St John's Cathedral (Brisbane)
St John's Cathedral is the Anglican cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Brisbane and the metropolitan cathedral of the ecclesiastical province of Queensland, Australia. The cathedral is situated in Ann Street in the Brisbane central business district, is the successor to an earlier pro-cathedral, which occupied part of the contemporary Queens Gardens on William Street, from 1854 to 1904; the cathedral is the second-oldest Anglican church in Brisbane, predated only by the extant All Saints church on Wickham Terrace. It is the only existing building with a stone vaulted ceiling in the southern hemisphere; the cathedral is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. The cathedral is the centre for big diocesan events such as the ordinations of priests and deacons which attract large congregations; the choir of men and boys sing the traditional Anglican repertoire as well as more adventurous fare. The cathedral possesses a four manual pipe organ, the largest cathedral organ in Australia, which hosts many recitalists from across the world: Pearson's design creates a five-second reverberation making organ-music resonant.
St John's Cathedral is unique in Australia as the completion of the building design was achieved through collaboration between clergy and architects over a period of 100 years, as with Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals in the Middle Ages and, more 20th century cathedrals such as Liverpool Cathedral in England, St John the Divine in New York and Washington National Cathedral in Washington DC. William Webber – the third Bishop of Brisbane and a vicar in London – was instrumental in initiating the Brisbane cathedral project. In 1885–86, he commissioned John Loughborough Pearson to make sketch plans for Brisbane cathedral; the Brisbane cathedral movement began in earnest in 1887 as a celebration of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee – St John's was to be paid for by public subscription but the construction of the cathedral in one campaign was found to be financially impossible. As a result, the building has been executed in three stages over two centuries between 1906 and 2009. In April 1889, Pearson's plans for the cathedral were approved for the original site bounded by George and William Streets.
It was a cruciform church with a wide nave, double aisles and ambulatory, short transepts about halfway along the length of the building and an apsidal side chapel on the north. The west front had towers close to the end of the nave; the upper part of the west wall was supported by a relieving arch, which continued the line of the interior cross arches. The towers had massive buttresses, their strong vertical lines carried on into corner turrets set before pyramidal spires. John Pearson died in November 1897, two weeks before Webber presented fresh plans to the cathedral chapter. In 1898, Frank Loughborough Pearson was entrusted to carry out his father's design. In 1899, the cathedral chapter approved Pearson's revised plans only to be forced to reconsider the entire cathedral when the state government bought the original intended site; the present Ann Street site was purchased in late 1899 because it was "…central and had the natural advantage of being able to make the building erected on it a landmark for miles around."
Frank Loughborough Pearson spent a year reworking his father's design and, on 22 May 1901, the Duke of Cornwall and York laid the foundation stone of the cathedral. In 1903, Bishop William Webber died and in 1904 Frank Pearson submitted his final plans to the cathedral chapter; the first stage of construction took four years to complete. This included the chancel and ambulatory, the quire and its aisles, the transepts and crossing, the Lady Chapel to the liturgical north of the quire, the double aisles and the first bay of the nave; this stage was consecrated in October 1910, but consecration of the full building has been achieved in stages. After the Second World War money was raised in the hope of completing the cathedral as a war memorial. In 1947, Field-Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein laid a foundation stone for a further two bays of the nave, but construction ceased after the laying of the foundations. In 1965 the second stage was commenced. Work on the second stage proceeded for a further four years and consisted of the laying of foundations for the extensions, a two-bay extension to the nave and demolition and removal of the temporary west wall.
The third stage of construction commenced in 1989 and was completed in 2009. The third stage of construction comprised the erection of the south west porch, the final bay of the nave, the west front, the north and south towers and the central tower; this stage of work was overseen by Master Mason of Exeter Cathedral in England. To ensure enough supply of sandstone for the project, the cathedral authorities purchased a sandstone quarry at Helidon, 100 kilometres from Brisbane where each piece of stone was cut and finished and trucked to the cathedral site in Ann Street; some other stone, quarried for the abandoned project to build the Holy Name Cathedral, was purchased. The third stage of construction cost A$40 million, raised by public donations
The Brisbane River is the longest river in South East Queensland and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley, the first European to explore the river, named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane in 1823; the penal colony of Moreton Bay adopted the same name becoming the present city of Brisbane. Early travellers along the waterway admired the natural beauty, abundant fish and rich vegetation along its banks. From 1862 the Brisbane River has been dredged for navigation purposes; the river served as an important carriageway between Brisbane and Ipswich before a railway linking the towns was built in 1875. By the late 1920s, water quality in the river had deteriorated; the river travels 344 km from Mount Stanley. The river is dammed by the Wivenhoe Dam, forming the main water supply for Brisbane; the waterway is a habitat for Brisbane River cod and bull sharks. The largest ship built on the river was the Robert Miller; the 66,000 tonne vessel became un-moored in the 1974 Brisbane flood.
