Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks; the lower part of each leaf encloses the stem. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands and tundra; the Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, rice and millet as well as forage, building materials and fuel.
Though they are called "grasses", seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales; the name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, they became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, fossilized dinosaur dung have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and intertidal habitats, are the most widespread plant type. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets: Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago.
Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Wu, You & Li described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation; the authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, therefore all other continents at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probableThe relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more related to each other than to Oryzoideae; this separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years.
According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. King argued that this was the result of more acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in more soil creep. Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs with the following characteristics: The stems of grasses, called culms, are cylindrical and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous, have parallel veins; each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging a blade with entire margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into spikes. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea; the flowers are hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects play a role. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; this complex structure can be seen in the image on the right. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips; this low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in g
An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, rink bandy, broomball, speed skating, figure skating, ice stock sport and curling as well as exhibitions and ice shows. There are two types of rinks in prevalent use today: natural, where freezing occurs from cold ambient temperatures, artificial, where a coolant produces cold temperatures in the surface below the water, causing the water to freeze. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics. Rink, a Scottish word meaning ` course', was used as the name of a place; the name uses. Early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were first made in the'rink mania' of 1841–44; as the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Eliakim Littell's Living Age headed "The Glaciarium" reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon.
The area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". By 1844, these venues fell out of fashion, as customers grew tired of the'smelly' ice substitute, it was only thirty years that refrigeration technology developed to the point that natural ice could be feasibly used in the rink; the world's first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established; the rink was based with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water; the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, patented it as early as 1870.
Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps; the rink proved a success, Gamgee opened two further rinks in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the "Floating Glaciarium" at Charing Cross in London, this last larger at 115 by 25 feet. The Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition, it operated for two months. Ten years a larger rink was permanently installed on the same site; the oldest indoor artificial ice rink still in use is the one in Boston's Matthews Arena, on the campus of Northeastern University. Many ice rinks consist of, or are found on, open bodies of water such as lakes, ponds and sometimes rivers. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing a level area of ground, filling it with water, letting it freeze.
Snow may be packed to use as a containment material. A famous example of this type of rink is the Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa, Canada, estimated at 1,782,000 square feet and 7.8 kilometres long, equivalent to 90 Olympic size skating rinks. The rink is prepared by letting the canal water freeze; the rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow and flooding it with water from below the ice. The rink is recognized as the "world's largest frozen ice rink" by the Guinness Book of World Records because "its entire length receives daily maintenance such as sweeping, ice thickness checks and there are toilet and recreational facilities along its entire length"; the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway. The frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres. In any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space; this consists of a bed of sand or a slab of concrete, through which pipes run. The pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze.
This method is known as'artificial ice' to differentiate from ice rinks made by freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors, although both types are of frozen water. A more proper technical term is'mechanically frozen' ice. A famous example of this type of rink is the outdoor rink at Rockefeller Center in New York. Modern rinks have a specific procedure for preparing the surface. With the pipes cold, a thin layer of water is sprayed on the concrete to seal and level it; this thin layer is painted pale blue for better contrast.
A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to provide drinking water and water for bathing and washing to the residents of cities and villages; until the late 19th century most fountains operated by gravity, needed a source of water higher than the fountain, such as a reservoir or aqueduct, to make the water flow or jet into the air. In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration and to celebrate their builders. Roman fountains were decorated with stone masks of animals or heroes. In the Middle Ages and Muslim garden designers used fountains to create miniature versions of the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France used fountains in the Gardens of Versailles to illustrate his power over nature; the baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.
By the end of the 19th century, as indoor plumbing became the main source of drinking water, urban fountains became purely decorative. Mechanical pumps replaced gravity and allowed fountains to recycle water and to force it high into the air; the Jet d'Eau in Lake Geneva, built in 1951, shoots water 140 metres in the air. The highest such fountain in the world is King Fahd's Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which spouts water 260 metres above the Red Sea. Fountains are used today to decorate city squares. A Splash pad or spray pool allows city residents to get wet and cool off in summer; the musical fountain combines moving jets of water, colored lights and recorded music, controlled by a computer, for dramatic effects. Fountains can themselves be musical instruments played by obstruction of one or more of their water jets. Drinking fountains provide clean drinking water in public buildings and public spaces. Ancient civilizations built stone basins to hold precious drinking water. A carved stone basin, dating to around 2000 BC, was discovered in the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city of Lagash in modern Iraq.
