Black Sea Fleet
The Black Sea Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea. The fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783. In 1918, the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR the Soviet Union in 1922, where it became part of the Soviet Navy. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Black Sea Fleet and most of its vessels were inherited by the Russian Federation; the Black Sea Fleet's official primary headquarters and facilities are located in the city of Sevastopol. The remainder of the fleet's facilities are based in various locations on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, including Krasnodar Krai, Rostov Oblast and Crimea; the current commander is Vice Admiral Aleksandr Moiseev, who has held the position since June 2018. The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia.
In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait. From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention; as a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea. The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army. During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea; the Ottomans had the advantage due to their having under their command the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917.
German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end. During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk. In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged. Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s.
Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F. S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941; the Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol. In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea. In the post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included: Danube Flotilla: 116th River Ship Brigade 112th Reconnaissance Ship Brigade 37th Rescue Ship Brigade Marine and Coastal Defense Forces Department 810th Marine Brigade 362nd independent Coastal Missile Regiment 138th independent Coastal Missile Regiment 417th independent Coastal Missile Regiment 51st independent Coastal Missile Regiment Naval Air Forces Department of the Black Sea Fleet 2nd Guards Maritime Missile Aviation Division (three regiments of maritime attack Tu-22M2s5th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 15.11.94.
124th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 1993. 943rd Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 1996. 30th independent Maritime Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment 318th independent Anti-Submarine Aviation Regiment 78th independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment 8
Sudak is a town, multiple former Eastern Orthodox bishopric and double Latin Catholic titular see. It is of regional significance in Crimea, a territory recognized by most countries as part of Ukraine but annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. Sudak serves as the administrative center of Sudak Municipality, one of the regions Crimea is divided into, it is situated 57 km to the west of Feodosia and 104 km to the east of Simferopol, the republic's capital. Population: 16,492. A city of antiquity, today it is a popular resort, best known for its Genoese fortress, the best preserved on the northern shore of the Black Sea; the date and circumstances of the city's foundation are uncertain. The first written reference to the city dates to the 7th century, but local tradition places its foundation in 212 CE, archaeological evidence supports its foundation in Roman times; the city was in all likelihood founded by the Alans, as its name in Greek sources, Sougdaia is a cognate of the adjective sugda or derives from the word sugded/sogdad in the Ossetian language.
In the early Middle Ages, the city appears to have been under loose Byzantine control, like other cities in the region. Archaeological remains indicate considerable construction activity near the shore in the 6th century. Under Byzantine influence, the city was subject to Christianization, became the seat of a bishopric under the Patriarch of Constantinople, attested for the first time in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Bishop Stephen, who attended the council, was an iconophile persecuted by Emperor Constantine V, he was canonized, buried at the Hagia Sophia cathedral in Sougdaia, which according to tradition was built in 793. Although a Greek-speaking population was settled in the city, the area remained dominated by the Alans: a 9th-century hagiography of Apostle Andrew places "Upper Sougdaia" elsewhere, between Zichia and the Cimmerian Bosporus, "in the land of the Alans", while the hagiographer of Constantine the Philosopher mentions the tribe of Sougdoi, situated between the Iberians and the Crimean Goths, which the historian Francis Dvornik identifies as the Alans.
The period between the 8th and 11th centuries is obscure, but the available evidence points to a sharp decline in Sougdaia's fortunes. Archaeological evidence shows that the 6th-century constructions were abandoned in the 8th/9th century, while Russian legends claim that the city was captured by the Rus' chieftain, Bravlin, at around the same time. Byzantine control lapsed, the city came under Khazar suzerainty thereafter, which lasted until the early 11th century. In the early 10th century, the local see; the 11th–14th centuries represent a period of prosperity for the city, as shown in archaeological evidence of renewed activity both in the harbour as well as the hinterland and the area of the citadel. It became an important location for trading on the Silk Road in the 12th and 13th centuries, as a terminus for Black Sea trade; the 14th-century Arab traveller Ibn Battuta compares its harbour with that of Alexandria. The 13th-century chronicler Ibn al-Athir writes of it as the "city of the Qifjaq from which their material possessions.