While not the highest experienced along the river since European settlement, this flood was the most damaging. Major floods occurred in January 2011 and multiple times during 1893. Extensive port facilities have been constructed on the Fisherman Islands, now known as the Port of Brisbane. There are 16 major bridges; the Clem Jones Tunnel, opened in 2010, is the river's first underground crossing for road transport. The CityCat ferry service collects and delivers passengers along the inner-city reaches of the river. Brisbane River's source is located in the Great Dividing Range, east of Kingaroy, it makes its way south, past Mount Stanley, townships including Moore and Toogoolawah before being joined by the Stanley River, just south of Somerset Dam. The river runs from there into Lake Wivenhoe, created by the Wivenhoe Dam. Beyond the dam, the river meanders eastward, meeting the Bremer River near Ipswich making its way through Brisbane's western suburbs, including Jindalee and Toowong; the river is traversed by CityCats and other ferries in Brisbane, as it winds its way through the city centre.
Water from the highest point in the catchment has fallen from Mount Langley in the Conondale Range, 868 m above sea level. The Brisbane River flows past wharves including Pinkenba Wharf and Portside Wharf, past Bulwer Island and Luggage Point through the Port of Brisbane and into southern Bramble Bay an embayment of Moreton Bay. On the southern side of the river, opposite Gardens Point, are the Kangaroo Point Cliffs; the Kangaroo Point Cliffs were created by a quarrying operation that, according to Allan Cunninghams' Field Book, was underway prior to 1829 when he observed a "stone wharf used for landing the blocks of stone ferried across the river for the construction of buildings in the settlement". This was in the vicinity of Edward Street ferry terminal; the volcanic rock Ignimbrite which formed the cliffs was deposited in the Triassic period about 220 million years ago. They form the banks of the Brisbane River. A number of the reaches of the Brisbane River are named, including the following listed below, together with their location relative to tributaries of the river and river crossings: The following major tributaries flow into the Brisbane River from the north.
On the southside Bulimba Creek, Norman Creek, Oxley Creek, Bremer River and Lockyer Creek waterways enter the Brisbane River. The following smaller creeks flow into the river. Before European settlement, the Brisbane River was spiritually important and a vital food source for the Aboriginal people of the Turrbal nation through fishing in the tidal sections downstream, with fishing and firestick farming in the upper reaches where there was freshwater, depending on the season; the language group common to most of the area was the Yugarabul language group. Four European navigators, namely Captain Cook, Matthew Flinders, John Bingle and William Edwardson, all visited Moreton Bay but failed to discover the river; the exploration by Flinders took place during his expedition from Port Jackson north to Hervey Bay in 1799. He spent a total of 15 days in the area, touching down at Woody Point and several other spots, but failed to discover the mouth of the river although there were suspicions of its existence.