The ancient Assyrians constructed a series of basins in the gorge of the Comel River, carved in solid rock, connected by small channels, descending to a stream. The lowest basin was decorated with carved reliefs of two lions; the ancient Egyptians had ingenious systems for hoisting water up from the Nile for drinking and irrigation, but without a higher source of water it was not possible to make water flow by gravity, no Egyptian fountains or pictures of fountains have been found. The ancient Greeks used gravity-powered fountains to distribute water. According to ancient historians, fountains existed in Athens and other ancient Greek cities in the 6th century BC as the terminating points of aqueducts which brought water from springs and rivers into the cities. In the 6th century BC, the Athenian ruler Peisistratos built the main fountain of Athens, the Enneacrounos, in the Agora, or main square, it had spouts, which supplied drinking water to local residents. Greek fountains were made of stone or marble, with water flowing through bronze pipes and emerging from the mouth of a sculpted mask that represented the head of a lion or the muzzle of an animal.
Most Greek fountains flowed by simple gravity, but they discovered how to use principle of a siphon to make water spout, as seen in pictures on Greek vases. The Ancient Romans built an extensive system of aqueducts from mountain rivers and lakes to provide water for the fountains and baths of Rome; the Roman engineers used lead pipes instead of bronze to distribute the water throughout the city. The excavations at Pompeii, which revealed the city as it was when it was destroyed by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, uncovered free-standing fountains and basins placed at intervals along city streets, fed by siphoning water upwards from lead pipes under the street; the excavations of Pompeii showed that the homes of wealthy Romans had a small fountain in the atrium, or interior courtyard, with water coming from the city water supply and spouting into a small bowl or basin. Ancient Rome was a city of fountains. According to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul, named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of Rome in 98 AD, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household and owners of private villas.
Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. The Romans were able to make fountains jet water into the air, by using the pressure of water flowing from a distant and higher source of water to create hydraulic head, or force. Illustrations of fountains in gardens spouting water are found on wall paintings in Rome from the 1st century BC, in the villas of Pompeii; the Villa of Hadrian in Tivoli featured a large swimming basin with jets of water. Pliny the Younger described the banquet room of a Roman villa where a fountain began to jet water when visitors sat on a marble seat; the water flowed into a basin, where the courses of a banquet were served in floating dishes shaped like boats. Roman engineers built fountains throughout the Roman Empire. Examples can be found today in the ruins of Roman towns in Vaison-la-Romaine and Glanum in France, in Augst and other sites. During the Middle Ages, Roman aqueducts were wrecked or fell into decay, many fountains throughout Europ
Doosan Encyclopedia is a Korean language encyclopedia published by Doosan Donga. The encyclopedia is based on the Dong-A Color Encyclopedia, which comprises 30 volumes and began to be published in 1982 by Dong-A Publishing. Dong-A Publishing was merged into Doosan Donga, a subsidiary of Doosan Group, in February 1985; the online version of the Doosan Encyclopedia was named EnCyber, a blend of two English words: Encyclopedia and Cyber. The company has stated. EnCyber provides free content to readers via South Korean portals such as Naver. Naver has risen to the top position in the search engine market of South Korea because of the popularity of EnCyber encyclopedia; when Naver contracted Doosan Doonga in 2003, the former paid multi billion won to the latter in royalties. The articles in the EnCyber encyclopedia aim to educate readers in every age group, it is regarded as a major encyclopedia in South Korea. As of 2009, EnCyber was the biggest online encyclopedia of South Korea. On November 1, 2010, the digital version of Doosan Encyclopedia was'renamed'doopedia', a portmanteau from the company name'Doosan' and the English word'encyclopedia'.
On 7 November 2013 were 463,953 items in the'doopedia' available. In the Korean Wikipedia on that day there were 252,830 articles. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture List of digital library projects List of encyclopedias by language List of online encyclopedias Lists of encyclopedias Official website
Cheonggyecheon is a 10.9-kilometre-long, modern public recreation space in downtown Seoul, South Korea. The massive urban renewal project is on the site of a stream that flowed before the rapid post-war economic development caused it to be covered by transportation infrastructure; the $900 million project attracted much public criticism but, after opening in 2005, has become popular among residents and tourists. Cheonggyecheon is an 8.4 km creek flowing west to east through downtown Seoul, meeting Jungnangcheon, which connects to the Han River and empties into the Yellow Sea. During the presidency of Park Chung-hee, Cheonggyecheon was covered with concrete for roads. In 1968, an elevated highway was built over it; the stream was named Gaecheon after the first refurbishment project to construct a drainage system during the Joseon Dynasty. The work, which included dredging and bolstering the banks of the stream and building the bridges, was carried out every 2-3 years during this period from the reign of Taejong, the third king of the Joseon Dynasty.
