer and more flared than a pillbox and is made of stiffer material than a bucket hat; the Asian conical hat and the mushroom hat are sometimes termed lampshade, as well as any oversized or lavishly trimmed hat. The lampshade style was popularised by Christian Dior in the 1950s and remained fashionable through the next decade. Dior continued to feature variations in his collections into the early 1960s. Early versions could rely on shape alone for effect. Writing in The Guardian in 1953 about the London spring collections, Clair Wilson described a: "lampshade of a hat" designed by Simone Mirman and shown at John Cavanagh's London show; this model was matched to a black silk cape.
A year Wilson described a new season's design, quite close fitting, in the manner of a helmet, adding that it was: "devoid of decoration and having some relationship to the cloche in concealing most of the hair". By 1956, lampshades and pillboxes were said to be overtaking the popular mushroom and cartwheel designs at Ascot races. A reviewer of the opening day's fashions noted: "1956 must be dismissed as an unspectacular year. Gone were the cartwheels and giant mushrooms of other years, in their place were pill-boxes and various derivations of the beret". Notable examples of the design include the red lampshade hat worn by Doris Day in the 1959 romantic comedy Pillow Talk. Costumes for this film were created by French costume/fashion designer Jean Louis. Like the pillbox, the lampshade remained popular into the 1960s, as hems rose and space age fashions took hold. Adaptations included both close-fitting and flared designs, as well as what fashion correspondent John Hart Roberts described as the "lampshade helmet", worn with hooded pullover, walking skirt and stockings at designer Maljana's Florence fashion show in 1965.
John Galliano, designing for Dior, showed a variety of extreme lampshade-style hats in 2008 – these were created by milliner Stephen Jones. The design duo DSquared2 recreated 1950s-style lampshade hats for their spring/summer 2014 fashion show in September 2013 at Milan Fashion Week. Other designers showing lampshade-inspired designs for 2014, included Lyn Devon. Mushroom hat Bucket hat Pillbox hat Givenchy lampshade hat with flower decoration in the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, c. 1960 James Wedge variation on the lampshade hat made for Liberty of London in the Victoria & Albert Museum collection, 1957 Unusual lampshade design with goose-feather brim from the Ryerson Fashion Collection, believed to be 1950s Ornate Henry Margu Creations design featuring flowers and net DSquared spring/summer 2014 fashion show including lampshade hats on Fashion Channel