The crusading military order, supported by the Popes and Christian Europe, sought to conquer and convert the pagan Prussians. In the first ten years of the five of the seven major Prussian clans fell under the control of the less numerous Teutonic Knights. However, the Prussians rose against their conquerors on five occasions, the first uprising was supported by Duke Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania. The Prussians were successful at first, reducing the Knights to only five of their strongest castles, the duke suffered a series of military defeats and was eventually forced to make peace with the Teutonic Knights. With Duke Swietopelks support for the Prussians broken, a prelate of Pope Innocent IV negotiated a treaty between the Prussians and the Knights. However, this treaty was never honored or enforced, especially after the Battle of Krücken at the end of 1249. The second uprising, known in historiography as The Great Prussian Uprising, was prompted by the 1260 Battle of Durbe and this uprising was the longest and most threatening to the Teutonic Order, who again were reduced to five of their strongest castles.
Reinforcements for the Knights were slow to arrive, despite repeated encouragements from Pope Urban IV, luckily for the Order, the Prussians lacked unity and a common strategy and reinforcements finally reached Prussia in around 1265. One by one, Prussian clans surrendered and the uprising was ended in 1274, the three lesser uprisings depended on foreign help and were suppressed within one or two years. Although the Prussians repelled early incursions by the Order of Dobrzyń, they were outnumbered by attacks from Poland, Russians in the southeast, preoccupied with crusades in the Holy Land, the Teutonic Knights arrived only in 1230. Their first task was to build a base on the bank of Vistula at Vogelsang, opposite of Toruń. Led by Hermann Balk, the Knights did not repeat the mistakes of the previous Order and they would further build fortified log castles along major rivers and the Vistula Lagoon to serve as basis for future expansion. In 1231–1242, forty such castles were built, the Prussians faced major difficulties in capturing these castles as they were accustomed only to battling in open fields.
Most conflicts occurred either in summer or winter, heavily-armoured knights could not travel and fight on land soaked by water from melting snow or autumn rains. Summer campaigns were most dangerous as the Knights would immediately build new castles in the conquered territory, the Teutonic Knights strategy proved successful, in ten years, five of the seven major Prussian clans fell under control of the less-numerous Teutonic Knights. However, the Prussians further resisted the conquerors, leading to five uprisings over the fifty years. The First Prussian Uprising was influenced by three major events, the Teutonic Knights lost the Battle of the Ice on Lake Peipus to Alexander Nevsky in April 1242. Secondly, southern Poland was devastated by a Mongol invasion in 1241, Poland lost the Battle of Legnica, Duke Swantopolk II of Pomerania was fighting against the Knights, who supported his brothers dynastic claims against him
Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the peaceful sea. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the reached the Spice Islands in 1521. Magellan did not complete the voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east, by visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, in March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D.
Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India, although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon. He participated in battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu and he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to an ending in retreat. Magellan had a role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, after the conquest their ways parted, Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the Spice Islands in the Moluccas and he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah.
His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories, after taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp and he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a member on a Portuguese ship
The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church which lasted from 1378 to 1417. Three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance. For a time these claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office. This reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence and to the papal efforts to extend its powers of patronage. After Pope Gregory XI died in 1378, the Romans rioted to ensure the election of a Roman for pope, on April 8,1378 the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidates presented themselves. Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari, was elected, urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious and prone to violent outbursts of temper. Robert took the name Clement VII and reestablished a papal court in Avignon, the second election threw the Church into turmoil.
The conflicts quickly escalated from a problem to a diplomatic crisis that divided Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula there were the Fernandine Wars and the 1383–1385 Crisis in Portugal, efforts were made to end the Schism through force or diplomacy. The French crown even tried to coerce antipope Benedict XIII, whom it nominally supported, the suggestion that a church council should resolve the Schism, first made in 1378, was not adopted at first because canon law required that a pope call a council. Eventually the cardinals of both factions secured an agreement that Benedict and Pope Gregory XII would meet at Savona and they balked at the last moment, and both groups of cardinals abandoned their preferred leaders. A church council was held at Pisa in 1409 under the auspices of the cardinals to try solving the dispute, at the fifteenth session,5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa attempted to depose both Pope and antipope as schismatical, heretical and scandalous. But it added to the problem by electing a second antipope and he reigned briefly from June 26,1409, to his death in 1410, when he was succeeded by antipope John XXIII, who won some but not universal support.