This is consistent with accounts of many other rivers along the east coast of Australia, which could not be found by seaward exploration but were discovered by inland travellers. On 21 March 1823, four ticket-of-leave convicts sailing south from Sydney on a timber getting mission to Illawarra, Thomas Pamphlett, John Finnegan, Richard Parsons and John Thompson were blown north by a storm, they went 21 days without water, continuing north in the belief they had been blown south, during which time Thompson died. They landed on Moreton Island on 16 April and made it to the mainland on the south of the Brisbane River, they began trekking north in order to return to Sydney, still believing themselves to be somewhere south of Jervis Bay. Subsequently, they became the first known Europeans to discover the river, stumbling across it somewhere near the entrance, they walked upstream along its banks for nearly a month before making their first crossing at'Canoe Reach', the junction of Oxley Creek. It was here they stole a small canoe left by the
Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Shire of Queensland’s Central Coast Queensland, Australia. The estimated urban population of Rockhampton in June 2015 was 80,665, making it the fourth-largest city in the state outside of the cities of South East Queensland. and the 22nd-largest city in Australia. Rockhampton is one of the oldest cities in Northern Australia. In 1853, Charles and William Archer discovered the Fitzroy River, which they named in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy; the Archer brothers took up a run near Gracemere in 1855, more settlers arrived soon after, enticed by the fertile valleys. The town of Rockhampton was proclaimed in 1858, surveyed by Arthur F Wood and Francis Clarke, the chosen street design resembled the Hoddle Grid in Melbourne and consisted of a grid of wide boulevards and laneways, uncommon in Queensland. Within the year, gold was found at Canoona, led to the first North Australian gold rush; this led to an influx of migrants who transformed Rockhampton into the second-largest port in the state.
Subsequent gold rushes at Mount Morgan Mine, at the time one of the most productive gold mines in the world, laid the foundations for much of the city's Victorian architecture. Today, Rockhampton is an industrial and agricultural centre of the north, is the regional centre of Central Queensland. Rockhampton is a large tourist destination known for its history and culture supporting such institutions as the Rockhampton Art Gallery, one of the most extensive regional galleries in Australia, the Central Queensland University with campuses across five states, the Rockhampton Heritage Village, Dreamtime Cultural Centre, it is famous as the hometown of Rod Laver - one of the best tennis players in history. The city is served by the Rockhampton Airport and acts as a gateway to local tourist locations such as the Capricorn Caves and Mount Archer National Park, as well as regional tourist areas like Yeppoon and the Capricorn Coast alongside the island chains offshore that include Great Keppel Island.
A giant waterslide was built in Rockhampton for an attraction. The Capricorn district is the traditional home of the Darumbal Aboriginal people; the European history of the area began in 1853, when the area that would become Rockhampton was visited by the Archer brothers Charles and William, who were seeking grazing lands. They were acting on information from earlier expeditions by Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell, who had explored the area in 1844 and 1846 and noted suitable land for grazing then. In January 1854, the New South Wales Government proclaimed two new districts: Port Curtis and Leichhardt, the Archer brothers returned in August 1855 to set up their pastoral run at Gracemere; the Fitzroy River provided a convenient waterway for shipping of supplies and produce, the Archer brothers constructed a wool shed just downstream of a bar of rocks which prevented further upstream navigation from the coast. These rocks were incorporated with the traditional English term for a village, the name "Rockhampton" was first coined by Charles Archer and the local Commissioner from Crown Lands, William Wiseman.
In 1856, the Elliott brothers arrived at Gracemere and soon after, took up landholdings at Canoona, north of present-day Yaamba. There, Philip Elliott and his party came under attack from the Darumbals of the Taroomball tribe. Elliott was wounded by a spear and one of his men was killed. However, Elliott had brought with his party a contingent of Native Police who turned near-certain loss into victory, it was the first of many battles. Permanent British settlement at the Rockhampton township began in July 1856, when Richard Palmer travelled from Gladstone with an escort of Native Police under sub-Lieutenant Walter Powell to set up a store. Powell constructed the Native Police barracks; this was the first habitable British building established at Rockhampton and it was located on the south bank of the Fitzroy River at the end of Albert Street. With abundant grazing lands and waters from the Fitzroy River and its many tributaries and lagoons, the region continued to expand rapidly. In 1858, the town of Rockhampton was proclaimed.
The town was surveyed at this time and the first sales of building allotments were held that year. In 1859, gold was discovered at Canoona. Miners rushed to the new field, using the site of Rockhampton on the Fitzroy River as the nearest navigable port; the Canoona field proved to be disappointing and thousands of would-be gold seekers were left stranded at Rockhampton. Although many returned south, others stayed. By 1861, the town boasted a regular newspaper, court house and School of Arts. Direct shipments of imported goods and migrants from the United Kingdom began to be received during the 1860s. During the 1860s and 1870s Rockhampton developed as the main port for the developing Central Queensland hinterland. In the 1880s and 1890s, sea ports were established on the coast, adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January 1898 and the line to Port Alma opened on 16 October 1911.