It is on the Khazar Sea. Ships come to it bearing clothes; the Qifjiqs sell them slaves. Burtas furs, squirrels..."By the mid-11th century, Sougdaia had returned to Byzantine control following the defeat of the Khazar warlord Georgius Tzul in 1016. An inscription of 1059 mentions Leo Aliates, "strategos of Cherson and Sougdaia". By the end of the century, the city passed under Cuman control, which lasted until the 13th century. In c. 1222 the Seljuk Turks besieged it, followed by destructive Golden Horde Tatar raids in 1223 and 1238. In c. 1249 the city passed under Tatar control, although it retained considerable autonomy. Contemporary sources place its population at the time to 8,300, including Greeks, Tatars, Armenians and Jews. Under Tatar rule, the city was governed by the notables of the city and the 18 villages surrounding it. In the Greek sources they are mentioned by the Byzantine title sebastos, while the Latin sources use the Latinized Greek term proti. Sometime between 1275 and 1282, the local see, which after being united with Phoulloi in the late 11th century was known as Sougdophoulloi, was raised to the status of a metropolitan see.
The city's prosperity was increased by the establishment of Venetian and Genoese commercial colonies in the Crimea during the late 13th century, but at the same time, the area was drawn into the constant disputes between these two rival cities. In the early 14th century, the city was eclipsed by the Genoese colonies of Tana and Kaffa: the Florentine merchant Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, who visited the area in c. 1330, neglects to mention the city altogether. At about the same time, the Tatars converted to Islam, which led to a deterioration of their relations with the Greek-speaking and Christian inhabitants of the city, many of whom were forced to leave it; as a result, on 19 July 1365, the Genoese from Kaffa seized the city, which became a Genoese trading colony. The Genoese refortified the city, constructing the citadel, still visible today, induced a large part of the deported Greeks to return. Genoese rule lasted until 1475, when the Ottoman Grand Vizier Gedik Ahmed Pasha captured it after a long siege.
The Ottomans took control of Soldaia and all other Genoese colonies, as well as the Principal
95th Rifle Division
The 95th Rifle Division was a Red Army Rifle Division during World War II, formed three times. The division was first formed in November 1923 with the 6th Rifle Corps, it fought in the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. After Operation Barbarossa, the division fought in the retreat from Moldova and fought in the Siege of Odessa and the Siege of Sevastopol, it was destroyed during the Siege of Sevastopol and was disbanded in late July 1942. The division was reformed in August 1942 from the 13th Motor Rifle Division NKVD and fought at the Battle of Stalingrad. For its actions during the battle, the division became the 75th Guards Rifle Division in March 1943. In April 1943, the division was formed a third time at Kaluga from the 121st Rifle Brigade, it fought in Operation Bagration. The first time the 95th Rifle Division was formed in the 6th Rifle Corps of the Ukrainian Military District during November 1923, it participated in the Winter War of 1939–1940 and in the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina of 1940.
With the beginning of World War II it became part of the Separate Coastal Army, Defence of Odessa and Defence of Sevastopol. The 95th Infantry Division was destroyed in the fighting and disbanded July 30, 1942; the First Formation of the 95th Rifle Division included the following units: 90th Rifle Regiment 161st Rifle Regiment 241st Rifle Regiment 57th Artillery Regiment 134th Howitzer Artillery Regiment 97th Separate Antitank Battalion 194th Anti-aircraft Battery 13th Reconnaissance Company 48th Separate Sapper Battalion 91st Separate Communications Battalion 103rd Medical Battalion 30th Separate Chemical Defence Company 46th Trucking Company 174th Field Bakery 7th Divisional Veterinary Hospital 321st Mobile Car Repair Workshop 126th Divisional Artillery Repair Workshop 163rd Field Post Office 348th Field Ticket Office of the State Bank Major General Pastrevich A. I. Major General Vorobyov V. F. Colonel Kapitohin A. G; the 95th Rifle Division was established on the basis of the 13th Motor Rifle Division NKVD, which by the order of the NKVD № 001 547 from 07.28.1942 was transferred to the Red Army and in accordance with the directive of the General Staff of the Red Army was reformed in the 95th Rifle Division.
