John II of France
John II, called John the Good, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death. While John was a prisoner in London, his son Charles became regent and faced several rebellions, to liberate his father, he concluded the Treaty of Brétigny, by which France lost many territories and paid an enormous ransom. In an exchange of hostages, which included his second son Louis, Duke of Anjou, when John was informed that Louis had escaped from captivity, he voluntarily returned to England, where he died in 1364. He was succeeded by his son Charles V, John was nine years old when his father had himself crowned as Philip VI of France. Initially a marriage with Eleanor of Woodstock, sister of King Edward III of England, was considered, Bohemia had aspirations to control Lombardy and needed French diplomatic support. The military clauses stipulated that, in the event of war, the political clauses ensured that the Lombard crown would not be disputed if the king of Bohemia managed to obtain it.
Philip selected Bonne of Bohemia as a wife for his son, as she was closer to child-bearing age, and the dowry was fixed at 120,000 florins. John reached the age of majority,13 years and one day, on 27 April 1332, the wedding was celebrated on 28 July at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Upon his accession as Duke of Normandy in 1332, John had to deal with the reality that most of the Norman nobility was already allied with the English camp, Normandy depended economically more on maritime trade across the English Channel than on river trade on the Seine. The Duchy had not been English for 150 years, but many landowners had holdings across the Channel, consequently, to line up behind one or other sovereign risked confiscation. Therefore, Norman members of the nobility were governed as interdependent clans and it was split into two key camps, the counts of Tancarville and the counts of Harcourt, which had been in conflict for generations.
King Philip, worried about the richest area of the breaking into bloodshed, ordered the bailiffs of Bayeux. Geoffroy dHarcourt raised troops against the king, rallying a number of nobles protective of their autonomy, the rebels demanded that Geoffroy be made duke, thus guaranteeing the autonomy granted by the charter. Royal troops took the castle at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte and Geoffroy was exiled to Brabant, three of his companions were decapitated in Paris on 3 April 1344. In 1342, John was in Avignon at the coronation of Pope Clement VI, by 1345, increasing numbers of Norman rebels had begun to pay homage to Edward III, constituting a major threat to the legitimacy of the Valois kings. The defeat at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346, defections by the nobility, whose land fell within the broad economic influence of England, particularly in the north and west, increased. Consequently, King Philip VI decided to seek a truce, Duke John met Geoffroy dHarcourt, to whom the king agreed to return all confiscated goods, even appointing him sovereign captain in Normandy
Edward the Black Prince
Edward of Woodstock KG, called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall, the Prince of Wales and he was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and since the 16th century has been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was a military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy. In 1348 he was made a Founding Knight of the Garter, Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, Richard Barber comments that Edward has attracted relatively little attention from serious historians, but figures largely in popular history. Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire and he was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old.
In England, Edward served as a regent for periods in 1339,1340. He was expected to all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337. He served as High Sheriff of Cornwall from 1340–1341,1343,1358, Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent. Edward gained permission for the marriage from Pope Innocent VI and absolution for marriage to a blood-relative, the marriage caused some controversy, mainly because of Joans chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power. When in England, Edwards chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire and he served as the kings representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most fashionable of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings such as James IV of Majorca, Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Princes aid in recovering his throne.
Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera, in which he defeated the combined French. However Peter did not pay fully and refused to yield Biscay, Edward retreated to Guienne by July. The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died on 8 June 1376, Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry. However, some argue he may have been playing for time to preparation of his archers positions. On the other hand, his tendencies were overridden by expediency on many occasions. The Crécy Campaign on the front, which crippled the French army for ten years
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called Year of the Four Emperors. For political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply Imperator Caesar, without any of the other elements of his full name. His successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius, bore the name as a matter of course, born Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted by Caesar Augustus on June 26,4 AD, as Tiberius Julius Caesar. The precedent was set, the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him, Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name Caesar in the traditional way, his stepson would rule as the Emperor Nero. Galba helped solidify Caesar as the title of the heir by giving it to his own adopted heir. Galbas reign did not last long and he was deposed by Marcus Otho.
Otho did not at first use the title Caesar and occasionally used the title Nero as emperor, Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus. Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen Caesar as part of his name, vespasians son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. By this point the status of Caesar had been regularised into that of a given to the Emperor-designate. After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar Most Noble Caesar, on March 1,293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN, pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar.
Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title Caesar upon accession to the senior position, an exceptional case was the conferment of the dignity and its insignia to the Bulgarian khan Tervel by Justinian II who had helped him regain his throne in 705. The title was awarded to the brother of Empress Maria of Alania, according to the Klētorologion of 899, the Byzantine Caesars insignia were a crown without a cross, and the ceremony of a Caesars creation, is included in De Ceremoniis I.43. The title remained the highest in the hierarchy until the introduction of the sebastokratōr by Alexios I Komnenos. The title remained in existence through the last centuries of the Empire, in the late Byzantine hierarchy, as recorded in the mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos, the rank continued to come after the sebastokratōr. Pseudo-Kodinos writes that the forms of another form of hat, the domed skaranikon, and of the mantle. In the Middle East, the Persians and the Arabs continued to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors as Caesar
Bacons Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. A thousand Virginians of all classes and races rose up in arms against Berkeley, attacking Indians, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, the rebellion was first suppressed by a few armed merchant ships from London whose captains sided with Berkeley and the loyalists. Government forces from England arrived soon after and spent several years defeating pockets of resistance and it was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part. A similar uprising in Maryland took place that year, while the farmers did not succeed in their initial goal of driving the Indians from Virginia, the rebellion did result in Berkeley being recalled to England. The immediate cause of the rebellion was Governor William Berkeleys refusal to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, in addition, many colonists wished to push westward to claim Indian frontier land, but they were denied permission by Gov.
Berkeley. Modern historians have suggested it may have been a play by Bacon against Berkeley. Bacons financial backers included men of wealth from outside Berkeleys circle of influence, historian Peter Thompson argues that Bacons motivation was a personal vendetta between him and Berkeley. When Sir William Berkeley refused to retaliate against the Indians, farmers gathered around at the report of a new raiding party, Nathaniel Bacon arrived with a quantity of brandy, after it was distributed, he was elected leader. Against Berkeleys orders, the group struck south until they came to the Occaneechi tribe, after getting the Occaneechi to attack the Susquehannock and his men followed by killing most of the men and children at the village. Upon their return, they discovered that Berkeley had called for new elections to the Burgesses in order to facilitate the Indian problem. The recomposed House of Burgesses enacted a number of sweeping reforms and it limited the powers of the governor and restored suffrage rights to landless freemen.
After passage of laws, Bacon arrived with 500 followers in Jamestown to demand a commission to lead militia against the Indians. The governor, refused to yield to the pressure, when Bacon had his men take aim at Berkeley, he responded by baring his breast to Bacon and told Bacon to shoot him. Seeing that the Governor would not be moved, Bacon had his men take aim at the assembled burgesses, Bacon had earlier been promised a commission before he retired to his estate if he could only be on good behavior for two weeks. While Bacon was at Jamestown with his army, eight colonists were killed on the frontier in Henrico County due to a lack of manpower on the frontier. On July 30,1676, Bacon and his army issued the Declaration of the People of Virginia, the declaration criticized Berkeleys administration in detail. It accused him of levying taxes, appointing friends to high positions. After months of conflict, Bacons forces, numbering 300-500 men and they burned the colonial capital to the ground on September 19,1676
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great, known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer and his father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian, in 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, social, the government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation and it would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was adopted by Christians, in military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions.
The age of Constantine marked an epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years and his more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletians tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign, the medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Critics portrayed him as a tyrant, trends in modern and recent scholarship attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the site of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem.
The Papal claim to power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics, though Constantine has historically often been referred to as the First Christian Emperor, scholars debate his actual beliefs or even his actual comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure, the fluctuations in Constantines reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantines life, the nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesareas Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography
Battle of Poitiers
The Battle of Poitiers was a major battle of the Hundred Years War between England and France. The battle occurred on 19 September 1356 near Poitiers, preceded by the Battle of Crécy in 1346, and followed by the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, it was the second of the three great English victories of the war. The town and battle were often referred to as Poictiers at the time, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King Edward III, began a great chevauchée on 8 August 1356. He conducted many scorched earth raids northwards from the English base in Aquitaine, in an effort to bolster his troops in central France, as well as to raid and ravage the countryside. His forces met little resistance, burning towns to the ground and living off the land. They were unable to take the castle or burn the town due to a heavy downpour and this delay allowed John II, King of France, to attempt to catch Edwards army. There were negotiations before the battle of Poitiers that are recorded in the writings of the life of Sir John Chandos and he records the final moments of a meeting of both sides in an effort to avoid the bloody conflict at Poitiers.
Of speech there he made no stint, there they held their parliament, and each one spoke his mind. But their counsel I cannot relate, yet I know well, in truth, as I hear in my record. Sir Thomas Felton fought not only at Poitiers but at the Battle of Crécy, one of the chief commanders at both Crécy and Poitiers was John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, mentioned above. Another account states that John of Ghistelles perished at the Battle of Crécy so there is ambiguity as to this man. The French army included a contingent of Scots commanded by Sir William Douglas, Douglas fought in the Kings own Battle, but when the fight seemed over Douglas was dragged by his men from the melee. At the beginning of the battle, the English removed their baggage train leading the French to think they were about to retreat which provoked a hasty charge by the French knights against the archers. According to Froissart, the English attacked the enemy, especially the horses, geoffrey the Baker writes that the French armour was invulnerable to the English arrows, that the arrowheads either skidded off the armour or shattered on impact.