Maintenance on the Broadmount line ceased in August 1929. The following month, the wharf caught fire and the line was closed in July 1930; the line to Port Alma closed on 15 October 1986. The significant gold deposit at Mount Morgan to the southwest was discovered in the 1880s, a
Ipswich is an urban region in south-east Queensland, located in the south-west of the Brisbane metropolitan area. Situated on the Bremer River, it is 40 kilometres west of the Brisbane CBD. A local government area, the City of Ipswich has a population of 200,000; the city is renowned for its architectural and cultural heritage. Ipswich preserves and operates from many of its historical buildings, with more than 6000 heritage-listed sites and over 500 parks. Ipswich began in 1827 as a mining settlement. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, what is now called Ipswich was home to many indigenous language groups, including the Warpai tribe and Ugarapul Indigenous Australian groups; the area was first explored by European colonists in 1826, when Captain Patrick Logan, Commandant of the Moreton Bay penal colony, sailed up the Brisbane River and discovered large deposits of limestone and other minerals. The town began in 1827 as a limestone mining settlement and grew as a major inland port. Ipswich was named "The Limestone Hills" and shortened to "Limestone", however in 1843 it was renamed after the town of Ipswich in England.
The population was 932 in 1851 and had risen to 2459 by 1856. It became a municipality in 1858. Ipswich was a prime candidate for becoming the capital of Queensland, but Brisbane was instead chosen in 1859, it was proclaimed a city in 1904. The city became a major coal-mining area in the early 19th Century, contributing to the development of railways in the region as a means of transport; the first recorded coal mines in the central Ipswich area started at Woodend in 1848. From the 1840s onward, Ipswich was becoming an important river port for growing local industries such as coal and wool from the Darling Downs and a regular paddlesteamer service from Brisbane Town, The Experiment, was established in 1846. This, other steamer services, remained the primary form of mass/bulk transport between the two cities until 1876, when the construction of the original Albert Bridge, spanning the Brisbane River at Indooroopilly, completed the railway line begun between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1873. Ipswich was proclaimed a municipality on 2 March 1860 and became a city in 1904.
Several members of the British Royal Family have visited Ipswich. 1868 – Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh1920 – Prince of Wales 1927 – Duke and Duchess of York 1958 – Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother1962 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone2011 – Prince William 2014 – Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Damaging flooding has occurred on numerous occasions in Ipswich, the largest being the 1893 Brisbane flood peaking at 24.5 m, more during the 1974 Brisbane Flood, 2010–11 Queensland floods on 12 January 2011. Around 35 people died in the floods in the 1893 Brisbane flood; the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February of that year and a fourth event several months later. 7 workers were killed at a colliery in north Ipswich. 14 people died in flooding during the Australia Day weekend. Two people were killed in Ipswich. At least 6,700 homes flooded across the region. Thousands of homes in Ipswich and Brisbane could not be recovered; the Bremer River at Ipswich reached a height of 19.5 metres on 12 January, inundating the central business district and thousands of houses.
38 people died as a result of the floods. At Minden, on the border of Ipswich City, a four-year-old boy was swept away by floodwaters when he fell from a rescue boat. A man in his fifties died when he accidentally drove into floodwaters in the Ipswich suburb of Wulkuraka; the worst affected areas of Ipswich were the suburbs of Gailes. The flooding allowed bull sharks to reach the centre of Goodna. A multibillion-dollar class action lawsuit is underway against dam operators Seqwater, SunWater and the State of Queensland. Law firm Maurice Blackburn have lodged the suit on behalf of 5,500 Ipswich and Brisbane residents who lost their homes or businesses during the floods. Modelling released in 2013 claimed flooding of Ipswich CBD would not have been as extreme if Wivenhoe Dam operators had operated the dam correctly; the Ipswich Central Library building opened in 1994. The Ipswich Historical Society was established in 1966 and is located at Cooneana Heritage Centre, 11041 Redbank Plains Rd, New Chum, Ipswich.
