Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Deep Rooted Tree
Deep Rooted Tree is a 2011 South Korean television series starring Han Suk-kyu, Jang Hyuk and Shin Se-kyung. Based on the novel of the same name by Lee Jung-myung, it aired on SBS from October 5 to December 22, 2011 on Wednesdays and Thursdays at 21:55 for 24 episodes. Taking its name from the poem Yongbieocheonga that says that trees with deep roots do not sway, the series tells the story of a royal guard investigating a case involving the serial murders of Jiphyeonjeon scholars in Gyeongbok Palace while King Sejong comes to create the Korean written language. Early in his reign, King Sejong accidentally causes the death of his in-laws and their slaves in an attempt to save them from his brutal father, King Taejong. Two young slaves, Ddol-bok and his friend Dam, survive. Ddol-bok blames the king and vows to kill him to avenge the deaths of everyone he loved, he spends several years becoming a great warrior. Dam, who has a photographic memory, becomes a court lady called So-yi, but she feels so guilty about her role in the other slaves' deaths that she is mute.
Ddol-bok returns to the palace under the name of Kang Chae-yoon. However, he becomes embroiled in the mystery surrounding the deaths of several Hall of Worthies scholars; the deaths were caused by a secret society called "Hidden Root,", created long ago by followers of Jeong Do-jeon, with the goal of giving more power to ministers and less to the king. King Taejong killed Jeong Do-jeon and all of his family except his nephew, Jeong Gi-joon, now the leader of Hidden Root and lives in disguise not far from King Sejong, it soon becomes known that the king, with the help of So-yi and the Hall of Worthies scholars, has been working for years on a secret project, which turns out to be the creation of the Korean alphabet. While tracking Hidden Root, Kang Chae-yoon and So-yi each realize. So-yi begins to speak, when she shows Chae-yoon the simple alphabet and describes how it will give more power to commoners, he is convinced to work with the king instead of killing him. However, Jeong Gi-joon believes that the new alphabet is a threat to Confucian order, decides to stop it at all costs.
He murders the king's son. Jeong is able to stop the king's dissemination efforts, on the day the alphabet is to be publicly announced, both So-yi and Chae-yoon are fatally wounded by Hidden Root members. However, through their sacrifices, the event is successful, commoners begin to use Hangul. Han Suk-kyu as King Sejong Song Joong-ki as teen Yi Do Kang San as child Yi DoThe creator of Hangul. During his early years as king, Yi Do had a strained relationship with his father and harbored guilt for seeing people's suffering and death under his father's tyrannical rule. After the death of his father and his wife Soheon, Yi Do employs Kang Chae-yoon as an investigator and is helped by So-yi in the creation of Hangul, he finds out that Chae-yoon is the same boy who tried to kill him. Jang Hyuk as Kang Chae-yoon/Ddol-bok Yeo Jin-goo as teen Ddol-bok Chae Sang-woo as child Ddol-bokA former slave who has become royal guard and detective of King Sejong; as a child, Ddol-bok protected his intellectually disabled father from the teasing of other servants of the Queen's family.
Ddol-bok's father was arrested and beaten dying in front of him and his childhood friend So-yi. Though he was saved by King Sejong, he doesn't know it, because he blames Sejong for his father's death, has sworn to avenge him by killing the king, he becomes a soldier under a changed name, trains under a martial arts master named Lee Bang-Ji, who showed him the way of the leaping martial arts that shows incredible speed, agility and stamina. Chae-yoon becomes a low-level guard along with his friends, because he wants to keep a low profile from the king, he doesn't know. Shin Se-kyung as So-yi/Dam Kim Hyun-soo as young DamChae-yoon's friend, saved as a child by Sejong's wife and became a court lady. During her early years as court lady, Yi Do apologized to her for his role in her family's death, she feels so guilty about her role in her fellow slaves' deaths that she cannot speak, but she is useful in the creation of Hangul because of her photographic memory. Jeon No-min as Jeong Do-kwang, "Sambong" Jeong Do-jeon's brother Yoon Je-moon as Jeong Gi-joon/Ga Ri-on Choi Woo-shik as young Jeong Gi-joon/Ga Ri-on Ahn Suk-hwan as Lee Shin-juk Lee Jae-yong as Jo Mal-saeng Kwon Tae-won as Choe Manri Jeon Seung-hwan as Hwang Hui Cho Jin-woong as Moo-hyulSejong's bodyguard and friend who would sacrifice himself to protect his friend.
