Nathan Hale was an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for a mission in New York City but was captured by the British. His last words before being hanged were reported to be, I only regret that I have, Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut. Nathan Hale was born in Coventry, Connecticut, in 1755 to Richard Hale, in 1768, when he was fourteen years old, he was sent with his brother Enoch, who was sixteen, to Yale College. Nathan was a classmate of fellow patriot spy Benjamin Tallmadge, the Hale brothers belonged to the Linonian Society of Yale, which debated topics in astronomy, mathematics and the ethics of slavery. Nathan graduated with honors in 1773 at age 18 and became a teacher, first in East Haddam. After the Revolutionary War began in 1775, he joined a Connecticut militia and was elected first lieutenant within five months and his militia unit participated in the Siege of Boston, but Hale remained behind.
On July 4,1775, Hale received a letter from his classmate and friend Benjamin Tallmadge and he wrote to Hale, Was I in your condition, I think the more extensive service would be my choice. Our holy Religion, the honor of our God, a glorious country, tallmadges letter was so inspiring that, several days later, Hale accepted a commission as first lieutenant in the 7th Connecticut Regiment under Colonel Charles Webb of Stamford. In the following spring, the moved to Manhattan Island to prevent the British from taking over New York City. In September, General Washington was desperate to determine the location of the imminent British invasion of Manhattan Island, to that end, Washington needed a spy behind enemy lines, and Hale was the only volunteer. The Battle of Long Island led to British victory and the capture of New York City via a flanking move from Staten Island across Long Island, Hale volunteered on September 8,1776, to go behind enemy lines and report on British troop movements. He was ferried across on September 12 and it was an act of spying that was immediately punishable by death and posed a great risk to Hale.
During his mission, New York City fell to British forces on September 15, on September 21, a quarter of the lower portion of Manhattan burned in the Great New York Fire of 1776. The fire was widely thought to have been started by American saboteurs to keep the city from falling into British hands, though Washington. It has speculated that the fire was the work of British soldiers acting without orders. In the fires aftermath, more than 200 American partisans were rounded up by the British, an account of Nathan Hales capture was written by Consider Tiffany, a Connecticut shopkeeper and Loyalist, and obtained by the Library of Congress. In Tiffanys account, Major Robert Rogers of the Queens Rangers saw Hale in a tavern, after luring Hale into betraying himself by pretending to be a patriot himself and his Rangers apprehended Hale near Flushing Bay in Queens, New York
1509 Constantinople earthquake
The 1509 Constantinople earthquake, referred to as The Lesser Judgment Day by contemporaries, occurred in the Sea of Marmara on 10 September 1509 at about 10pm. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.2 ±0.3 on the surface wave magnitude scale. A tsunami and forty-five days of aftershocks followed the earthquake, over a thousand houses and 109 mosques were destroyed, and an estimated 10,000 people died. The Sea of Marmara is a basin formed at a releasing bend in the North Anatolian Fault. This local zone of extension occurs where this boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate steps northwards to the west of Izmit from the Izmit Fault to the Ganos Fault. The pattern of faults within the Sea of Marmara basin is complex, to the west, the fault trends west-east and is pure strike-slip in type. To the east, the fault is NW-SE trending and shows evidence of both normal and strike-slip motion, movement on this fault, which bounds the Çınarcık Basin, was the most likely cause of the 1509 event.
The area of significant damage extended from Çorlu in the west to Izmit in the east, galata and Büyükçekmece suffered severe damage. In Constantinople many houses collapsed, chimneys fell and walls cracked, the newly built Bayezid II Mosque was badly damaged, the main dome was destroyed and a minaret collapsed. The Fatih Mosque suffered damage to its four columns and the dome was split. The former church of Hagia Sophia survived almost unscathed, although a minaret collapsed, inside the mosque, the plaster that had been used to cover up the Byzantine mosaics inside the dome fell off, revealing the Christian images. The number of dead and injured is hard to estimate, with different sources giving accounts varying from 1,000 to 13,000 and it is believed that some members of the Ottoman dynasty died in this earthquake. Earthquake shocks continued for 45 days after the big earthquake, from the area and intensity of shaking, a 70 km fault rupture has been estimated. A tsunami is mentioned in sources with a run-up of greater than 6.0 m.
