Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
The Narentines was a South Slavic tribe that occupied an area of southern Dalmatia centered at the river Neretva, active in the 9th and 10th centuries, noted as pirates on the Adriatic. Named Narentani in Venetian sources, Greek sources call them Paganoi, pagans, as they were for long pagan, Venetian–Narentine peace treaties did not last long, as the Narentines quickly returned to piracy. They were finally defeated in a Venetian crackdown at the turn of the 10th century, the word Narentine is a demonym derived from the local Neretva river. They are described as Serbs, descended from the unbaptized Serbs, the Pagani are so called because they did not accept baptism at the time when all the Serbs were baptized. Venetian sources used the geographical term Narentani and Slavic ethnonym to refer to the people, in Serbo-Croatian, the tribal name is rendered as Neretljani and Pagani, while the polity mostly as Paganija. In DAIs chapters Story of the province of Dalmatia and Of the Pagani, called Arentani, and of the country they now dwell in, Pagania had the counties of Rhastotza and Dalen.
Rhastotza and Mokros lay by the coast, and had galleys, Pagania had the inhabited cities of Mokron, Beroullia and Slavinetza, and the large islands of Kourkra/Kiker with a city, Meleta/Malozeatai and Bratzis. The Pagani raised flocks on the islands, islands in the vicinity but not part of Pagania were Chora, Iës and Lastobon. Croatia was situated to the west, and Zachumlia to the east, Serbia was situated inland to the north, behind Pagania, Zachumlia and Dioklea, the Sclaveni overwhelmed the Balkans in the 6th century. In 639 AD, until a flourishing Roman city, was destroyed by a horde of Avars, a few years later, Slavic tribes took control of the lower Neretva. The Slavs built a new town on the ruins of Narona, according to Evans, Narentia became a stronghold for pagans in the Balkans, similarly to Balto-Slavs in Rügen. In 642, Slavs invaded southern Italy and attacked Siponto, by ship from the Dalmatian coast, Slavic naval raids on the Adriatic increased and it became unsafe for travel. The first conflicts between the Venetians and Narentines came immediately before 830, around which time the first peace agreement was signed between the two, Narentine Slavs sent envoys to Doge Giovanni I Participazio. P.
Skok believes this period being the first contact between Venice and the middle Dalmatian islands, according to Šafárik, by the beginning of the 9th century their power had increased so much that Doge Giovanni I attacked them and offered them peace. The Republic of Venice was de facto subordinate the Byzantine Empire, in the first half of the 9th century Byzantium was struck by internal unrest, while the Bulgars and Arabs strengthened themselves thanks to this. Arabs took Crete in 825, Palermo in 831, Taranto in 839, destroying the Venetian navy by 840. In 841 Arabic ships attacked Adriatic cities and reached a confluence of the Padua river, while smaller contingents attacked Budva, Roza, in 842 the Arabs conquered Bari, and in 846 reached Rome itself. The Venetian navy, obliged to defend the Byzantine Adriatic, were occupied almost fully with battles with the Arabs, the Byzantine navy rarely appeared, and with small numbers of ships
Nerva was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became Emperor at the age of sixty-five, after a lifetime of service under Nero. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage, later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian respectively. On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate and this was the first time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties which had been curtailed during the government of Domitian. Nervas brief reign was marred by difficulties and his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 essentially forced him to adopt an heir, after some deliberation Nerva adopted Trajan, a young and popular general, as his successor. After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98, upon his death he was succeeded and deified by Trajan.
Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise, Nervas greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni,50 kilometers north of Rome, to the family of Marcus Cocceius Nerva, Suffect Consul in 40, ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35. He had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome. Nevertheless, the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, the direct ancestors of Nerva on his fathers side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles since the time of Emperor Augustus. His great-grandfather was Consul in 36 BC, and Governor of Asia in the same year, Nervas father, attained the consulship in 40 under emperor Caligula.
The Cocceii were connected with the Julio-Claudian dynasty through the marriage of Sergia Plautillas brother Octavius Laenas, and Rubellia Bassa, not much of Nervas early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career. He was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in circles as a skilled diplomat. As an advisor to Emperor Nero, he successfully helped detect and his exact contribution to the investigation is not known, but his services must have been considerable, since they earned him rewards equal to those of Neros guard prefect Tigellinus. He received triumphal honors — which was reserved for military victories —
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great, known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer and his father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian, in 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, social, the government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation and it would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was adopted by Christians, in military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions.
The age of Constantine marked an epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years and his more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletians tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign, the medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Critics portrayed him as a tyrant, trends in modern and recent scholarship attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the site of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem.