Park Hyuk-kwon as Jeong In-ji Jang Ji-eun as Queen Soheon Kim Ki-bang as Cho-tak Shin Seung-hwan as Park Po Song Ok-sook as Do Dam-daek Han Sang-jin as Shim Jong-soo Seo Jun-young as Prince Gwangpyeong Lee Soo-hyuk as Yoon Pyeong Baek Seung-hwan as young PyeongAn assassin, smitten by So-yi when he took her hostage. Kim Ki-bum as Pak Paengnyeon Hyun Woo as Seong Sam-mun Jo Hee-bong as Han Myung-hoi/Han Ga-nom Jung Da-bin as Yeon-doo Jeon Young-bin as Mak-soo Woo Hyun as Lee Bang-ji Yoo Hyun-soo as Lee Soon-ji Shin So-yul as Mok-ya Shim So-heon as Deok-geum Baek Yoon-sik as King Taejong/Yi Bangwon Han In-soo as Sim On Choi Il-hwa as Kim Jongseo Heo Joon-seok as Kkeut-soo Ryu Seung-soo as Jang Sung-soo Baek Seo-bin as Jang Eun-sung Min Ji-young as Yeon-doo's mother Lee Se-na as Geun-ji Choi Jung-woo as Park Eun J
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Prisoners of War (TV series)
Prisoners of War is an Israeli television drama series made by Keshet and aired on Israel's Channel 2 from March to May 2010. A second season aired in Israel from October to December 2012; the series was created by Israeli director and producer Gideon Raff. In 2010 it won the Israeli Academy Award for Television for Best Drama Series. In 2013, Raff stated that a third season was planned, but restated in 2015 that a third season did not look likely; the programme was acquired by 20th Century Fox Television before it aired in Israel, was adapted into the seven seasons and 84 episodes of the acclaimed series Homeland for Showtime in the United States. An 8th season is confirmed, due to be released in 2019. In India it was adapted as finite 110 episode television series P. O. W. - Bandi Yuddh Ke by Nikhil Advani in 2016 and 2017 with Hatufim creator Gideon Raff consulting for the series. The series, set in 2008, depicts three Israeli soldiers who were captured 17 years while on a secret mission with their unit in Lebanon.
The story begins with the soldiers' return home after years of negotiations for their freedom. Nimrod Klein and Uri Zach return alive, along with the remains of Amiel Ben-Horin; the series explores the reintegration of Nimrod and Uri into a society which has made them national icons, into an interrupted family life, while working through the trauma of having been held captive and tortured. They must deal with partners who waited or moved on, children who have grown up without them, parents who have died, they have to undergo psychiatric evaluations and military debriefings. When a military psychiatrist finds discrepancies in their stories, an investigation is launched to discover what they are hiding. After flashbacks to events at a school in Metula in 1990, to the period shortly after Nimrod and Uri's release, the second season rejoins the story a few days after the events at the end of the first season. Disagreeing on what to do with their discovery that Amiel may still be alive and Uri take the information to Haim and Iris, who start to pursue their own investigation into what happened to Amiel - with unanticipated consequences.