A turbidite bed whose deposition matches the date of the earthquake has been recognised in the Çınarcık Basin, List of earthquakes in Turkey List of historical earthquakes
John Smith (explorer)
Captain John Smith, Admiral of New England, was an English soldier and author. He was knighted for his services to Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania and he was considered to have played an important part in the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and he was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England. His books and maps were important in encouraging and supporting English colonization of the New World and he gave the name New England to the region and noted, Here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land. If he have nothing but his hands, he may. by industries quickly grow rich, when Jamestown was Englands first permanent settlement in the New World, Smith trained the settlers to farm and work, thus saving the colony from early devastation. He publicly stated He that will not work, shall not eat, quoting from the Bible, harsh weather, lack of water, living in a swampy wilderness and attacks from the Powhatan Indians almost destroyed the colony.
The Jamestown settlement survived and so did Smith, but he had to return to England after being injured by an explosion of gunpowder in a boat. John Smith was baptized on 6 January 1580 at Willoughby near Alford, Lincolnshire and he claimed descent from the ancient Smith family of Cuerdley and was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1592–1595. After his father died, Smith left home at the age of sixteen and he served as a mercenary in the army of Henry IV of France against the Spaniards, fighting for Dutch independence from Spanish King Phillip II. He set off for the Mediterranean, there he engaged in both trade and piracy, and fought against the Ottoman Turks in the Long Turkish War. Smith was promoted to a captain while fighting for the Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary in the campaign of Michael the Brave in 1600 and 1601. After the death of Michael the Brave, he fought for Radu Șerban in Wallachia against Ottoman vassal Ieremia Movilă, however, in 1602, he was wounded in a skirmish with the Tartars and sold as a slave.
As Smith describes it, we all sold for slaves, like beasts in a market, Smith claimed that his master, a Turkish nobleman, sent him as a gift to his Greek mistress in Constantinople, who fell in love with Smith. In 1606, Smith became involved with the Virginia Company of Londons plan to colonize Virginia for profit, it had granted a charter by King James. The expedition set sail in three ships, the Discovery, the Susan Constant, and the Godspeed, on 20 December 1606. His page was a 12-year-old boy named Samuel Collier, during the voyage, Smith was charged with mutiny, and Captain Christopher Newport had planned to execute him. The English arrived at Jamestown in April 1607 and, by the summer of that year, the search for a suitable site ended on 14 May 1607 when Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, president of the council, chose the Jamestown site as the location for the colony. After the four-month ocean trip, their stores were sufficient only for each to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day
Battles of Kawanakajima
The location is in the southern part of the present-day city of Nagano. Five major battles took place there, Fuse in 1553, Saigawa in 1555, Uenohara in 1557, Hachimanbara in 1561, and Shiozaki in 1564. The best known and most severe among them was fought on October 18,1561, the battles were fought after Shingen conquered Shinano, expelling Ogasawara Nagatoki and Murakami Yoshikiyo, who subsequently turned to Kenshin for help. The battles became one of the most cherished tales in Japanese military history, the battles were part of the 16th century Sengoku period, known as the Age of Civil War, and were little different from other conflicts. After the Ōnin War, the system and taxation had increasingly less control outside the province of the capital in Kyoto. Such lords gained power by usurpation, warfare or marriage, any means that would safeguard their position and it was manifested in yamajiro, which overlooked the provinces. In 1541, Shingen began his conquest of Shinano Province, in 1550, Shingen advanced once again into Shinano, and quickly conquered Hayashi Castle and Fukashi Castle.
These had been controlled by Ogasawara Nagatoki, who fled to Murakami Yoshikiyo, in October 1550, Shingen began the Sieges of Toishi Castle, from which position he intended to carry out the final attack on the main Murakami castle of Katsurao. However, in November the siege was abandoned and Shingens army was counterattacked by Murakami, the following year, Murakami was forced to leave the castle, and the successful Siege of Katsurao ensued. In the first battle of Kawanakajima, known as the Battle of Fuse, was fought in 1553, although regarded as the first battle, it is related to the two battles of Hachiman fought in the same year south of the plain. Twelve days after taking Katsurao Castle, Shingen penetrated far into the Kawanakajima plain along the bank of Chikumagawa river. Uesugi Kenshin marched up the bank to support Murakami Yoshikiyo. After Takeda withdrew, Uesugi continued his march and laid siege to Katsura, in September, Takeda returned to crush the remaining Murakami forces around Shioda.