The Papal claim to power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics, though Constantine has historically often been referred to as the First Christian Emperor, scholars debate his actual beliefs or even his actual comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure, the fluctuations in Constantines reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantines life, the nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesareas Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography
Pietro I Candiano
Pietro I Candiano was briefly the sixteenth Doge of Venice in 887. He followed Orso I Participazio and Giovanni II Participazio as Doge of Venice, elected to the throne at the side of the elderly and he launched a military attempt against the Narentines in Dalmatia, who were hostile to Venetia after 886. As soon as he became Doge, he advanced with a fleet of galleys to the port of Makarska. He landed near Mokro and advanced inland, but the Narentines crushed his forces. He was the first Doge to die in a battle for La Serenissima, Giovanni briefly ruled Venice until a successor could be found for Candiano. It was Pietro Tribuno, his great-nephew and his son, Pietro II Candiano, later became Doge. Alfred A. Knopf, New York,1982
Domitian was the Emperor of Rome from 81 to 96. He was the brother of Titus and son of Vespasian. During his reign, his authoritarian rule put him at odds with the senate. After the death of his brother, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard and his 15-year reign was the longest since that of Tiberius. As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the defenses of the empire. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Caledonia, and in Dacia, Domitians government exhibited totalitarian characteristics, he saw himself as the new Augustus, an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. Religious and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, as a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army, but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. Domitians reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by court officials and he was succeeded the same day by his advisor Nerva.
Modern revisionists instead have characterized Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat whose cultural, Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October 51, the youngest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Flavia Domitilla Major. He had a sister, Domitilla the Younger, and brother. One such family, the Flavians, or gens Flavia, rose from obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth. Domitians great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesars civil war and his military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia, by marrying Vespasia Polla he allied the Flavian family to the more prestigious gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasian to senatorial rank. The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor and praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, as a military commander, Vespasian gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43.
Nevertheless, ancient sources allege poverty for the Flavian family at the time of Domitians upbringing, even claiming Vespasian had fallen into disrepute under the emperors Caligula, by all appearances, the Flavians enjoyed high imperial favour throughout the 40s and 60s. While Titus received an education in the company of Britannicus, Vespasian pursued a successful political. The same year the Jews of the Judaea province revolted against the Roman Empire in what is now known as the First Jewish-Roman War. Vespasian was assigned to lead the Roman army against the insurgents, of the three Flavian emperors, Domitian would rule the longest, despite the fact that his youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his older brother
Battle of Chrysopolis
The Battle of Chrysopolis was fought on 18 September 324 at Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon, between the two Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius. The battle was the encounter between the two emperors. After his navys defeat in the Battle of the Hellespont, Licinius withdrew his forces from the city of Byzantium across the Bosporus to Chalcedon in Bithynia, Constantine followed, and won the subsequent battle. This left Constantine as the emperor, ending the period of the Tetrarchy. In the Battle of the Hellespont Licinius navy had suffered a catastrophic defeat and his admiral, had been outfought by Constantines son the caesar Crispus, despite the latters distinctly smaller fleet. Following this naval victory, Constantine crossed over to Asia Minor, following the destruction of his naval forces Licinius evacuated the garrison of Byzantium, which joined his main army in Chalcedon on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus. It is not clear whether Martinians forces reached Licinius before September 18 when Licinius was brought to battle by Constantine, Constantines army landed on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphoros at a place called the Sacred Promontory and marched southward towards Chalcedon.
Licinius moved his army a few miles north towards Chrysopolis, Constantines army reached the environs of Chrysopolis before the forces of Licinius. Following a retreat to his tent to seek guidance, Constantine decided to take the initiative. Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the labarum and forbade his troops from attacking it, Constantine seemingly eschewed any subtlety of manoeuvre, he launched a single massive frontal assault on Licinius troops and routed them. He won a victory in what was a very large-scale battle. According to the historian Zosimus, There was great slaughter at Chrysopolis, Licinius was reported to have lost 25,000 to 30,000 dead, with thousands more breaking and running in flight. Licinius managed to escape and gathered around 30,000 of his troops at the city of Nicomedia. Recognising that his forces in Nicomedia could not stand against Constantines victorious army. Constantia, Constantines half-sister and Licinius wife, acted as intermediary, yielding to the pleas of his sister, Constantine spared the life of his brother-in-law, but some months he ordered his execution, thereby breaking his solemn oath.