The 4th Motorized Rifle Regiment of the NKVD became the 90th Rifle Regiment, 266th Rifle Regiment – 161st Rifle Regiment, 274th Rifle Regiment – 241st Rifle Regiment. On September 2, 1942 the Division in the number of 12,800 men and officers were directed to the Western Front and arrived at the station Mozhaysk but received another order to follow in the disposal of the 62nd Army in Stalingrad. In the evening on September 17 trains came to the stations Zaplavnoe. Having made a 40-km march, the Division came to the left bank of the Volga in front of Stalingrad, to the ferriage of the 62nd Army. On the night of September 18, the 90th and 161st Rifle Regiment, 97th separate antitank battalion, 96th engineer battalion and division headquarters crossed over into Stalingrad; the Division received an order to drive out the enemy from Height 102.0 by using the available forces, they engaged in the battle and captured the top of the hill, but could not advance further due to the big losses under heavy artillery and mortar fire.
The rest of the Division crossed the Volga late because the crossing was subjected to constant blows of the enemy and was only possible at night. During September 19–27 the Division continued with bloody battles against superior enemy forces, supported by tanks and aircraft, but in spite of heavy losses, held the Mamayev Kurgan. Division headquarters was located in the Banny ravine at the foot of Mamayev Kurgan. On 28 September due to the deterioration of the situation near the "Red October" factory, the Division was ordered to give the defense of Mamayev Kurgan to the 284th Rifle Division of Colonel Batiouk N. F. and defend the working settlement. In October, together with the 37th Guards Rifle Division of Major-General Zholudev V. G. the Division defended the Tractor Plant. On 14 October the Germans launched a powerful offensive with all that they possessed, but the Division maintained its position, thus bearing huge losses—15 October losses amounted to about 75 percent of combat composition.
On 17 October the Division remains were consolidated into one – 161st Rifle Regiment. Division headquarters and the headquarters of the two other Regiments were sent to the left bank of the Volga for replenishment. In early November, the Division again kept the defense under the steep bank of the Volga, being pressed to the water. Neighbors on the right flank were the 138th Rifle Division of Colonel Lyudnikov I. I. and the 308th Rifle Division of Colonel Gurtiev L. N. and on the left – the 45th Rifle Division Colonel Sokolov V. P. and the 39th Guards Rifle Division, General-Major Guriev S. S. On 11 November the enemy launched a massive attack on the Division position by two infantry divisions, which were supported by tanks; the defense of the 241st Rifle Regiment was broken, German troops reached the banks of the Volga in the width of 500 meters. The 62nd Army was divided at the junction of the 95th and 138th Rifle Divisions. Further enemy advance was at the cost of heavy losses; the counteroffensive of the Soviet troops began on November 19, the enemy was forced to reduce their activity of fighting in Stalingrad.
When the 6th Army of Paulus was surrounded on November 23, the Germans had to go on the defensive. The division continue
51st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 51st Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Army, formed twice. Its first formation was formed during the Russian Civil War and fought in the Perekop-Chongar Offensive in 1920, it fought in the Soviet invasion of Poland, Winter War and World War II. During World War II, it fought in the Battle of Rostov, Barvinkove-Losowaja Operation and Second Battle of Kharkov before being destroyed at the Battle of Voronezh. Disbanded on 28 November 1942, the division was reformed on 15 April 1943 from the 15th Rifle Brigade; the 2nd formation fought in the Battle of Königsberg. It appears to have been disbanded in 1946. On 6 July 1919, 3rd Army commander Sergey Mezheninov issued Order No. 158, forming the 51st Rifle Division, part of the Northern Expeditionary Unit. The formation took place in Tyumen, where the 152nd and 153rd Brigades were formed; the organization of the division was completed by 15 August, when division commander Vasily Blyukher issued his first order, defining the divisional structure.