Alongside this, the series continues to follow Nimrod and Uri as they pick up the pieces of their lives post-release. It depicts Amiel for the first time as a living character - rather than in the visions experienced by Amiel's younger sister, Yael - and follows his new life as Yusuf, a Muslim, in Syria. Yoram Toledano as Nimrod Klein, a prisoner of war, a brave and intelligent man, he has difficulty readjusting to life with two children. Yael Abecassis as Nimrod's wife, she campaigned tirelessly for her husband's release. Since his return, she has trouble relating to him, she finds that her life no longer has a clear purpose. Yael Eitan as Dana, Nimrod's rebellious daughter, two years old when her father was captured. Guy Selnik as Hatzav, Nimrod's teenage son, born after his father was taken captive. Ishai Golan as Uri Zach, a shy and timid prisoner of war, he is close to Nimrod. During Uri's captivity, his fiancée married his brother, they had a son. Mili Avital as Nurit Halevi-Zach, Uri's former fiancée.
After mourning Uri's capture and becoming convinced that he was dead, she grew close to and married his brother Yaki. She feels intense guilt after Uri's return. Mickey Leon as Yaakov "Yaki" Zach, Uri's brother and Nurit's husband, he is concerned about the effect. Adam Kenneth as Asaf, son of Yaki and Nurit. Shmuel Shilo as Joseph "Yoske" Zach and Yaki's elderly father and a widower. Assi Cohen as Amiel Ben-Horin, a prisoner of war believed to have been killed during his captivity under mysterious circumstances. Adi Ezroni as Yael Ben-Horin, Amiel's younger sister, she finds it impossible to deal with his death, she begins to see him in visions. Nevo Kimchi as Ilan Feldman, an IDF liaison to the families of killed and injured soldiers. Gal Zaid as Haim Cohen, an IDF psychologist, he convinced that they are hiding something. Sendi Bar as Iris, an IDF operative working with Haim. Aki Avni as Ofer, owner of an advertising agency and a friend of Nimrod who served with him in the IDF. Dalik Volonitz as Dr Shmuel Ostrovsky, Dana's therapist.
Doron Amit as Ehud, son of Dr Ostrovsky. Salim Dau as Jamal Agrabiya, leader of the cell that captured and imprisoned Nimrod and Amiel. Abdallah El Akal as young Ismail, son of Jamal. Said Dasuki as teenage Ismail. Hadar Ratzon-Rotem as Leila, wife of Yusuf. Makram Khoury as Sheikh Qasab, father of Leila, founder of the organisation responsible for the kidnapping of Nimrod and Amiel. Yousef Sweid as Abdullah bin Rashid, serving a prison sentence in Israel for a terrorist attack but released as part of the prisoner exchange that freed Nimrod and Uri. Yonatan Uziel as Yinon "Noni" Meiri, whose father was murdered by Abdullah when Noni was a child. Shimon Mimran as Dr Ze'ev Kaplan, an IDF psychologist. Sinai Peter as Atar Shorer, a former Mossad chief, killed in an accident around the time of Nimrod and Uri's release. Boaz Konforty as Oren, a friend of Nimrod and a member of Nimrod and Uri's reserve unit. Filming commenced on the first season of Hatufim in August 2009. First season episodes had a budget of $200,000 each.
The second season of Hatufim was filmed between May and October 2011. It was due to be broadcast in Israel from December 2011 but the premiere was put back to June 2012 and October 2012 due to the state of the local advertising market. T
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Night Manager (TV series)
The Night Manager is a British television serial directed by Susanne Bier and starring Tom Hiddleston, Hugh Laurie, Olivia Colman, David Harewood, Tom Hollander, Elizabeth Debicki. It is based on the 1993 novel of the same name by John le Carré and adapted to the present day by David Farr; the six-part series began broadcasting on BBC One on 21 February 2016. In the United States, it began on 19 April 2016 on AMC, it has been sold internationally to over 180 countries, a second series has been commissioned by the BBC and AMC. Scripting duties for the second series will be handled by Matthew Orton, Charles Cumming, Namsi Khan and Francesca Gardiner; the first series of The Night Manager was nominated for 36 awards and won 11, including two Emmy Awards for director Susanne Bier and music composer Victor Reyes and three Golden Globes for Best Performance to Tom Hiddleston, Best Performance for an Actress in a Supporting Role to Olivia Colman, Best Performance for a Supporting Actor for Hugh Laurie.
