Sephardi Jews known as Sephardic Jews, Hispanic Jews or Sephardim from Sepharad, Spain, or Portugal, are a Jewish ethnic division. They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North Africa, the Levant and Southern Europe, as well as the Americas, all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers, their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista and was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs in 1492, by the edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims by Portuguese king Manuel I in 1496, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.
In 2015 both Spain and Portugal passed laws which allowed Sephardim who could prove their origins in those countries to apply for citizenship. More broadly, the term Sephardim has today come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries; this article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition. The vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been variants of either Spanish or Portuguese, though other tongues had been adopted and adapted throughout their history; the historical forms of Spanish that differing Sephardic communities spoke communally was determined by the date of their departure from Iberia, their condition of departure as Jews or New Christians. Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes called "Ladino Oriental", is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish, incorporating elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula and Aramaic, was spoken by what became the Eastern Sephardim, who settled in the Eastern Mediterranean, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492.
This dialect was further influenced by Ottoman Turkish, Levantine Arabic, Greek and Serbo-Croatian vocabulary in the differing lands of their exile. Haketia, an Arabic-influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms was spoken by North African Sephardim, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492; the main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco. Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portuguese, including in a mixture of the two was traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardim, taken with them during their migration out of Iberia between the 16th and 18th centuries as conversos, after which they reverted to Judaism. Modern Spanish and Modern Portuguese varieties, traditionally spoken by the Sephardic Bnei Anusim of Iberia and Ibero-America, including some recent returnees to Judaism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
In this latter case, these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the indigenous languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest. The name Sephardi means "Spanish" or "Hispanic", derived from a Biblical location; the location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sefarád still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew. In other languages and scripts, "Sephardi" may be translated as plural Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים, Modern: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm. In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. In Hebrew, the term "Sephardim Tehorim", derived from a misunderstanding of the initials ס"ט "Samekh Tet" traditionally used with some proper names, has in recent times come to be used in some quarters to distinguish Sephardim proper "who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population" from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.
This distinction has been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows th
The Underground Grain Silos are heritage-listed silos at Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. Cockatoo Island became a gaol in 1839, following advice by NSW Governor George Gipps to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies that convicts would be sent to the island after the closure of the Norfolk Island convict establishment; the convict precinct was built over several years. Quarrying of grain silos was one of the early convict activities. In order to service Royal Navy ships, the Fitzroy Dock was built on the island and completed in 1857. Cockatoo Island Dockyard became the major government dockyard in Australia. In 1869 prisoners were transferred from the island to Darlinghurst, the prison buildings became an industrial school for girls and a reformatory from 1871; the dockyard area was now separated from this institutional area on the top of the island by a fence. Following the departure of the females in 1888, prisoners were again sent to the island, the gaol function continued until about 1909.
Meanwhile, the dockyard function expanded, the Sutherland Dock was built in 1890. The New South Wales Public Works Department declared Cockatoo. Following Federation, in 1913 Cockatoo became the Commonwealth Dockyard, the island, both through ship-building and servicing, played an important role both in the development of the Royal Australian Navy and during the First World War; the former prison buildings were now used for offices. From 1933 the dockyard was leased from the Australian Government by the Cockatoo Docks & Engineering Company and the island played a significant role during the Second World War. After the war the dockyard continued, submarine facilities were introduced; the dockyard closed in 1992, some demolition took place. Sale of the island was proposed; the island is now vested in the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. Due to the uncertain grain supplies available in the early colony of NSW, Governor Gipps in 1839 decided to embark on a silo construction program on Cockatoo Island.
In this way grain could be stored for future use. The silos, designed by Commanding Royal Engineer Colonel George Barney, were excavated into the island's sandstone rock by convict work gangs and, being well sealed, the silos were weevil-free. By November 1840 20,000 bushels of wheat were stored in the completed silos, other silos were underway. Gipps hoped to increase storage up to 100,000 bushels if the low price of wheat prevailing continued. Over twenty silos were quarried into the sandstone of Cockatoo. However, as grain storage was at odds with Britain's subsequent free market policies, Gipps was instructed to sell the grain. Either in the 1870s or the early 1880s, the silos were re-used for water storage purposes; some of the silos were subsequently destroyed by building construction. The surviving silos on the Island are believed to be the only group of convict-cut rock silos in the nation; the other major group of convict constructed underground silos are located on Norfolk Island, but these are cut into the earth.
The Underground Grain Silos are about 65m south-east of Biloela and between the cottage marked Robb and the cliff, Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour. This group of silos, sited on the crown of the Island, consists of two half; the symmetrical silos are bottle-shaped, an incision on the surface of the rock indicates the diameter of the silo below ground. The mouth is provided with a lip to exclude water; the "bottle" is approaching 5.5 metres in diameter. The silos held from 3000 to 5000 bushels of grain each. Visible evidence of thirteen silos remains on the island; as at May 2001, the intact silos are understood to be in good condition. The Underground Grain Silos were listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004 having satisfied the following criteria. Criterion A: Processes Excavated during 1839-40, the grain silos are highly significant for their direct association with the convict era in New South Wales, they are associated, as water storage facilities, with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, when the island was used as an industrial school and as a major government shipyard.