The division included headquarters, the political department and other services, three brigades of three infantry regiments each and engineering battalions, armored car detachments. Blyukher himself arrived in Tyumen on 19 August and established his headquarters in the house of the merchant Kolokolnikov. During the final phase of the Petropavlovsk Operation in the fall of 1919, the 151st Brigade advanced on Ishim; the 152nd Brigade moved to Tobolsk, the 153rd Brigade was held in reserve in Tyumen. At the end of November, it became part of the 5th Army. After the defeat of the White Army led by Alexander Kolchak, the division was relocated to Novonikolayevsk; the division became part of the high command of the Red Army's reserve on 1 January 1920. The division was tasked with the repair of the Siberian railway and the Cheremhovsky coal mines, destroyed during the Russian Civil War. On 4 July, the division received orders to transfer to the Southern Front to fight against White Army units led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel.
The advance echelons of the division arrived at Apostolove station in early August. On 3 August, the division was included in the group of forces on the right bank of the Dnieper and concentrated near Berislavlya; the 13th Army command began an offensive on 6 August to smash the White Army units between the Dnieper and the Crimean Isthmus. The main attack was assigned to Latvian Rifle Division; the 51st Rifle Division was placed in the second echelon of the attack without being given time to concentrate. On the night of 7 August, the 52nd and Latvian division crossed the Dnieper, captured Kakhovka and Alyosha, began to advance on Melitopol; the 51st began building defences in the area of Kakhovka. Meanwhile, the attack of the group of forces on the left bank of the Dnieper was repulsed from the beginning, allowing Wrangel to concentrate more forces against the 52nd and Latvian divisions. Both divisions were forced to retreat back to the Kakhovka bridgehead, now held by the 51st Rifle Division.
White attempts to reach. Entrenched in the bridgehead, the division routed opposing forces during 13th Army's second offensive on 21 August. On 27 August, the division reached the area of Serogozy. During battles in the Serogozy area on 28–29 August, the division inflicted heavy losses on the White units and conducted an orderly retreat back to the bridgehead. At the end of September, Southern Front was created under command of Mikhail Frunze; the group of forces on the right bank became 6th Army. The 51st Rifle Division was ordered to defend the Kakhovka bridgehead from the planned White Army attack. During October, the division constructed a defensive line in the bridgehead; the line had a depth of 12 kilometers. Its antitank defences were based on field antitank ditches, as well as landmines. On 14 October, the White Army made a last desperate attack to capture the bridgehead and throw the 51st back across the Dnieper. Despite tank support, the White Army attack failed. In preparation for the final Red Army offensive, the division received reinforcements.
The division's objective was to destroy the White 2nd Corps and capture the White fortifications on the Perekop Isthmus. The 51st, 15th and Latvian Rifle Divisions, a separate cavalry brigade, cavalry regiment and armored car detachment formed the Perekop Strike Group; the attack began on 28 October and the division had captured Perekop by the next day. The division renewed the attack on 30 October, but was unable to overrun the Turetsky Val and had to dig in. Blyukher had the advance units withdrawn from within range of White fire. On 30 October, Blyukher ordered the 151st Brigade to reconnoiter the Perekop Gulf for a possible crossing, he ordered the 153rd Brigade to reconnoiter Syvash. On 1 November, Blyukher offered to allow the White Army units to surrender. On 7 November, the Perekop-Chongar Offensive was begun; the division was unable to break through by the next day. During the night, elements of the division emerged in the White rear. With a simultaneous frontal attack, this assault captured the Turetsky Val.
The 51st Rifle Division continued to advance and broke through the Yushunskaya positions with the aid of the Latvian Rifle Division. The capture of the Yushinskaya position ended organized White resistance in the Crimea. On 13 October, it became the 51st Moscow Rifle Division. On 14 September 1921, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, it became the 51st Perekop Red Banner on behalf of the Moscow Soviet of W
Staryi Krym is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area disputed between Russia and Ukraine. It is located in the Eastern Crimean Peninsula 25 km west of Theodosia. Population: 9,277. During the 13th century, the town was known as Qrım. Both names are unattested prior to the 13th century, but on the authority of al-Qalqashandi, Solkhat is the older of the two, dating to the period prior to the Mongol conquest; the origin of either name is uncertain. Some consider Solkhat to be related to the Greek Colchis. Both names coexisted during the 14th century, but the name Qırım came to displace Solkhat by the early 15th. Before the Mongol period, mention is made in Greek hagiography of the residence of the Khazar governor of the eastern part of the peninsula, as a fortress named Phoulla or Phoullai along with Sugdaia; the name Qirim may continue the old name Cimmerium. The Strait of Kerch was known as Bosporus Cimmerius in the Roman era, after the city of Cimmerium which stood nearby.