Licinius was suspected of treasonable actions and the army command pressed for his execution, a year later, Constantines nephew the younger Licinius fell victim to the emperors anger or suspicions. In defeating his last foe, Constantine became the emperor of the Roman empire. After his conquest of the portion of the Roman Empire Constantine made the momentous decision to give the east its own capital
Province of New Hampshire
The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and of Great Britain. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack and Piscataqua rivers on the eastern coast of North America and it was formally organized as an English royal colony on October 7,1691, during the period of English colonization. The charter was enacted May 14,1692, by William and Mary, the territory is now the U. S. state of New Hampshire, and was named after the county of Hampshire in southern England by Captain John Mason, its first named proprietor. First settled in the 1620s, the province consisted for many years of a number of communities along the seacoast. In 1641 the communities came under the government of the neighboring Massachusetts Bay Colony, after a brief period as a separate province, the territory was absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1686. The Dominion collapsed in 1689, and the New Hampshire communities again came under Massachusetts rule until a charter was issued in 1691 by William.
Between 1699 and 1741 the provinces governors were commissioned as governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in 1741, Benning Wentworth was appointed governor solely of New Hampshire. These disputes resulted in the formation of the state of Vermont. The provinces economy was dominated by timber and fishing, the timber trade, although lucrative, was a subject of conflict with the crown, which sought to reserve the best trees for use as ship masts. The province was at first not strongly in favor of independence, after Governor John Wentworth fled the province in August 1775, the inhabitants adopted a constitution in early 1776. Independence as part of the United States was confirmed with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, prior to English colonization, the area that is now northeastern New England was populated by bands of the Abenaki, who lived in sometimes-large villages of longhouses. The seacoast was explored in the years of the 17th century by English and French explorers, including Samuel de Champlain.
These settlers were mostly intending to profit from the local fisheries and Gorges, neither of whom ever came to New England, divided their claims along the Piscataqua River in 1629. Mason took the territory between the Piscataqua and Merrimack, and called it New Hampshire, after the English county of Hampshire, conflicts between holders of grants issued by Mason and Gorges concerning their boundaries eventually led to a need for more active management. After Mason died in 1635, the colonists and employees of Mason appropriated many of his holdings to themselves, exeter was founded in 1638 by John Wheelwright, after he had been banished from the neighboring Massachusetts Bay Colony for defending the teachings of Anne Hutchinson, his sister-in-law. In the absence of granting authority from anyone associated with the Masons and his party included William Wentworth, whose descendants came to play a major role in colonial history. Around the same time, others unhappy with the strict Puritan rule in Massachusetts settled in Dover, because of a general lack of government, the New Hampshire settlements sought the protection of their larger neighbor to the south, the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1641, they agreed to be governed from Massachusetts, provided the towns retained self-rule
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Territory claimed but never administered by the colonial government extended as far west as the Pacific Ocean. The earlier Dutch colony of New Netherlands disputed many of these claims, arguing that they held rights to lands beyond Rhode Island up to the side of Cape Cod. The Massachusetts Bay Colony began in 1628 and was the second attempt at colonization. The colony was successful, with about 20,000 people migrating to New England in the 1630s, the population was strongly Puritan, and its governance was dominated by a small group of leaders who were strongly influenced by Puritan religious leaders. Its governors were elected, and the electorate were limited to freemen who had been examined for their religious views, as a consequence, the colonial leadership exhibited intolerance to other religious views, including Anglican and Baptist theologies. The colonists initially had decent relationships with the local Indian populations and these led first to the Pequot War and to King Philips War, after which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists.
The colony was successful, engaging in trade with England. A shortage of currency in the colony prompted it to establish a mint in 1652. Political differences with England after the English Restoration led to the revocation of the charter in 1684. King James II established the Dominion of New England in 1686 to bring all of the New England colonies under firmer crown control, Sir William Phips arrived in 1692 bearing the charter and formally took charge of the new province. The political and economic dominance of New England by the state of Massachusetts was made possible in part by the early dominance in these spheres by the Massachusetts Bay colonists. The total Indian population in 1620 has been estimated to be 7,000 with the population of New England at 15–18,000, the land-use patterns of the natives included plots cleared for agricultural purposes, and woodland territories for the hunting of game. Land divisions between the tribes were well understood, during the early 17th century, several European explorers charted the area, including Samuel de Champlain and John Smith.
Plans began in 1606 for the first permanent British settlements on the east coast of North America, on April 10,1606, King James I of England granted a charter forming two joint-stock companies. Under this charter, the first Colony and the second Colony were to be ruled by a Council composed of 13 individuals in each colony, the charter provided for an additional council of 13 persons to have overarching responsibility for the combined enterprise. No name was given to either the company or council governing the respective colonies, the first Colony ranged from the 34th- to 41st-degree latitude north, the second Colony ranged from the 38th- to 45th-degree latitude. The London Company proceeded to establish Jamestown, the Plymouth Company under the guidance of Sir Ferdinando Gorges covered the more northern area, including present-day New England, and established the Sagadahoc Colony in 1607 in present-day Maine. The experience proved exceptionally difficult for the 120 settlers, Gorges noted that there was no more speech of settling plantations in those parts for a number of years