Finally, a council was convened by Pisan antipope John XXIII in 1414 at Constance to resolve the issue and this was endorsed by Pope Gregory XII, Innocent VIIs successor in Rome, thus ensuring the legitimacy of any election. The Council elected Pope Martin V in 1417, essentially ending the schism, the Crown of Aragon did not recognize Pope Martin V and continued to recognize Benedict XIII. Archbishops loyal to Benedict XIII subsequently elected Antipope Benedict XIV and three followers simultaneously elected Antipope Clement VIII, but the Western Schism was by practically over, Clement VIII resigned in 1429 and apparently recognized Martin V. The line of Roman popes is now recognized as the legitimate line, Pope Pius II decreed that no appeal could be made from pope to council, to avoid any future attempts to undo a papal election by anyone but the elected pope. No such crisis has arisen since the 15th century, and so there has no need to revisit this decision
Andrew I of Hungary
Andrew I the White or the Catholic was King of Hungary from 1046 to 1060. He descended from a branch of the Árpád dynasty. After spending fifteen years in exile, he ascended the throne during a revolt of the pagan Hungarians. He strengthened the position of Christianity in the Kingdom of Hungary and his efforts to ensure the succession of his son, resulted in the open revolt of his brother, Béla. Béla dethroned Andrew by force in 1060, Andrew suffered severe injuries during the fighting and died before his brother was crowned king. Medieval sources provide two contradictory reports of the parents of Andrew, and his two brothers, Levente and Béla, for instance, the Chronicle of Zagreb and Saint Gerards Life write that their father was Vazul, a grandson of Taksony, Grand Prince of the Hungarians. The Illuminated Chronicle and other sources write of Vazuls relationship with some girl from the Tátony clan who bore his sons. According to a concurrent tradition, which has been preserved by most chronicles, modern historians, who reject the latter report, agree that Andrew and his brothers were the sons of Vazul and his concubine from the Tátony clan.
According to the historian Gyula Kristó, Andrew was the second among Vazuls three sons and he writes that Andrew was born around 1015. According to medieval chronicles, Vazul was blinded during the reign of his cousin, King Stephen I, the king ordered Vazuls mutilation after the death, in 1031, of Emeric, his only son surviving infancy. The same source adds that the king expelled his blinded cousins three sons from Hungary. Having his own son died in his fathers life, and having no sons, the king of good memory. For his kinsmans son disagreed with him on this, had him blinded, even if he was worthier of the kingdom, exiled from Hungary and his brothers settled in the court of Duke Oldřich of Bohemia. Here they came across King Mieszko II of Poland who likewise took refuge in Bohemia after his opponents had expelled him from his kingdom, the Polish monarch regained his crown and returned to Poland in 1032. Andrew, Béla and Levente, whose condition of life was poor and mean in Bohemia, Hungarian chronicles have preserved a story full of fabulous or anachronistic details of the two brothers ensuing wanderings.
For instance, they narrate that Andrew and Levente were captured by Cumans, having faced many hardships and Levente established themselves in the court of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev in the late 1030s. The grand prince gave his daughter, Anastasia in marriage to Andrew, Kristó writes that Andrew, who had up to that time remained pagan, was baptized on this occasion. Having received permission from left their brother behind and made their way to the King of Lodomeria, since they had nowhere to lay their head, they went from there to the
Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
The Siege of Jerusalem was a siege on the city of Jerusalem that lasted from September 20 to October 2,1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin. Citizens wishing to leave paid a ransom, the defeat of Jerusalem signalled the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Europe responded in 1189 by launching the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, weakened by internal disputes, was defeated at the Battle of Hattin on 4 July 1187. Most of the nobility were taken prisoner, including King Guy, thousands of Muslim slaves were freed. By mid-September, Saladin had taken Acre, Jaffa, Sidon, the survivors of the battle and other refugees fled to Tyre, the only city able to hold out against Saladin, due to the fortuitous arrival of Conrad of Montferrat. In Tyre, Balian of Ibelin had asked Saladin for safe passage to Jerusalem in order to retrieve his wife Maria Comnena, Queen consort of Jerusalem and their family. Heraclius, who argued that he must stay for the sake of Christianity, offered to him of the oath.
As the highest ranking lord remaining in Jerusalem, according to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Balian found the situation in Jerusalem dire. The city was filled with refugees fleeing Saladins conquests, with more arriving daily, there were fewer than fourteen knights in the whole city, so he created sixty new knights from the ranks of the squires and burgesses. He prepared for the siege by storing food and money. The armies of Syria and Egypt assembled under Saladin, and after a brief and unsuccessful siege of Tyre, negotiations were carried out between Saladin and Balian, through the mediation of Yusuf Batit, one of the Eastern Orthodox clergy. Saladins army was facing the Tower of David and the Damascus Gate and his archers continually pelted the ramparts with arrows. Siege towers/belfries were rolled up to the walls, but were pushed back each time, for six days, skirmishes were fought with little result. Saladins forces suffered casualties after each assault, while the Crusaders lost only a few men.