Given the following actions of the archers, it seems likely Baker was correct, the armour on the horses was weaker on the sides and back, so the archers moved to the sides of the cavalry and shot the horses in the flanks. This was a method of stopping a cavalry charge, as a falling horse often destroyed the cohesion of the enemys line. The Dauphin attacked Salisbury and pressed his advance in spite of heavy shot by the English archers, green suggests that the Dauphin had thousands of troops with him in this phase of the attack. He advanced to the English lines but ultimately fell back, the French were unable to penetrate the protective hedge the English were using
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī, known as Sayf Allāh al-Maslūl, was a companion of Muhammad. He is noted for his tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina under Muhammad. It was under his leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity. His strategic achievements include the conquest of Arabia during the Ridda Wars, Persian Mesopotamia and he is remembered for his decisive victories at Yamamah and Firaz, and his tactical successes at Walaja and Yarmouk. Khalid ibn al-Walid was from the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, from a clan that initially opposed Muhammad and he played a vital role in the Meccan victory at the Battle of Uhud against the Muslims. Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense, that while fighting and this earned him the title ‘Saif-ullah meaning The Sword Of Allah. Khalid took over after Zayd ibn Haritha, Jafar ibn Abi Talib, after Muhammads death, he played a key role in commanding Medinan forces for Abu Bakr in the Ridda wars, conquering central Arabia and subduing Arab tribes.
He captured the Sassanid Arab client Kingdom of Al-Hirah, and defeated the Sassanid Persian forces during his conquest of Iraq and he was transferred to the western front to capture Roman Syria and the Byzantine Arab client state of the Ghassanids. Although Umar relieved him of command, he nevertheless remained the effective leader of the forces arrayed against the Byzantines during the early stages of the Byzantine–Arab Wars. Under his command, Damascus was captured in 634 and the key Arab victory against the Byzantine forces was achieved at the Battle of Yarmouk, in 638, at the zenith of his career, he was dismissed from military services. Khalid is said to have fought around a hundred battles, both battles and minor skirmishes as well as single duels, during his military career. Having remained undefeated, he is claimed by some to be one of the finest military generals in history, Khalid was born c.592 in Mecca. His father was Walid ibn al-Mughirah, Sheikh of the Banu Makhzum, Walid was known in Mecca by the title of al-Waheed - the Loner.
Khalids mother was Lubabah al-Sughra bint al-Harith, a sister of Maymunah bint al-Harith. At the age of five or six, he returned to his parents in Mecca, during his childhood Khalid suffered a mild attack of smallpox, which he survived, but it left some pockmarks on his left cheek. The three leading clans of Quraysh at that time were Banu Hashim, Banu Abd ad-Dar and Banu Makhzum, the latter clan being responsible for the matters of warfare. As a member of the Makhzum clan, who were amongst the best horsemen in Arabia, Khalid learned to ride and use weapons as the spear, the lance, the bow. The lance was said to be his favorite among the weapons, in youth he was admired as a renowned warrior and wrestler among the Quraysh
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. William Kelso writes that Jamestown is where the British Empire began, Jamestown was established by the Virginia Company of London as James Fort on May 4,1607, and was considered permanent after brief abandonment in 1610. It followed several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke, Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699. The settlement was located within the country of Tsenacommacah, which was ruled by the Powhatan Confederacy, the natives initially welcomed and provided crucial provisions and support for the colonists, who were not agriculturally inclined. Relations with the newcomers soured fairly early on, leading to the annihilation of the Paspahegh in warfare within 3 years. Mortality at Jamestown itself was very high due to disease and starvation, the Second Supply brought the first two European women to the settlement.
They most likely worked in the fields as indentured servants. The modern conception of slavery in the future United States was formalized in 1640 and was entrenched in Virginia by 1660. In 1676, the town was burned during Bacons Rebellion. In 1699, the capital was relocated from Jamestown to what is today Williamsburg, after which Jamestown ceased to exist as a settlement, existing today only as an archaeological site. Today, Jamestown is one of three locations comprising the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia, along with Williamsburg and Yorktown, with two primary heritage sites, Historic Jamestowne, the archaeological site on Jamestown Island, is a cooperative effort by Jamestown National Historic Site and Preservation Virginia. Jamestown Settlement, a living history site, is operated by the Jamestown Yorktown Foundation. Spain and France moved quickly to establish a presence in the New World, the English did not attempt to found colonies until many decades after the explorations of John Cabot, and early efforts were failures—most notably the Roanoke Colony which vanished about 1590.