The Ipswich branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 84 Limestone Street. Ipswich experiences a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, mild to warm winters with cool overnight temperatures and heavy summer storms, it is cooler than the Brisbane CBD in terms of overnight temperatures, in winter, whilst being warmer in summer. Ipswich was a major mining centre coal mining; the city is the'cradle of coal mining in Queensland'. Other secondary manufacturing industries included earthenware works, sawmills and foundries, while the region is rich agriculturally. Ipswich remains a strong manufacturing region, with more than 14% of workers employed in the manufacturing industry, compared to just 7.6% for regional Queensland. Extensive growth is predicted in Ipswich and the Western Corridor region in years to come, the economy is projected to be worth $12.7 billion by 2026. Global giant General Electric moved its Queensland headquarters into a $72 million building in Springfield in 2015.
Ipswich is the site of RAAF Base Amberley, the Royal Australian Air Force's largest operatio
The Deanery, Brisbane
The Deanery is a heritage-listed detached house at 417 Ann Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It sits within the grounds of Brisbane, it was renovated in c. 1909 to a design by Robin Dods. It is known as Adelaide House, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. This residence known as Adelaide House, was constructed for Dr William Hobbs who arrived in Brisbane in May 1849 as the ship's surgeon on board the Chaseley, the second of Reverend John Dunmore Lang's immigrant ships. Hobbs was a prominent medical figure. In 1853 Hobbs commissioned Andrew Petrie to build a two storey house on a hill overlooking the river; when Sir George Bowen was appointed the first Governor of Queensland in 1859, Government House was still being planned. As an interim measure, Adelaide House was rented by the government for £350 per year, as the Governor's residence. On 10 December 1859, the proclamation creating the colony of Queensland was read by Bowen on the first floor balcony of Adelaide House where he was sworn in as Governor by Judge Alfred Lutwyche.
On the completion of Government House in lower George Street in 1862, Dr Hobbs returned with his family to Adelaide House. In the 1880s excavations for the extension of Adelaide Street destroyed Dr Hobbs's garden and left the house close to the steep cutting, prompting the family to move in 1883. From 1883 until 1899 the property was let to various tenants and for a period was used as a day school and a boarding house. In 1899, the property was acquired by the Church of England and was used as a Church Institute, a book depot and Diocesan Registry. With the construction of Church House in 1909, Adelaide House was renovated and the verandahs, to a design of Robin Dods, were added. After the consecration of St John's Cathedral in 1910, Adelaide House became the residence for the Dean and known as The Deanery. Alterations and renovations costing £4,000 were undertaken in 1954. A double garage was built, replacing the coach house and stables; the Dean moved into the northern section of the building and the Precentor occupied the southern half.
The Precentor moved to nearby St Martin's House. This two storey residence with attic has external walls of 600-millimetre thick random Brisbane tuff with sandstone facings, it has a symmetrical plan form with a nearly pyramidal hipped roof with hipped attic dormer windows. Two of these look out towards the Brisbane River and another pair face Ann Street to the rear of the building. Chimneys rise from the end hips of the main roof; the two-level timber verandahs have shallow hipped roofs at the upper level with the one facing Adelaide Street having a gable section in line with the entry at the ground floor level. French doors open to the verandahs which have timber detailing; the side verandah has paired posts compared to the verandah over the entry which has individual ones. The original entry, which now faces the sheer drop to Adelaide Street has a freestone pilastered entrance porch, flanked by two Doric columns at the front; the entry door is surrounded by leadlight windows. The house has a high degree of integrity internally, despite alterations to room layouts at various stages which involved both the removal and additions of walls and doors.
Some original fireplaces remain, as does most joinery including the staircase, painted white. The side verandahs have been enclosed; the Deanery was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history; the Deanery is significant as Queensland's first Government House and the site where Queensland was proclaimed a colony. The place demonstrates uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage; the building is a rare example of an 1850s residence. The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places; the Deanery is significant as an example of the work of Andrew Petrie who constructed many of Brisbane's early buildings. The place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history; the Deanery is significant for its association with Dr Hobbs, a prominent medical figure in nineteenth century Queensland.