Wada was taken on September 8 and Takashima on the 10th, in both cases, the entire garrison was put to death as a warning to other Murakami hold-outs. Murakami Yoshikiyo retreated from Shioda on 12 September and about 16 of the outposts in Shinano surrendered to Takeda. Shingen pursued Yoshikyo across the Chikumagawa river but was turned back by Kenshins reinforcements at the Battle of Fuse, Kenshin pursued Shingen, winning another battle at Hachiman. The victorious Uesugi forces went on take Arato castle before winter forced both sides to disengage, from August to November 1555, the second battle of Kawanakajima, known as the Battle of Saigawa, began when Takeda Shingen returned to Kawanakajima, advancing up to the Sai River. He made camp on a hill to the south of the river, while Uesugi Kenshin was camped just east of the Zenkō-ji temple, which provided him an excellent view of the plain
Thomas Wolsey was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the Kings almoner, the 1515 appointment of Wolsey as a cardinal by Pope Leo X gave him precedence even over the Archbishop of Canterbury. The highest political position Wolsey attained was Lord Chancellor, the Kings chief adviser, in that position, he enjoyed great freedom and was often depicted as an alter rex. After failing to negotiate an annulment of Henrys marriage to Catherine of Aragon and he retreated to York to fulfill his ecclesiastical duties as Archbishop of York, a position he nominally held, but had neglected during his years in government. He was recalled to London to answer to charges of treason — a common charge used by Henry against ministers who fell out of favour —, Thomas Wolsey was born about 1473, the son of Robert Wolsey of Ipswich and his wife Joan Daundy. Widespread traditions identify his father as a butcher and a cattle dealer, Wolsey attended Ipswich School and Magdalen College School before studying theology at Magdalen College, Oxford.
On 10 March 1498 he was ordained as a priest in Marlborough and remained in Oxford, first as the Master of Magdalen College School, between 1500 and 1509 he held the living of Church of Saint Mary, Limington, in Somerset. In 1502 he left and became a chaplain to Henry Deane, archbishop of Canterbury and he was taken into the household of Sir Richard Nanfan, who made Wolsey executor of his estate. After Nanfans death in 1507, Wolsey entered the service of King Henry VII, Wolsey benefitted from Henry VIIs introduction of measures to curb the power of the nobility - the king was willing to favour those from more humble backgrounds. Henry VII appointed Wolsey royal chaplain, in this position Wolsey served as secretary to Richard Foxe, who recognized Wolseys innate ability and dedication and appreciated his industry and willingness to take on tedious tasks. Thomas Wolseys remarkable rise to power from humble origins testifies to his intelligence, administrative ability, ambition for power, in April 1508, Wolsey was sent to Scotland to discuss with King James IV rumours of the renewal of the auld alliance.
Wolseys rise coincided with the accession of the new English monarch, Henry VIII, whose character and diplomatic mindset differed significantly from those of his father. In 1509 Henry appointed Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council, providing an opportunity to raise his profile and to establish a rapport with the King. A factor in Wolseys rise was the young Henry VIIIs relative lack of interest in the details of governing during his early years, Henry soon appointed to his Privy Council individuals more sympathetic to his own views and inclinations. Warham and Foxe, who failed to share the Kings enthusiasm for the French war which started in 1512, fell from power, in 1515, Warham resigned as Lord Chancellor, probably under pressure from the King and from Wolsey, and Henry appointed Wolsey in his place. Wolsey carefully tried to destroy or neutralise the influence of other courtiers, Wolseys rise to a position of great secular power paralleled his increased responsibilities in the Church.