Luxury hotel night manager and former British soldier Jonathan Pine is recruited by Angela Burr, an intelligence operative. He is tasked to navigate Whitehall and Washington, D. C. where there is an alliance between the secret arms trade. He must infiltrate the inner circle of arms dealer Richard Onslow Roper, Roper's girlfriend Jed, associate Corkoran. In January 2015 it was announced that the series would be co-produced by the BBC, AMC and The Ink Factory. Filming began on 19 March 2015 in Switzerland. Production moved to London, UK. From 13–17 April 2015, location filming took place at Blackpool Mill Cottage, Hartland Abbey, in and around Hartland, Devon. On 20 April 2015, production moved to Morocco; the Es Saadi Resort was used as the location for the fictional Nefertiti Hotel in Cairo. At the end of May, production moved to Spain. Notable places include Port de Sóller, luxury property La Fortaleza in Port de Pollença and several locations in Palma; the author John le Carré made an appearance in Episode 4.
The first episode of The Night Manager was broadcast on 21 February 2016 on BBC One in the United Kingdom. AMC Spain broadcast the series on 24 February 2016 in Spain. TV3 in New Zealand broadcast the series on 28 February 2016. In the United States of America, the show premiered on 19 April 2016 on AMC; the serial aired in Australia on BBC First on 20 March 2016. The serial aired in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on AMC starting on 6 June 2016. In Finland the serial premiered 22 June 2016 on MTV3. In Sweden the serial first aired on 22 August 2016 on TV4, split up into eight episodes not the original release of six episodes. In Germany the serial started airing on 29 August 2016 on ZDF; the series was broadcast on Raidió Teilifís Éireann in Ireland on 29 August 2016. On 24 February 2017, The Night Manager started to air in the Netherlands on public broadcaster NPO 1, being broadcast by AVROTROS; the series was broadcast by BBC Persian from 15 February 2018 in Iran and Tajikistan. The series received widespread critical acclaim, with The Sun calling it "one of the greatest series of all time".
Adam Sisman, le Carré's biographer, wrote in UK daily newspaper The Daily Telegraph, "It is more than 20 years since the novel was published, in that time two film companies have tried and failed to adapt it, concluding that it was impossible to compress into two hours. But this six-hour television adaptation is long enough to give the novel its due." He added, "And though Hugh Laurie may seem a surprising choice to play'the worst man in the world', he dominates the screen as a horribly convincing villain. Alert viewers may spot a familiar face in the background of one scene, in a restaurant: John le Carré himself makes a cameo, as he did in the films of A Most Wanted Man and Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, but he is on screen only for an instant: blink and you'll miss him."Reviewing Episode 1 for The Guardian, Archie Bland began by noting, "The Night Manager is as sexed up as television drama comes. In Tom Hiddleston and Hugh Laurie it has bona fide international stars; the palette is as sumptuous as one of our hero Jonathan Pine's beautiful hotels."
He added, "It's Laurie's vulpine performance that gives The Night Manager its force once the smell of money has worn off. But we see him for the first 40 minutes – a delayed gratification trick that's always worked like magic on me since we spent the whole first episode of The West Wing waiting impatiently to meet Josiah Bartlet." Turning to Hiddleston's performance, Bland wrote, "And as the embodiment of the show's atmosphere of paralysed establishment glamour, Hiddleston is the business. When the noble beast beneath that accommodating English exterior begins to make itself known, I do find the righteous revenge he's intent on wreaking on Roper compelling."IGN reviewer Jesse Schedeen gave the miniseries an 8.8 out of 10, saying "The Night Manager proves that television is the ideal format to bring le Carré's novels to life. This miniseries is paced and boasts strong performances from the likes of Hiddleston, Laurie and Hollander. With any luck, this series will open the doors for more of le Carré's classic spy tales to make their way to the small screen."
A. ^ Based on twenty-eight day data. The Night Manager at AMC The Night Manager at BBC Programmes The Night Manager at the British Film Institute The Night Manager on IMDb The Night Manager at TV.com