Further, the silos reflect aspects of food supply and government administration in the early years of the colony. Criterion B: Rarity The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia. Criterion F: Technical achievement The silos are finely excavated and reflect a high degree of stonemasonry skills on the part of their builders. Criterion H: Significant people The silos have significance for their association with Colonel George Barney, who played a notable engineering role in colonial NSW for a number of years. Clive Lucas Stapleton and Partners Pty. Ltd. October 1988. Norfolk Island: Conservation Management Plan, for Australian Construction Services on behalf of the KAVHA Management Board. Department of Housing and Construction. 1983. Norfolk Island: The archaeological survey of Kingston and Arthur's Vale, Volume II. Commonwealth of Australia. Godden Mackay, 1997, Cockatoo Island Conservation Management Plan. Vols 1 and 2. Department of Defence.
Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 1932, no.18. Pp. 338-343. Kerr, J. S. 1984, Cockatoo Island: Penal and Institution
Marita inornata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 3 mm; the white shell has a fusiform shape. The acuminate spire has a sharp apex, it contains seven whorls, of which two in the protoconch. The subsequent whorls are angulated, they are crossed by obscure lirae and faintly discernible ribs, becoming obsolete on the body whorl. The body whorl shows many inconspicuous lirae; the aperture is oblong. The columella is straight; the outer lip is sharp and sinuate below. This marine species occurs off South Australia. Verco, J. C. 1909. Notes on South Australian marine Mollusca with descriptions of new species. Part XII. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 33: 293-342 Hedley C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13: 213-359 Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295. "Marita inornatus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
In 1884, following the recommendations of the Jervois-Scratchley reports, the Queensland Marine Defence Force was established. To equip the new force, the Queensland colonial government purchased two gunboats and a torpedo boat. Queensland bought eight more vessels to create the second largest fleet in the Australian colonies behind Victoria. With the federation of the Australian colonies, those vessels still in service joined the Commonwealth Naval Forces in 1901 and the Royal Australian Navy when it was formed in 1911. No ship met the enemy in battle or fell victim to enemy action despite the fact that most went on too long, albeit in some cases humble, careers in both naval and private hands past World War II. Mosquito Gayundah Paluma Otter Bonito Bream Dolphin Pumba Stingaree Midge Miner List of Royal Australian Navy ships Banks, Ian. "Diving the Gold Coast". Retrieved 31 May 2013. Gillett, Ross. Warships of Australia. Graham, Colin. Adelaide, South Australia: Rigby. ISBN 0-7270-0472-7. "HMAS Gayundah".
Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 31 May 2013. McLeod, Roderick. History Along the Waterways: The Abandoned Hulks of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay. Royal Historical Society of Queensland. OCLC 729223232
The Apache Portable Runtime is a supporting library for the Apache web server. It provides a set of APIs. Where the OS does not support a particular function, APR will provide an emulation, thus programmers can use the APR to make a program portable across platforms. APR formed a part of Apache HTTP Server, but the Apache Software Foundation spun it off into a separate project. Other applications can use it to achieve platform independence; the range of platform-independent functionality provided by APR includes:: Memory allocation and memory pool functionality Atomic operations Dynamic library handling File I/O Command-argument parsing Locking Hash tables and arrays Mmap functionality Network sockets and protocols Thread and mutex functionality Shared memory functionality Skip list functionality Time routines User and group ID services GLib – provides similar functionality. It supports many OS-independent functions, but fewer IPC-related functions. Netscape Portable Runtime is a cross-platform abstraction library used by the Mozilla project.
It is used by another subproject of Mozilla application framework to provide cross-platform graphical user interface functionality. Adaptive Communication Environment is an object-oriented library written in C++ similar in functionality to APR, it is deployed in commercial products. Commonc++ is a cross-platform C++ class library for systems programming, with much of the same functionality as APR. POCO is a modern C++ framework similar in concept but more extensive than APR. WxWidgets is an object-oriented cross-platform GUI library that provides abstraction classes for database communication, IPC and networking functionality. KDE Frameworks – used by KDE SC Official website
Madaboosi Santanam Ananth is an Indian academic who served as the director of the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras from 2001 to 2011. He was presented with The Herdillia award for excellence in basic research in chemical engineering. Ananth is an alumnus of Alagappa College of Technology, where he completed his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering with a gold medal. Subsequently, he obtained his M. E. and Ph. D. degrees from University of Florida, Gainesville. His doctoral work at the University of Florida was on molecular thermodynamics, his advisor was Keith E. Gubbins, a famous British-born internationally renowned scientist, who figures in the list of "hundred great chemical engineers" in America after the post-war years, and, a distinguished professor at the North Carolina State University, Raleigh, he was a visiting faculty at Princeton University and a visiting scientist at National Institute of Standards and Technology, Colorado. He was a visiting scientist in the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Colorado, in RWTH, Germany and a visiting thermodynamics expert in Aspen Tech, Massachusetts, US.
He has held various senior positions such as head of the department, dean of academic courses and dean of academic research. Ananth is the head of NPTEL's Project Implementation committee, he serves on the boards of companies, including Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Neyveli Lignite Corporation and Medlab Asia. Thermodynamics Mathematical modeling Engineering education Herdillia award for excellence in basic research in chemical engineering Fellow, Indian Institute of Chemical Engineering Fellow, Indian National Academy of Engineering Ananth at Indian Institute of Technology, Madras