He became a Canon of Windsor in 1511, the year that he became a member of the Privy Council. In 1514 he was made Bishop of Lincoln, and Archbishop of York in the same year, Pope Leo X made him a cardinal in 1515, with the titular church S. Cæciliæ trans Tiberim
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Assassination of John the Fearless
The assassination took place during the Hundred Years War. Two rival factions, the Armagnacs and the Burgundians, vied for power within the regency headed by the queen Isabeau of Bavaria. John the Fearless, sensing that he was losing power, had Louis of Orléans assassinated in Paris in 1407 and this event led to a civil war between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians. Therefore, he sent a few troops to fight them. He profited from the war by taking power in Paris, supported by the academics, since the English crushed the French knights at Agincourt in 1415, putting an end to the civil war was urgent. John the Fearless and the dauphin Charles met on July 8,1419, at Pouilly-le-Fort, on July 19, their forthcoming reconciliation was celebrated in Paris with a Te Deum. That, was delayed by an English attack which, progressing along the course of the Seine, seized Poissy on July 31, the Duke of Burgundy had the royal family evacuated to Troyes, in the East. Finally and Charles agreed to seal their alliance on the bridge across the Seine at Montereau on September 10,1419, the Armagnacs couldnt tolerate a rapprochement between the dauphin and the Burgundians, which would diminish their influence.
They wanted to avenge the assassination of Louis of Orléans, their former leader and it was suspected but not proven that John the Fearless was behind the deaths of two of Charles brothers and John. On September 10,1419, the dauphin and John the Fearless, with their men-at-arms, John the Fearless was informed that his life was in danger, and his entourage increased its watch in order to protect the duke. The same was done for the dauphin, in the middle of the bridge, carpenters had put up two barriers with a door on each side, creating an enclosure for the meeting. It had been agreed that the two rivals would enter the enclosure, each with an escort of ten people, and that the doors would be closed during the meeting, each of the ten men had taken an oath. Despite the arrangements that had made, the Duke of Burgundy had second thoughts about the meeting. The Duke knelt with respect before the Dauphin, who feigned indifference, John looked for support by putting his hand on the hilt of his épée.
You put your hand on your épée in the presence of His Highness the Dauphin, one of the Dauphins companions, Lord Robert of Loire, asked him. Tanneguy du Chastel didnt wait for this pretext to deliver an axe blow to the Dukes face, there was a scramble, according to a narrative given afterwards by John Séguinat, the Dukes secretary, to the commission of inquiry appointed by the Burgundians. Men-at-arms rushed into the enclosure through the door on the Dauphins side, the Duke was stabbed repeatedly, while the Dauphin, at a distance, remained impassive. According to some accounts, the corpse of the Duke of Burgundy had the hand cut off as the Duke himself had done several years earlier to his cousin
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, sometimes known as the Battle of Pinkie, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. The last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, it was part of the known as the Rough Wooing. It was a defeat for Scotland, where it became known as Black Saturday. In the last years of his reign, King Henry VIII of England tried to secure an alliance with Scotland by the marriage of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, to his young son, the future Edward VI. When diplomacy failed, and Scotland was on the point of an alliance with France, the war had a religious aspect, the Scots refused to have Reformation imposed on them by England. During the battle, the Scots taunted the English soldiers as loons, tykes, a thousand monks from various orders formed part of the Earl of Anguss division. When Henry died in 1547, Edward Seymour, maternal uncle of Edward VI, became Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset and he continued the policy of forcible alliance with Scotland by the marriage of Mary to Edward, and of imposing an Anglican Reformation on the Scottish Church.
Early in September 1547, he led an army into Scotland. The Earl of Arran, Scottish Regent at the time, was forewarned by letters from Adam Otterburn, his representative in London, who had observed English war preparations. Somersets army was composed of the traditional county levies, summoned by Commissions of Array and armed with longbow and bill as they had been at the Battle of Flodden. The cavalry were commanded by Lord Grey of Wilton, as High Marshal of the Army, and the infantry by the Earl of Warwick, Lord Dacre of Gillesland, and Somerset himself. William Patten, an officer of the English army, recorded its numbers as 16,800 fighting men and 1,400 pioneers, Somerset advanced along the east coast of Scotland to maintain contact with his fleet and thereby keep in supply. Scottish Border Reivers harassed his troops but could impose no major check to their advance, far to the west, a diversionary invasion of 5000 men was led by Thomas Wharton and the dissident Earl of Lennox on 8 September 1547.