King Yeonjo undertook the refurbishment work as a national project. Gacheon was renamed to Cheonggyecheon, its current name, during the period when Japan ruled by Hirohito dominated Korea. During this time, financial difficulties disrupted and prevented the Imperial Japanese forces from covering up the stream despite several attempts to do so. After the Korean War, more people migrated into Seoul to make their living and settled down along the stream in shabby makeshift houses; the accompanying trash and waste, deteriorating conditions resulted in an eyesore for the city. The stream was covered up with concrete over 20 years starting in 1958, a 5.6 km-long, 16 m-wide elevated highway was completed in 1976. The area became an example of successful modernization of South Korea. In July 2003, then-Seoul mayor, Lee Myung-bak initiated a project to remove the elevated highway and restore the stream, it was a major undertaking since the highway had to be removed and years of neglect and development had left the stream nearly dry.
120,000 tons of water were to be pumped in daily from the Han River, its tributaries, groundwater from subway stations. There were safety problems due to the deteriorated concrete. Still, restoration of Cheonggyecheon was deemed important as it fit in with the movement to re-introduce nature to the city and to promote a more eco-friendly urban design. Other goals of the project were to restore the history and culture of the region, lost for 30 years, to revitalize Seoul's economy; the Seoul Metropolitan Government established several organizations to oversee the successful restoration of Cheonggyecheon: the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project Headquarters for the control of the whole project. To address the consequent traffic problem, the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project Headquarters established traffic flow measures in the downtown section affected by the restoration work and coordinated changes in the downtown traffic system based on the research of the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Research Corps.
The restoration of two historic bridges and Supyogyo, was a contentious issue, as several interest groups voiced opinions on how to restore historical and cultural sites and remains and whether to replace the bridges or not. The Cheonggyecheon restoration project had the purpose of preserving the unique identity of the natural environment and the historic resources in the CBD of Seoul, to reinforce the surrounding business area with information technology, international affairs and digital industries; the plan encouraged the return of the pedestrian-friendly road network connecting the stream with traditional resources: Bukchon, Jungdong and Donhwamungil. This network system, named the CCB, tried to build the environmental basis of the city; the stream was opened to the public in September 2005 and was lauded as a major success in urban renewal and beautification. However, there was considerable opposition from the previous mayoral administration of Goh Kun, which feared gentrification of the adjacent areas that housed many shops and small businesses in the machine trades.
Creating an environment with clean water and natural habitats was the most significant achievement of the project. Species of fish and insects have increased as a result of the stream excavation; the stream helps to cool down the temperature on the nearby areas by 3.6 °C on average versus other parts of Seoul. The number of vehicles entering downtown Seoul has decreased by 2.3%, with an increasing number of users of buses and subways as a result of the demolition of the two used roads. This has a positive influence by improving the atmospheric environment in the region; the project attempted to promote the urban economy through amplifying urban infrastructure for a competitive city in the business and industrial area centered on the stream. The urban renewal project was the catalyst of revitalization in downtown Seoul. Cheonggyecheon became a centre for economic activities. Cheonggyecheon restoration work brought balance to the areas north of the stream. During the modernization era, downtown Seoul was divided into two parts, north-south, based on their features and function.
The restoration helped to
Seoul City Hall
Seoul City Hall is a governmental building for the Seoul Metropolitan Government in South Korea, in charge of the administrative affairs of Seoul. It is located in Jung-gu, at the heart of Seoul, it is connected to City Hall Station on Seoul Subway Line 1, with access to Seoul Subway Line 2 from the same station. In front of the current city hall is the old city hall building, now Seoul Metropolitan Library, Seoul Plaza; the former city hall of Seoul was built during the Japanese occupation of Korea. It is an example of Imperial Crown Style architecture, served as city hall from Korea's liberation in 1945, until construction of the modern building in 2008, it now houses the Seoul Metropolitan Library, in front of the current, modern Seoul City Hall building. Following a competition for a new city hall, the jury awarded the commission to Yoo Kerl of iArc on February 18, 2008. Yoo said, "Major keywords for designing the new building are traditions, future. I analysed low-rise horizontal elements and shades of leaves in our traditional architectural characteristics, I applied these to the design so I can recall comfortable feelings of old things."In 2012, the new City Hall was opened to the public on 27 August and the city government moved in on 1 September.
