Seoul National University Hospital
Seoul National University Hospital is one of the oldest and biggest hospitals in South Korea. It is a teaching hospital of Seoul National University's College of Medicine, its headquarters are in Jongno-gu in Seoul. Seoul National University Hospital consists of four branches: Except SNUH Healthcare System Gangnam Center, all branches have an emergency department. SNUH is operated by SNUH Special Corporation, independent from Seoul National University; the South Korean government's Ministry of Education and Human Resources supervises management of the hospital. Seoul National University Hospital was started as Naebu Hospital and changed into Gwangjewon in 1900 and Daehan Hospital in 1907. In 1910, when Imperial Japan colonized Korea, its name changed to Viceroyalty Hospital of Chosun. During the colonization period, the institution was under the direct supervision of the Japanese viceroyalty. Koreans had a rather scarce number of opportunities to learn medicine at that time. In 1924, the viceroyalty moved the site of the hospital to the current location of SNUH.
When Imperial Japan surrendered to the United States in 1945, Korea was liberated from Japanese rule. After liberation, the government of the Republic of Korea installed Seoul National University's School of Medicine on the site of the Viceroyalty Hospital; until 1978, SNUH was a state-owned hospital. However, the government handed off the hospital's ownership by forming SNUH P. C. an independent professional corporation. List of hospitals in South Korea Seoul National University Hospital Massacre
A massacre is a killing of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for "butchery" or "carnage". There is no objective definition of what constitutes a "massacre". Various international organisations have proposed a formal definition of the term crimes against humanity, which would however include incidents of persecution or abuse that do not result in deaths. Conversely, a "massacre" is not a "crime against humanity". Other terms with overlapping scope include war crime, mass killing, mass murder, extrajudicial killing; the modern definition of massacre as "indiscriminate slaughter, carnage", the subsequent verb of this form, derive from late 16th century Middle French, evolved from Middle French "macacre, macecle" meaning "slaughterhouse, butchery". Further origins are dubious, though may be related to Latin macellum "provisions store, butcher shop"; the Middle French word macecre "butchery, carnage" is first recorded in the late 11th century.
Its primary use remained the context of animal slaughter well into the 18th century. The use of macecre "butchery" of the mass killing of people dates to the 12th century, implying people being "slaughtered like animals"; the term did not imply a large number of victims, e.g. Fénelon in Dialogue des Morts uses l'horride massacre de Blois of the assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise, while Boileau, Satires XI has L'Europe fut un champ de massacre et d'horreur "Europe was a field of massacre and horror" of the European wars of religion; the French word is loaned into English in the 1580s in the sense "indiscriminate slaughter of a large number of people". It is used in reference to St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in The Massacre at Paris by Christopher Marlow; the term is again used in 1695 for the Sicilian Vespers of 1281, called "that famous Massacre of the French in Sicily" in the English translation of De quattuor monarchiis by Johannes Sleidanus, translating illa memorabilis Gallorum clades per Siciliam, i.e. massacre is here used as the translation of Latin clades "hammering, breaking.
The term's use in historiography was popularized by Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, who used e.g. "massacre of the Latins" of the killing of Roman Catholics in Constantinople in 1182. An early use in the propagandistic portrayal of current events was the "Boston Massacre" of 1770, employed to build support for the American Revolution. A pamphlet with the title A short narrative of the horrid massacre in Boston, perpetrated in the evening of the fifth day of March, 1770, by soldiers of the 29th regiment was printed in Boston still in 1770; the term massacre began to see inflationary use in journalism first half of the 20th century. By the 1970s, it could be used purely metaphorically, of events that do not involve deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre—the dismissals and resignations of political appointees during Richard Nixon's Watergate scandal; the term massacre, being a synonym of "butchery, carnage", is by nature hyperbolic or subjective used in partisan descriptions of events.
There is no neutral definition of what constitutes a "massacre" although some authors using the term may lay down general "working definitions" of what they mean by the term. Thus, Robert Melson in the context of the "Hamidian massacres" used a "basic working definition" of "by massacre we shall mean the intentional killing by political actors of a significant number of defenseless people... the motives for massacre need not be rational in order for the killings to be intentional... Mass killings can be carried out for various reasons, including a response to false rumors... political massacre... should be distinguished from criminal or pathological mass killings... as political bodies we of course include the state and its agencies, but nonstate actors..."Similarly, Levene attempts an objective classification of "massacres" throughout history, taking the term to refer to killings carried out by groups using overwhelming force against defenseless victims. He is excepting certain cases of mass executions, requiring that massacres must have the quality of being morally unacceptable.
Democide Disaster Ethnic cleansing Genocide Killing spree List of events named massacres Mass murder Pogrom Tragedy Tragedy War crime
Seoul National University station
Seoul National University Station is a station on Seoul Subway Line 2, located in Bongcheon-dong, Gwanak-gu of southern Seoul. This station is known as Gwanak-gu Office Station. There are eight exits, two at each corner of the crossroads – of Nambu Beltway and Gwanak-ro – where the station lies beneath. Seoul National University Station has one curved island platform, wide in the middle and narrow at both ends; the platform screen doors were installed for both tracks by 2006. Escalators are available between the waiting/ticketing area. Despite being named the Seoul National University Station, Seoul National University is approximately 1.75 kilometers south of the station. In The Amazing Race 4, teams had to find this station to obtain the next route marker. Exit 1: Hana Bank Exit 2: Seoul National University Exit 3: Seoul National University, Gwanak Police Station, Cheongnyong Elementary School, Raboum Outlet Exit 4: Gwanak District Office Exit 5: Geunhwa Hospital Exit 6: Bongcheon Central Market Exit 7: Bongwon Middle School Exit 8: Wondang Elementary School, Korea Post Office, Korea Exchange Bank
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Korean People's Army
The Korean People's Army is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, constitutes the de facto military forces of North Korea. Under the Songun policy, it is the central institution of North Korean community. Kim Jong-un is its Supreme Commander and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission; the KPA consists of five branches: Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, the Special Operation Force. The KPA faces its primary adversaries, the South Korean military and United States Forces Korea, across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953; as of 2016, with 5,889,000 paramilitary personnel, it is the largest paramilitary organization on Earth. This number serves as 25% of the North Korean population. Kim Il-sung's anti-Japanese guerrilla army, the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army, was established on 25 April 1932; this revolutionary army was transformed into the regular army on 8 February 1948. Both these are celebrated as army days, with decennial anniversaries treated as major celebrations, except from 1978 to 2014 when only the 1932 anniversary was celebrated.