This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. "BRISBANE'S HISTORIC HOMES". The Queenslander. 30 January 1930. P. 50. Retrieved 15 February 2015 – via National Library of Australia. — 1930 newspaper article about The Deanery by Florence Eliza Lord
Colony of Queensland
The Colony of Queensland was a colony of the British Empire from 1859 to 1901, when it became a State in the federal Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. At its greatest extent, the colony included the present-day State of Queensland, the Territory of Papua and the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In 1823, John Oxley sailed north from Sydney to inspect Port Curtis and Moreton Bay as possible sites for a penal colony. At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River whose existence Cook had predicted, proceeded to explore the lower part of it. In September 1824, he established a temporary settlement at Redcliffe. On 2 December, the settlement was transferred to where the Central Business District of Brisbane now stands; the settlement was called Edenglassie, a portmanteau of the Scottish towns Edinburgh and Glasgow. Major Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839, transportation of convicts ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement.
In 1842, free settlement was permitted. In the same year Andrew Petrie reported favourable grazing conditions and decent forests to the north of Brisbane, which led shortly to the arrival of settlers to Fraser Island and the Cooloola coast region. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. Fighting between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland was more bloody than in any other colonial state in Australia partly due to Queensland having a larger pre-contact indigenous population than any other colony in Australia, accounting for over one third, in some estimates close to forty percent, of the entire pre-contact population of the continent; the latest and hitherto most comprehensive survey estimates that some 1,500 European settlers – and their Chinese and Melanesian allies – died in frontier skirmishes with Aboriginals in Queensland during the nineteenth century.
The same study indicates that the casualties Aboriginal people suffered in these battles with settlers and native police is likely to have exceeded 30,000. Yet this figure is liable to increase if the results of the first attempt to use extensive primary sources to calculate the Aboriginal casualties due to violence on the Queensland frontier in this period is used. A paper prepared by Raymond Evans and Robert Ørsted-Jensen for the annual AHA conference at University of Queensland on 9 July 2014 indicated that a minimum figure of 65,000 Aboriginal casualties is a more realistic figure; the "Native Police Force", recruited and deployed by the Queensland government, was a key instrument in the oppression and murder of indigenous people during this period. The three largest massacres of whites by Aborigines in Australian colonial history all took place in Queensland. On 27 October 1857 Martha Fraser's Hornet Bank station on the Dawson River, in central Queensland took the lives of 11 Europeans.
The tent camp of the embryo station of Cullin-La-Ringo near Springsure was attacked by Aborigines on 17 October 1861, killing 19 people including the grazier Horatio Wills. Following the wreck of the brig Maria at Bramble Reef near the Whitsunday Islands, on 26 February a total of 14 European survivors were massacred by local Aborigines; the Battle of One Tree Hill and Darkey Flat massacre took place in the 1840s. In 1851, a public meeting was held to consider Queensland's separation from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859 Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the colony of Queensland. A proclamation was read by George Bowen on 10 December 1859 whereupon Queensland was formally separated from New South Wales. Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland and Robert Herbert became the first Premier of Queensland. Queensland was the only Australian colony that commenced with its own parliament, instead of first spending time as a Crown Colony. By this time, Western Australia was the only Australian colony without responsible government.
Ipswich and Rockhampton became towns in 1860, with Maryborough and Warwick becoming towns the following year. In 1861, rescue parties for Burke and Wills, which failed to find them, did some exploratory work of their own, in central and north-western Queensland. Notably among these was Frederick Walker who worked for the native police. Brisbane was linked by electric telegraph to Sydney in 1861, however the first operating telegraph line in Queensland was from Brisbane to Ipswich in the same year. Although smaller than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales, Queensland had its own series of gold rushes in the half of the nineteenth century. In 1858, gold was discovered at Canoona. In 1867, gold was discovered in Gympie. Richard Daintree's explorations in North Queensland lead to several goldfields being developed in the late 1860s. In 1872, William Hann discovers gold on southwest of Cooktown. Chinese settlers began to arrive in the goldfields, by 1877 there were 17,000 Chinese on Queensland gold fields.
In that year restrictions on Chinese immigration were passed. 1862 saw Queensland's western boundary changed from longitude 141° E to 138°E. In 1863, the first Chief Justice, Sir James Cockle was appointed. 1864 was an annus horribilis for Queensland. In March of that year, major flooding of the Brisbane River inundated the
28th parallel south
The 28th parallel south is a circle of latitude, 28 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and South America. At this latitude the sun is visible for 13 hours, 57 minutes during the December solstice and 10 hours, 19 minutes during the June solstice. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 28° south passes through: 27th parallel south 29th parallel south