The promontory or peninsula on which it stood was known as Promontorium Cimmerium. The 13th-century toponym Qrim is explained as a corruption of the name Cimmerium. There are however alternative suggestions, such as derivation from the Greek Cremnoi or from a Mongolian appellation; the name "Crimea" is derived from the name of the city. It became adopted as an alternative term for what used to be known as Tauris or Tauric Peninsula in western languages from the 17th century. Since the annexation of Crimea by Catherine II of Russia in 1783, the town has been known by the Russian name Staryi Krym. Although the town was renamed Levkopol after the ancient Greek name of Leukopolis, this never gained popularity because the town styled a name from antiquity; the town was the site of a Khazar fortress before the Mongol conquest. The Mongols under Batu Khan fortified the town and thereafter it became a capital of the Crimean Yurt and a home for the Emir of Crimea. Before the 1270s, Qrim had been a village surrounding a fort at best, but by the early 14th century it had grown into a prosperous city.
Kaykaus II was give Qrim as a fief in c. 1265. Tatar coins were struck in Qrim from 1287/8 and in the same year, an Egyptian architect was sent there to build a mosque to be named after the Egyptian sultan. From that period remain the Ozbek Han Mosque, built in 1314 by Uzbeg Khan, the ruins of a madrassa built in 1332; the town prospered during the 14th century, but it was destroyed during the civil unrest under Mengli Girai in the 15th century. Qrim seems to have retained its position as capital of the newly established Crimean Khanate for some years, as coins struck here are dated to as late as 1517, after which point the capital of the Ottoman vassal state was moved to Bakhchisaray, the city declined into relative obscurity. After the Russian conquest of the Crimean Khanate in the 1770s, the city of Stary Krim was given the Greek name of Leukopolis, but this name never entered common usage. Stary Krim was the city where the famous Russian writer Alexander Grin lived and died, now has a museum dedicated to him.
The city is home to an important cardiac sanatorium run by notable heart surgeon Nikolai Amosov. As Phulli, it was one of the bishoprics in the Roman client-state province, of the Bosporan Kingdom, where no imperial metropolis was established, it faded under heathen rule; the diocese was nominally restored as a Latin Catholic titular archbishopric. It has been vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents of the intermediary rank: Francis Joseph Beckman Gabriele M. Reyes Pasquale Mores Willem Pieter Adrian Maria Mutsaerts Abraham Kirimi, medieval Karaite rabbi http://www.iccrimea.org/monuments/monuments.html http://tatarworld.com/history.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070929191951/http://www.go2crimea.com/en/index.php?p=31&s=10 http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/russia/crimeapre1478.html https://web.archive.org/web/20060214212726/http://archnet.org/library/places/one-place.tcl?place_id=8092 The murder of the Jews of Stary Krym during World War II, at Yad Vashem website. GCatholic - Phulli, with titular incumbent links
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Born in Markivka in Kharkov Governorate to a peasant family, Yeryomenko was drafted into the Imperial Army in 1913, serving on the Southwest and Romanian Fronts during World War I, he joined the Red Army in 1918. He attended the Leningrad Cavalry School and the Frunze Military Academy, graduating in 1935. In addition to his education, he was appointed to command of a regiment of cavalry in Dec. 1929 a division in 1937, the 6th Cavalry Corps in 1938. On Sept. 17, 1939, Yeryomenko led his 6th Cavalry Corps into eastern Poland as part of the operations agreed to between Germany and the Soviet Union under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In general, this Soviet operation was not efficiently organized. Yeryomenko was forced to request an emergency airlift of fuel so as to continue his advance. Despite these difficulties, the Corps kept moving, Yeryomenko earned the nickname "the Russian Guderian".