The project, which took four years and five months to complete includes multipurpose halls and cultural facilities for citizens. The old building, registered as a cultural asset, has been converted into a library, boasts a collection of more than 200,000 books. City Hall Station List of government agencies of South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Government
Gwanghwamun Plaza is a public open space on Sejongno, Jongno-gu in Seoul, South Korea. The plaza was opened on 1 August 2009 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and is part of the City's plans for environmentally friendly renovation projects such as the Cheonggye Stream and Seoul Plaza, it is of historical significant as the location of royal administrative buildings, known as Yukjo-geori or Street of Six Ministries. The goal of opening and reconstruction of this plaza is making the plaza as a historical and cultural place for citizen; the area of the Gwanghwamun Plaza has a long history. It has been a public road for centuries of Korean history. Sometime in the 20th century it has been converted into a 16-lane roadway. A new pedestrian-friendly open downtown urban space was first announced in February 2004, along with projects for Namdaemun and Seoul Plaza. In December 2006, further plans for the plaza was announced; the project in conjunction with the restoration of Gwanghwamun was carried out by the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea, schedule for completion by August 2009.
Construction of the plaza was scheduled to begin in February 2008, however it was delayed because of opposition from the National Police Agency, concerned that the plaza could be abused as a venue for mass protests. Construction commenced on 23 April 2008, after the Government decreed it a demonstration-free zone; the plans included moving the statue of King Sejong from Deoksugung to the Plaza. However, after surveys of citizens and experts, it was decided to commission a new statue of King Sejong in a sitting position and chose the design in a competition between a shortlist of artists recommended by the Korean Fine Arts Association and universities; the plaza was opened on 1 August 2009 after a renovation period of 15-months, which downsized the 600-meter Sejongno, from 16-lanes to 10-lanes of traffic, at a cost of ₩44.5 billion. It is in front of Gwanghwamun and stretches south from the three-way intersection, along the front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts on the west side and Kyobo Book Centre on the east side, to the Sejong-ro intersection, where the statue of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin stands.
At the opening the plaza was covered in a flower carpet, 162 m long and 17.5 m wide, with 224,537 flowers representing the number of days from when Seoul was declared the capital on 28 October 1394, to the opening of the plaza on 1 August 2009. The Plaza features a water fountain in honor of the achievements of Admiral Yi Sun-sin, it is named the 12.23 Fountain, to commemorates the 23 battles he fought with 12 warships, when he led Koreans to victory during the Japanese invasions of Korea. The water jets rises to a height of 18 meters along with 300 smaller jets, which symbolize the battles he fought on the sea, it has a waterway, two centimeters deep and one meter across, at 365 meters along the plaza's east side. The floor of it has 617 stones recording the major events from 1392 to 2008; the fountain is located next to the statue of Admiral Yi Sun-shin. This statue was erected on April 27, 1968. On 9 October 2009, two months after the Plaza opening, a second statue, the 6.2-meter high, 20-ton bronze statue of King Sejong the Great of Joseon was unveiled to the public.
It is located 250 meters behind the statue of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin. It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong. Underneath the statues there is a small exhibition hall and museum about the two historical figures depicted the statues. Rallies and demonstrations are illegal at the Plaza and the Seoul Metropolitan Government has decreed that it is to use for cultural exhibitions and a demonstration-free zone; as of 1 June 2011, the Plaza along with Seoul Plaza are designated as smoke-free zones by the Seoul Metropolitan Government. Smokers are fined ₩100,000 in violation. On 23 September 2012, the Government started on a trial basis, a 550-m designated section of Sejong-ro as pedestrian-only but permitted for cyclists; the section includes the road from the Gwanghwamun three-way intersection, along the plaza in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts to the Sejong-ro intersection. The Plaza is the location for the start of the annual Seoul International Marathon, which finishes within the Olympic Stadium.
In the first winter after its opening the Plaza hosted an open air ice-rink from 12 December 2009 to 15 February 2010. The public rink was 2,250 sq. m, larger than the one at Seoul Plaza at 2,100 sq. m. The plaza is one of the site of street cheering of the FIFA World Cup. On 29 November 2009, parts of Sejong-ro were closed to traffic for twelve hours to film lengthy gunfight scenes for Korean Broadcasting System's 2009 spy action television drama series Iris, starring Lee Byung-hun, Kim Tae-hee, Jung Joon-ho, Kim Seung-woo and Kim So-yeon; the five lanes along the plaza in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts were closed to traffic from 07:00 to 19:00, while the five lanes on the Kyobo Book Centre side remains open to traffic. This marks the first time the Seoul Metropolitan Government has granted permission to blocked traffic along the Plaza for filming and it is part of Government's plans to promote the city's major tourist attractions. On 26 July 2012 at 23:00, boy band Beast held a guerilla concert at the Gwanghwamun end of the plaza, in front of an audience of 4,000 people.
It was part of their promotion for their fifth mini album Midnight Sun, the performance was broadcast on SBS's music show Inkigayo. In 2012, the plaza was used as a filming location for tvN