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Structure of the Common Security and Defence Policy

This article outlines the present structure of the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy, a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy based on articles 42–46 of the Treaty on European Union. Article 42.2 of TEU states that the CSDP includes the'progressive framing' of a common Union defence policy, will lead to a common defence, when the European Council of national heads of state or government, acting unanimously, so decides. The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces; the CSDP entails collective self-defence amongst member states as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure, headed by the Union's High Representative, Federica Mogherini, comprises: the Defence Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission relevant sections of the External Action Service — including the Military Staff with its so-called Military Planning and Conduct Capability a number of Foreign Affairs Council preparatory bodies — such as the Military Committee four agencies, including the Defence Agency The EU does not have a permanent military command structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations, although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions.

The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent military headquarters. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects; the CSDP structure is sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm. Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC requiring unanimity, implemented by the HR/VP. Military operations may be launched after four planning phases, through which the Operation Commander, Military Staff, Military Committee and Security Committee and Council have different roles: I: Political Framework for Crisis Approach II: Crisis Management Concept III: Military Strategic Options and Initiating Military Directive IV: Concept of Operations, Operations Plan and Rules of Engagement All military or civilian missions of the European Union, as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy, are planned and conducted by an operation headquarters.

All civilian missions are directed by the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability, a directorate of the External Action Service in Brussels, Belgium. For each military mission an OHQ is chosen; the EU does not have a permanent military command structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations, although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The Military Planning and Conduct Capability, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent operational headquarters; the EU command and control structure, as directed by political bodies which are composed of member states's representatives and require unanimous decisions, as of April 2019: Liaison: Advice and recommendations Support and monitoring Preparatory work The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy referred to as the High Representative, is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, including the CSDP.

The position is held by Federica Mogherini. Where foreign matters is agreed between EU member states, the High Representative can speak for the EU in that area, such as negotiating on behalf of the member states. Beside representing the EU at international fora and co-ordinating the CFSP and the CSDP, the HR/VP is: ex-officio Vice-President of the European Commission participant in the meetings of the European Council responsible of the European Union Special Representatives head of the External Action Service and the delegations President of the Foreign Affairs Council Head of the European Defence Agency Chairperson of the board of the European Union Institute for Security Studies Directorate-General for Defence Industry and Space, established in 2019 The European External Action Service is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU; the EEAS is seated in Brussels. The EEAS does not propose or implement policy in its own name, but prepares acts to be adopted by the HR/VP, the European Commission or the Council.

The EEAS is in charge of EU diplomatic missions and intelligence and crisis management structures. The following EEAS bodies take part in managing the CSDP: The Military Staff is an EEAS Directorate-General that provides strategic advice to the HR/VP and commands military operations through its Military Planning and Conduct Capability operational headquarters; the EUMS reports to the European Union Military Committee, representing member states' Chiefs of Defence, performs "early warning", situation assessment and strategic planning. The EUMS consists of 200+ military and civilian per

American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists

The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists is an international learned society devoted to the scientific studies of ichthyology and herpetology. The primary emphases of the society are to increase knowledge about these organisms, to communicate that knowledge through publications and other methods, to encourage and support young scientists who will make future advances in these fields; the programs of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists are part of a global effort to interpret and conserve the Earth's natural diversity and to contribute to the wise use of natural resources for the long-term benefit of humankind. On December 27, 1913, John Treadwell Nichols published the first issue of Copeia, a scientific journal dedicated to the knowledge of fish and amphibians. Nichols named Copeia to commemorate Edward Drinker Cope, a prominent 19th-century ichthyologist and herpetologist; the first edition of Copeia was comprised five articles. In an effort to increase the publication of Copeia and communication among ichthyologists and herpetologists, Nichols met with Henry Weed Fowler and Dwight Franklin in New York City.

Together, the three men founded the American Society of Herpetologists. By 1923, the Society accommodated around 50 members. Furthermore, the length of Copeia extended to 120 pages and an editorial staff established by the society assumed responsibility for the mass publication and expansion of this quarterly journal. Presently, the society has more than 2,400 members and Copeia features 1,200 pages of informative content and is found in over 1,000 institutional libraries.. Official website American Society of Records, c. 1978-1983 from the Smithsonian Institution Archives