Yeryomenko was given command of the prestigious 1st Red Banner Far Eastern Army, deep in eastern Siberia, where he was serving at the outbreak of Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. Eight days after the invasion began, Yeryomenko was recalled to Moscow, where he was made the Acting Commander of the Soviet Western Front, two days after its original commander, General of the Army Dmitri Pavlov, was dismissed for incompetence. Yeryomenko was thrust into a precarious position; the Nazi Blitzkrieg approach to warfare dominated the Western Front, but Yeryomenko motivated the remaining troops, halted the German offensive just outside Smolensk. During this vicious defensive Battle of Smolensk, Yeryomenko was wounded; because of his injuries, he was transferred to the newly created Bryansk Front. In late August, Yeryomenko was ordered to launch counter-offensive operations along the Bryansk Front against Guderian's Second Panzer Group as it began to move south to trap Kirponos' Southwestern Front around Kiev.
Stavka Stalin and Shaposhnikov, seemed convinced that Yeryomenko could block or distract Guderian's drive and save Kiev from encirclement. The counter-offensive failed to accomplish its objectives despite a valiant effort, leaving Bryansk Front weakened. In October the Germans launched Operation Typhoon, an offensive aimed at capturing Moscow. Most of Yeryomenko's weakened forces were encircled by Oct. 8 although small units managed to escape for days or weeks following. On Oct. 13, Yeryomenko was once again wounded, this time severely. He was evacuated to a military hospital in Moscow. In January 1942, Yeryomenko was appointed commander of the 4th Shock Army, part of the Northwestern Front. During the Soviet Winter Counteroffensive, Yeryomenko's army was part of the successful Toropets–Kholm Offensive, which liberated Toropets and much of the surrounding region, helping to create the Rzhev Salient, which became a major battlefield over the next 15 months. On Jan. 20, 1942, Yeryomenko was again wounded, this time in one leg, when German planes bombed his headquarters.
Yeryomenko refused to evacuate to a hospital. Yeryomenko's performance in the winter offensives restored Stalin's confidence, he was given command of the Southeastern Front, on Aug. 1, 1942, where he proceeded to launch powerful counterattacks against the German offensive into the Caucasus, Fall Blau. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev planned the defense of Stalingrad, rallying and re-organizing men and equipment falling back to the city from the Don River and the steppes to the west; when one of his subordinates, Gen. Anton Lopatin, doubted if his 62nd Army would be able to defend Stalingrad, Yeryomenko replaced him with Lt. Gen. Vasily Chuikov as Army commander on Sept. 11, 1942. Chuikov and the 62nd Army went on to prove themselves as the defenders of the city, confirming Yeryomenko's judgement. On Sept. 28, the Southeastern Front was renamed the Stalingrad Front. During Operation Uranus, November 1942, Yeryomenko's forces helped to surround the German 6th Army from the south, linking up with the northern penetration at Kalach-na-Donu.
German General Erich von Manstein soon attempted to counterattack the Soviet forces and break through the line to relieve the surrounded Germans. Yeryomenko repelled the attack with the forces of the 2nd Guards Army along their fall-back positions on the Myshkova River. On January 1, 1943, the Stalingrad Front was renamed Southern Front. After the end of the winter offensive, in March 1943, Yeryomenko was transferred north to the Kalinin Front, which remained quiet until September, when Yeryomenko launched a small, but successful offensive. In December, Yeryomenko was once again sent south, this time to take command of the Separate Coastal Army, put together to retake Crimea, accomplished with assistance from Fyodor Tolbukhin's 4th Ukrainian Front. In April, Yeryomenko once again was sent to command the 2nd Baltic Front. During the summer campaign, 2nd Baltic was successful in crushing German opposition, was able to capture Riga, helping to bottle up some 30 German divisions in Latvia. On March 26, 1945, Yeryomenko was transferred to the command of the 4th Ukrainian Front, the unit he controlled until the end of the war.
Fourth Ukrainian was positioned in