Late in 1606, English entrepreneurs set sail with a charter from the London Company to establish a colony in the New World, the fleet consisted of the ships Susan Constant and Godspeed, all under the leadership of Captain Christopher Newport. They made a long voyage of four months, including a stop in Puerto Rico. The expedition made landfall on April 26,1607 at a place which they named Cape Henry, Captain Edward Maria Wingfield was elected president of the governing council on April 25,1607. On May 14, he selected a piece of land on a peninsula some 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean as a prime location for a fortified settlement. Perhaps the most favorable fact about the location was that it was not inhabited by nearby Virginia Indian tribes, the island was swampy and isolated, and it offered limited space, was plagued by mosquitoes, and afforded only brackish tidal river water unsuitable for drinking
Siege of Damascus (634)
The Siege of Damascus lasted from 21 August to 19 September 634 AD before the city fell to the Rashidun Caliphate. Damascus was the first major city of the Byzantine empire to fall in the Muslim conquest of Syria, the last of the Roman-Persian Wars ended in 627, when Heraclius concluded a successful campaign against the Persians in Mesopotamia. At the same time, Mohammad united the Arabs under the banner of Islam, after his death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded him as the first Rashidun Caliph. Suppressing several internal revolts, Abu Bakr sought to expand the empire beyond the confines of the Arabian Peninsula, in April 634, Abu Bakr invaded the Byzantine Empire in the Levant and decisively defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Ajnadayn. The Muslim armies marched north and laid siege to Damascus, after the surrender of the city, the commanders disputed the terms of the peace agreement. The commanders finally agreed that the terms given by Abu Ubaidah would be met. The peace terms included an assurance that no pursuit will be undertaken by Muslims against the departing Roman convoy for three days, in 610, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Heraclius became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire after overthrowing Phocas.
While Heraclius focused his attention on the affairs of his empire, the Sassanid Persians conquered Mesopotamia, overran Syria in 611. In 612, Heraclius expelled the Persians from Anatolia, in 613, he launched a counter offensive against Syria, but was decisively defeated. Over the next decade, the Persians conquered Palestine and Egypt and Heraclius rebuilt his army, preparing for a new offensive and he achieved substantial victories over the Persians and their allies in the Caucasus and Armenia. In 627, he launched a winter offensive against Persia in Mesopotamia. This victory threatened the Persian capital city of Ctesiphon, Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with an elaborate ceremony in 629. In Arabia, the Prophet Mohammad had united most of Arabia under a single religious, when Mohammed died in June 632, Abu Bakr was elected to the newly formed office of Caliph, becoming Mohammads political and religious successor. Several Arabic tribes revolted against Abu Bakr, in the Ridda wars, Abu Bakr quelled the revolt.
By 633, Arabia was firmly united under the authority of the Caliph in Medina. In 633, Abu Bakr initiated a war of conquest against the neighboring Sassanian, after a successful conquest of the Persian province of Iraq, Abu Bakrs confidence grew and in April 634 his armies invaded the Byzantine Levant from four different routes. He attacked and overthrew the Byzantine defenses of Levant and quickly captured the Ghassanid capital city of Bosra, in July 634, the Muslim army under Khalids command defeated another Byzantine army in the Battle of Ajnadayn. After clearing their southern flank, the Muslims laid siege to Damascus, strategically located, Damascus attracted merchants from all over the world
Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine, in addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a metropolitan area of 2.6 million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus, first settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad, Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the government and all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC, the etymology of the ancient name T-m-ś-q is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic.
It is attested as Dimašqa in Akkadian, T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic, the Akkadian spelling is found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name include a intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr. Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is Damascus which was imported from originated from the Qumranic Darmeśeq, and Darmsûq in Syriac, meaning a well-watered land. In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbours. Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for Levant and for Syria, the latter, the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Syria and Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, however, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables, maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus.
Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not even exist, the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, to the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages, Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west. These neighbourhoods originally arose on roads leading out of the city and these new neighbourhoods were initially settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, the Roman Republic, and as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.
The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14,1775, the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war, most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne and this became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796. The Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies, and after 1776, when the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the leading to the war.
Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774, colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23,1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of an army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut soon raised similar, on July 18,1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age. It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days, after Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place. As the Continental Congress increasingly adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, as a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units.
Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army. The army never numbered more than 17,000 men, turnover proved a constant problem, particularly in the winter of 1776–77, and longer enlistments were approved. Major General Philip Schuylers ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada, the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus. This army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies. Enlistment terms extended to three years or to the length of the war to avoid the crises that depleted forces