In 1939, the Korean Volunteer Army, was formed in Yan'an, China. The two individuals responsible for the army were Mu Chong. At the same time, a school was established near Yan'an for training military and political leaders for a future independent Korea. By 1945, the KVA had grown to 1,000 men Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms and ammunition. After the defeat of the Japanese, the KVA accompanied the Chinese communist forces into eastern Jilin, intending to gain recruits from ethnic Koreans in China from Yanbian, enter Korea. By September 1945, the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposal. Just after World War II and during the Soviet Union's occupation of the part of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on 12 October 1945. Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, the force was created on 21 October 1945.
The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, the formation of the unit was announced on 11 January 1946. That unit was activated on 15 August of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces. Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy and the Central Constabulary Academy soon followed for the education of political and military officers for the new armed forces. After the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean People's Army General Headquarters; the semi-official units became military regulars with the distribution of Soviet uniforms and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters. The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of People's Defense, was created as part of the Interim People's Committee on 4 February 1948; the formal creation of the Korean People's Army was announced on four days on 8 February, the day after the Fourth Plenary Session of the People’s Assembly approved the plan to separate the roles of the military and those of the police, seven months before the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 9 September 1948.
In addition, the Ministry of State for the People's Armed Forces was established, which controlled a central guard battalion, two divisions, an independent mixed and combined arms brigade. Before the outbreak of the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern tanks, trucks and small arms. During the opening phases of the Korean War in 1950, the KPA drove South Korean forces south and captured Seoul, only to lose 70,000 of their 100,000-strong army in the autumn after U. S. amphibious landings at a subsequent drive to the Yalu River. On 4 November, China staged a military intervention. On 7 December, Kim Il-sung was deprived of the right of command of KPA by China; the KPA subsequently played a secondary minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict. By the time of the Armistice in 1953, the KPA had sustained 290,000 casualties and lost 90,000 men as POWs. In 1953, the Military Armistice Commission was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice; the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, made up of delegations from Czechoslovakia, Poland and Switzerland, carried out inspections to ensure implementation of the terms of the Armistice that prevented reinforcements or new weapons being brought into Korea.
Soviet thinking on the strategic scale was replaced since December 1962 with a people's war concept. The Soviet idea of direct warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy. Along with the mechanization of some infantry units, more emphasis was put on light weapons, high-angle indirect fire, night fighting, sea denial; the primary path for command and control of the KPA extends through the State Affairs Commission, led by its chairman Kim Jong-il until 2011, to the Ministry of People's Armed Forces and its General Staff Department
Keijō Imperial University
Keijō Imperial University, or Jōdai for short, was an Imperial University of Japan from 1924 to 1946. Established in Gyeongsong in 1924, it was abolished by the United States Army Military Government in Korea in 1946, following the Japanese surrender to the Allies and withdrawal from its occupation of Korea at the end of World War II. Keijō Imperial University was founded in 1924 as the sixth Imperial University of Japan during the period of Japanese rule, followed by Nagoya University and Osaka University in 1931 and 1939, respectively. While the other Imperial Universities located in Japan were run by the Ministry of Education and Culture, Keijō Imperial University was run by the Governor-General of Korea. After the end of World War II, Keijō Imperial University was renamed to "Kyŏngsŏng University". USAMGIK closed Kyŏngsŏng University on August 22, 1946, with US Military Ordinance No. 102. The remain properties of Keijo University merged with Gyeongseong Industrial School, Gyeongseong Mine School, Gyeongseong Medical School, Suwon Agriculture School, Gyeongseong Economics School, Gyeongseong Dental Medicine School, Gyeongseong Normal School and Gyeongseong Women’s Normal School into Seoul National University.
Chūichi Ariyoshi May 1924 – July 1924 Tadaharu Shimooka July 1924 – November 1925 Kurahei Yuasa December 1925 – April 1926 Unokichi Hattori April 1926 – July 1927 Yasujirō Matsuura July 1927 – October 1929 Kiyoshi Shiga October 1929 – October 1931 Saburō Yamada October 1931 – January 1936 Hiroshi Hayami January 1936 – July 1940 Jisaku Shinoda July 1940 – March 1944 Shinji Yamaga March 1944 – August 1945 Yoshishige Abe - literature Reginald Horace Blyth - English author, taught English and Latin Pek Nam-Un - Korean Marxist, taught economic history Motoki Tokieda - taught linguistics Hiroshi Nakamura - biochemist and historian Lee Hyo-seok - Korean writer Shin Hyeon-Hwak - Korean politician Choi Byun-ju - former Korean Supreme Court justice and politician Rimhak Ree - Korean Canadian mathematician Media related to Representation of Imperial University at Wikimedia Commons