They took Castlemilk in Annandale and burnt Annan after a struggle to capture its fortified church. To oppose the English south of Edinburgh, the Earl of Arran had levied a large army, Arran had large numbers of guns, but these were apparently not as mobile or as well-served as Somersets. His cavalry consisted of only 2,000 lightly equipped riders under the Earl of Home and his infantry and pikemen were commanded by the Earl of Angus, the Earl of Huntly and Arran himself. According to Huntly, the Scottish army numbered 22,000 or 23,000 men, Arran occupied the slopes on the west bank of the River Esk to bar Somersets progress. The Firth of Forth was on his flank, and a large bog protected his right
Battle of St. George's Caye
The Battle of St. Georges Caye was a short military engagement that lasted from 3 to 10 September 1798, off the coast of what is now Belize. However, the name is reserved for the final battle that occurred on 10 September. The Spaniards had previously attempted to expel the Settlers on six occasions, September 10,1798 marked the final Spanish attempt to take over the area. Today, the Battle of St. Georges Caye is a national public, the symbolic meaning and significance of celebrating the 10th varies upon class and ethnic backgrounds. After the final two and a battle, ravaged by sickness, the Spaniards withdrew and the British declared themselves winners. The territory that is now Belize was under dispute from as early as the mid-1750s by Great Britain and Spain, although Spain never occupied Belize, she considered it part of her Central American territories, such as Mexico and Guatemala. The British had entered the territory as of 1638 to harvest logwood, Spain recognised this trade in the Treaty of Paris but did not undertake to draw boundaries, leading to further disputes.
Indeed, from 1779 to 1782 the settlement was abandoned, its settlers, known as the Baymen, due to conflicts with the inhabitants Despard resigned, but by 1796 it was clear the issue would have to be settled. The British ships that were sent from Jamaica to assist the baymen were the Merlin, humphreys relates that in a 1796 visit to the area, Visitador Juan OSullivan claimed the British were encroaching on Spanish territory in Mexico by cutting near the Hondo. Upon his return to Spain, hostilities broke out between Great Britain and Spain as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the Spanish viewed the situation seriously and determined to remove the British. Colonists appealed to Jamaican Lieutenant Governor Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres, but upon his arrival, Dundas noted panic in the settlement and the subsequent dispatching of slaves to cut logwood instead of preparing to defend the settlement. Balcarres named Major Thomas Barrow Superintendent of the settlement, on 18 March, magistrates Thomas Potts, Thomas Graham and Marshall Bennett all asked Barrow whether there were any incoming messages from Jamaica.
Impatient with the plans to defend the settlement, the Baymen called a meeting for 1 June 1797. At this meeting, the Baymen voted 65 to 51 to defend the settlement and this initial support wavered considerably between and September 1798, as reports came in of the size of the Spanish fleet. Don Arturo ONeill Tirone, Yucatán Governor and Commander of the expedition, had secured, This estimate was reduced due to outbreaks of yellow fever. Nevertheless, it was enough to frighten the Baymen into posting lookouts near the boundaries of the territory, the Merlins captain in 1798 was John Moss, a strategist on the order of Barrow. By 18 July 1798 the fleet had reached Cozumel, leading the settlers to agree to arm their slaves, there were still some who were cautious and demanded evacuation, including Potts, but Balcarres ignored them and imposed martial law on 26 July. In addition there were 700 troops ready to attack by land
Charles VII of France
Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death. In the midst of the Hundred Years War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances, in addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a war raged in France between the Armagnacs and the Burgundian party. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other cities on the Loire river. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates and this long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French had expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais, the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France.
Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the residence in Paris. He was the child and fifth son of Charles VI of France. His four elder brothers, Charles and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn, all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and they decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau, the Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphins men reacted to the Dukes arrival by attacking and killing him, Charles level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his mens intentions, the assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, at the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt.
For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, for those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates, the English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was ruled by an English regent, Henry Vs brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford