Battle of Cecora (1620)
The Battle of Cecora was a battle between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ottoman forces, fought from 17 September to 7 October 1620 in Moldavia, near the Prut River. Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was ready for it at the time. The Ottomans declared war against Poland in 1620 and planned to attack in the spring of 1621, the Commonwealth Sejm denied most funds the hetmans had asked for. However, the sultan sent Iskender Pasha to Moldavia to remove Hospodar Gaspar Gratiani, hetmans Zółkiewski and Koniecpolski led the army to Țuțora, a commune in Iaşi county, Romania), to fight the Horde of Khan Temir. The army numbered between 5,000 to 9,000, with regiments being made up of the private forces of magnates Koreckis, Zasławskis, Kazanowskis and Potockis. The army entered Moldavia in September, the Moldavian ruler, hospodar Gaspar Graziani, nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, decided to rebel and support the Commonwealth against the Ottomans. Graziani killed the janissaries in Iaşi, imprisoned envoys of Sultan Osman II and prepared to flee, only about 600–1000 rebel Moldavian troops appeared in the Commonwealth camp.
Żółkiewski ordered the army to proceed to the camp at Cecora. On 10 September, near Ţuţora, the Commonwealth army encountered the Tatar and Ottoman forces, with Wallachian contingents under the command of Iskender Pasha, the Ottoman Sultans force included Gabriel Bethlens army. The Tatar forces surprised the Commonwealth defenders, taking many prisoners, during the first day of fighting, most of the rebel Moldavians decided to switch sides and quickly attacked the Polish-Lithuanian flank. Mercenaries, private troops and their leaders were lacking in discipline. Stanisław Koniecpolski commanded the right flank of the Commonwealth forces during the ensuing battle, on 29 September Commonwealth troops had broken through Ottoman ranks with tabor wagon trains and started their retreat. However, after Graziani bribed some magnates, units of private troops begun to flee and some mercenary cavalry panicked and this was a prelude of things to come. Consecutive attacks during the retreat were repelled, but troop units started disintegrating as soon as soldiers caught sight of the Dniester, in the ensuing battle Żólkiewski died and Koniecpolski and many others, Stanisław Rewera Potocki and Bohdan Khmelnytsky were taken captive.
Before his death he received the blessing of his confessor, Father Szymon Wybierski of the Society of Jesus, Żółkiewskis head was mounted on a pike and sent to the sultan, Duke Korecki, having often meddled in Moldavian territories, was executed in the Constantinople prison. In the face of such an important victory, advised by grand vizier Ali Pasha and Gabriel Bethlen, alexandru Iliaş was appointed as the ruler of Moldavia, the rebel Graziani having been killed during his flight on 29 September. Only a thousand Commonwealth men survived the battles, while the Tatars moved into Podilia and Galicia, in 1621 an army of 200, 000–250,000 Ottoman veterans, led by Osman II, advanced from Edirne towards the Polish frontier. The Ottomans, following their victory in the Battle of Cecora, had hopes of conquering southern part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Louis I of Hungary
Louis I, Louis the Great or Louis the Hungarian, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370. He was the first child of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, a 1338 treaty between his father and Casimir III of Poland, Louiss maternal uncle, confirmed Louiss right to inherit the Kingdom of Poland if his uncle died without a son. In exchange, Louis was obliged to assist his uncle to reoccupy the lands that Poland had lost in previous decades and he bore the title of Duke of Transylvania between 1339 and 1342 but did not administer the province. Louis was of age when succeeded his father in 1342, and he inherited a centralized kingdom and a rich treasury from his father. He launched two campaigns to the Kingdom of Naples between 1347 and 1350 and his troops occupied large territories on both occasions, and Louis adopted the styles of Neapolitan sovereigns, but the Holy See never recognized his claim. Louiss arbitrary acts and atrocities committed by his mercenaries made his rule unpopular in Southern Italy and he withdrew all his troops from the Kingdom of Naples in 1351.
Like his father, Louis administered Hungary with absolute power and used royal prerogatives to grant privileges to his courtiers, however, he confirmed the liberties of the Hungarian nobility at the Diet of 1351, emphasizing the equal status of all noblemen. At the same Diet, he introduced a system and a uniform rent payable by the peasants to the landowners. He forced the Republic of Venice to renounce the Dalmatian towns in 1358 and he made several attempts to expand his suzerainty over the rulers of Bosnia, Moldavia and parts of Bulgaria and Serbia. His attempts to convert his pagan or Orthodox subjects to Catholicism made him unpopular in the Balkan states, Louis established a university in Pécs in 1367, but it was closed within two decades because he did not arrange for sufficient revenues to maintain it. Louis inherited Poland after his uncles death in 1370, since he had no sons, he wanted his subjects to acknowledge the right of his daughters to succeed him in both Hungary and Poland.
For this purpose, he issued the Privilege of Koszyce in 1374 spelling out the liberties of Polish noblemen, his rule remained unpopular in Poland. In Hungary, he authorized the free cities to delegate jurors to the high court hearing their cases. Suffering from a disease, Louis became even more religious during the last years of his life. At the beginning of the Western Schism, he acknowledged Urban VI as the legitimate pope, after the pope dethroned Joanna I of Naples and made Louiss distant cousin, Charles of Durazzo, king of Naples, Louis helped Charles occupy the kingdom. In Hungarian historiography, Louis was regarded for centuries as the most powerful Hungarian monarch who ruled over an empire whose shores were washed by three seas, born on 5 March 1326, Louis was the third son of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland. He was named for his fathers uncle, Bishop of Toulouse, the first-born son of his parents, died before Louis was born. Louis became his fathers heir after the death of his brother Ladislaus in 1329 and he had a liberal education by the standards of his age and learned French and Latin
Mary, Queen of Hungary
Mary, known as Maria, was Queen regnant of Hungary and Croatia between 1382 and 1385, and from 1386 until her death. She was the daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, Marys marriage to Sigismund of Luxembourg, a member of the imperial Luxembourg dynasty, was already decided before her first birthday. A delegation of Polish prelates and lords confirmed her right to succeed her father in Poland in 1379, Mary was crowned king of Hungary on 17 September 1382, seven days after Louis the Greats death. Her mother, who assumed regency, absolved the Polish noblemen from their oath of loyalty to Mary in favor of Marys younger sister, Hedwig, in early 1383. The idea of a female monarch remained unpopular among the Hungarian noblemen, to strengthen Marys position, the queen mother wanted her to marry Louis, the younger brother of Charles VI of France. Their engagement was announced in May 1385, Charles III of Naples landed in Dalmatia in September 1385. Sigismund of Luxemburg invaded Upper Hungary, forcing the queen mother to give Mary in marriage to him in October, they could not prevent Charles from entering Buda.
After Mary renounced the throne, Charles was crowned king on 31 December 1385, Mary was restored, but the murdered kings supporters captured her and her mother on 25 July. Queen Elizabeth was murdered in January 1387, but Mary was released on 4 June 1387, Mary officially remained the co-ruler with Sigismund, who had meanwhile been crowned king, but her influence on the government was minimal. She and her son died after her horse threw her during a hunting trip. Mary was born in the half of 1371 to Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland. She was the daughter of her parents. They had been childless for over a decade before Marys older sister and Catherine gained another sibling, Hedwig, in 1374. Before Marys first birthday, her father made a promise to Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis confirmed his promise in a deed in June 1373. Mary and Sigismund were closely related, because her grandmother, Elizabeth of Poland, was the sister of his great-grandfather. Pope Gregory XI issued the necessary for their marriage on 6 December 1374.
The leading Hungarian and Polish lords confirmed Louiss promise of Marys, Marys older sister, who had been betrothed to Louis of France, died in late 1378. Louis the Great confirmed his promise of Marys and Sigismunds marriage to Sigismunds brother, King of the Romans
Battle of Myriokephalon
The battle was a strategic reverse for the Byzantine forces, who were ambushed when moving through a mountain pass. It was to be the final, unsuccessful effort by the Byzantines to recover the interior of Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks. Immediately after peace was negotiated the Seljuk sultan Kilij Arslan II visited Constantinople where he was treated by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos as both an honoured guest and an imperial vassal, following this event there was no overt hostility between the two powers for many years. During the long peace with the Seljuks Manuel was able to concentrate his military power in other theatres, in the west he defeated Hungary and imposed Byzantine control over all the Balkans. In the east he recovered Cilicia from local Armenian dynasts and managed to reduce the Crusader Principality of Antioch to vassal status, the peace with Byzantium allowed Killij Arslan to eliminate internal rivals and strengthen his military resources. When the strongest Muslim ruler in Syria Nur ad-Din Zangi died in 1174, his successor Saladin was more concerned with Egypt and this shift in power gave Kilij Arslan the freedom to destroy the Danishmend emirates of eastern Anatolia and eject his brother Shahinshah from his lands near Ankara.
Shahinshah, who was Manuels vassal, and the Danishmend emirs fled to the protection of Byzantium, Arslan tried to negotiate but Manuel was convinced of his superiority and rejected a new peace. He sent part of the army under Andronikos Vatatzes towards Amasia while his force marched towards the Seljuk capital at Iconium. Both routes were heavily wooded regions, where the Turks could easily hide and set up ambushes. The Turks displayed Andronikoss head, impaled on a lance, the Turks destroyed crops and poisoned water supplies to make Manuels march more difficult. Arslan harassed the Byzantine army in order to force it into the Meander valley, and specifically the mountain pass of Tzivritze near the fortress of Myriokephalon. The lack of forage, and water for his troops, all sources agree that the Byzantine force was of exceptional size. The historian John Haldon estimates the army at 25,000 men, the latter number is derived from the fact that sources indicated a supply train of 3,000 wagons accompanied the army, which was enough to support 30–40,000 men.
No estimate of Seljuk numbers has been possible, primary sources have provided figures for other Seljuk campaigns. In 1160, John Kontostephanos defeated a force of 22,000 Seljuk Turks and these numbers offer a reasonable range for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rums military strength. The Byzantine vanguard was the first to encounter Arslans troops, and went through the pass with few casualties, possibly the Turks had not yet fully deployed in their positions. These divisions sent their infantry up onto the slopes to dislodge the Seljuk soldiers, the following divisions did not take this precaution, they were negligent in not maintaining a defensive formation of closed ranks and they did not deploy their archers effectively. By the time the first two Byzantine divisions exited the far end of the pass, the rear was just about to enter, the Turkish attack, descending from the heights, fell especially heavily on the Byzantine right wing
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Battle of Breitenfeld (1631)
It was the Protestants’ first major victory of the Thirty Years War. The Swedish phase of the Thirty Years War began when Gustavus Adolphus, the Imperial Commander of the German Catholic League, did not immediately respond to the arrival of the Swedes, being engaged in northern Italy. However, the end of the Mantuan War in 1631 ensured that the large Imperial army previously tied up there was now free to move into the German states. When the Protestant princes showed little interest in attaching themselves to the Swedish cause, Gustavus opted for “rough wooing. ”His troops moved south into Brandenburg and sacking the towns of Küstrin and Frankfurt an der Oder. Over the next few months, Gustavus consolidated his bridgehead and expanded across northern Germany, attracting support from German princes, by the time he reached the Saxon border, his force had grown to over 23,000 men. In order for Swedes to attack the Imperial troops in the south, in order for Tilly’s forces to attack Gustavs army, they too needed to pass through Saxony.
The Electorate of Saxony had not been affected by war and had large quantities of resources that each army could utilise. In midsummer, General Tilly asked John George I for permission to pass through the territory, the elector declined permission, noting that Saxony had not been ravaged by war yet. His plan was to contact with the Swedes, and ultimately the Saxons, until his troops could unite with the units near Jena. Gustav and John George united their forces, planning to meet Tilly somewhere near Leipzig, the battle was overall a meeting engagement with both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. The forces all had different structural organization, the level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. Both armies were supplied, and the terrain gave neither a distinct advantage. The forces deployed were roughly equal in strength, the Protestant coalition fielded about 42,000 troops, and the Imperial army about 35,000.
The Protestants had an edge in cavalry numbers, about 13,000 to 9,000. Strength of heavy artillery was comparable, with the Swedes having an edge in quality. The Swedes had additional small artillery pieces integrated into their infantry brigades and regiments, the Imperials had a considerable advantage in the number of trained infantry deployed, about 25,000 to the Swedes 15,000. The Saxons fielded about 9,000 untrained conscripts and militiamen, the Swedish brigade had more matchlocks and fewer pikemen than the Imperial tercio, the Protestants fielded about the same number of matchlocks as Imperial troops. The overall balance was relatively even, the disparity in overall numbers resulted from large levies of untrained soldiers