On September 26, Saladin moved his camp to a different part of the city, the walls were constantly pounded by the siege engines, mangonels, Greek fire and arrows. A portion of the wall was mined, and it collapsed on September 29, the crusaders were unable to push Saladins troops back from the breach, but at the same time the Muslims could not gain entrance to the city. Soon there were only a few dozen knights and a handful of remaining men-at-arms capable of bearing arms and defending the wall, the civilians were in great despair. At Mount Calvary, women cropped their childrens hair, after immersing them chin-deep in basins of cold water and these penances were aimed at turning away Gods wrath from the city, but …Our Lord did not deign to hear the prayers or noise that was made in the city
Treaty of Ryswick
The Treaty of Ryswick, or Ryswyck, was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick in the Dutch Republic. The treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces. Under the terms of the treaty, France renounced some recent territorial gains, the French representatives had their headquarters at The Hague, and the allies were based in Delft, the conference taking place in between the two towns in the Huis ter Nieuwburg, Ryswick. Soon, Spain gave way, and on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England and the United Provinces. William persuaded Leopold to make peace, and a treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October, the basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen should be restored. France surrendered Freiburg and Philippsburg to the Holy Roman Empire, on the other hand, France regained Pondichéry, as well as Acadia, and Spain recovered Catalonia and the barrier fortresses of Mons and Kortrijk.
The War of the Grand Alliance played out in North America, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, along with their Native allies, fought the northern English colonies and their Native allies. Still, the Treaty of Ryswick returned the territorial borders to where they had been before the war, the Iroquois nation, deserted by the English allies, continued to make war on the French colonies until the Great Peace of Montreal of 1701. Needle of Rijswijk Peace of Basel 1795 — Hispaniola Barrier Treaty Treaty of Utrecht Treaty of Ryswick and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Treaty Of Ryswick. History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789324 pages online pp 141-54, eccles, W. J. Canada Under Louis XIV
Antipope Clement VII
Robert of Geneva was elected to the papacy as Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first antipope residing in Avignon, France. He was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva and he became Bishop of Thérouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368, and a cardinal on 30 May 1371. In 1392, he inherited the title of Count of Geneva, the title passed from him through his eldest sister Mary to her son, Humbert de Thoire. Clement owed the support of Queen Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons. Charles V of France, who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders. He had adherents, scattered through Germany, while Portugal on two occasions acknowledged him, but afterwards forsook him and Savoy acknowledged his authority. Unable to maintain himself in Italy, he took up his residence at Avignon in the southern French Comtat Venaissin, where he became dependent on the French court.
These tempting offers gave rise to a series of expeditions into Italy carried out almost exclusively at Clement’s expense, the campaign was unsuccessful, Louis suddenly died at Bisceglie on 20 September 1384. After the death of Louis, Clement hoped to find equally brave and interested champions in Louis’ son and namesake Louis II of Anjou, to which he donated the larger part of the Pontifical States. Clement tried to ally with Louis I, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Charles VI, with Charles VI himself, and with John III, Count of Armagnac. The prospect of his brilliant progress to Rome was ever before Clements eyes, his ambitions and the financial needs of his court had resorted to simony, the loss of land and extortion which discerned among his adherents the germs of disaffection. He had created excellent cardinals, but he seems never to have desired the termination of the schism. He died at Avignon on 16 September 1394, eventually it was determined that he would be recorded as an antipope rather than as a pope.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Valois. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Weber
Burgenland is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is 166 km long north to south but much narrower from west to east. The region is part of the Centrope Project, Burgenland is the seventh largest of Austrias nine states, or Bundesländer, at 3,962 km2. The highest point in the province is Geschriebenstein, at 884 metres above sea level, Burgenland borders the Austrian state of Styria to the southwest, and the state of Lower Austria to the northwest. To the east it borders Hungary, in the extreme north and south there are short borders with Slovakia and Slovenia respectively. Burgenland and Hungary share the Neusiedler See, a known for its reeds and shallowness. The Neusiedler See is Austrias largest lake, and is a great tourist attraction, bringing ornithologists, Burgenlands state assembly has 36 seats. The provincial government is a coalition of the SPÖ and the FPÖ, the voting age for regional elections in Burgenland was reduced to 16 in 2003.
Burgenland consists of nine districts, two cities and seven rural districts. From north to south, These combine the attributes of district, Burgenland is the only Austrian state which has never been part of the Archduchy of Austria, Holy Roman Empire, German Confederation nor Austria-Hungarys Cisleithania. The first Indo-European peoples appeared in this region around 3300 BC, from the 4th century BC, the area was dominated by Celts and in the 1st century AD it became part of the Roman Empire. During Roman administration, it was part of the province of Pannonia, during the late Roman Empire, Pannonia Prima province was part of larger administrative units, such are Diocese of Pannonia, Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and Praetorian prefecture of Italy. The first Germanic people to settle in this region were the Ostrogoths, the Ostrogoths became allies of Rome and were allowed to settle in Pannonia, being tasked to defend the Roman borders. In the 5th century, the area was conquered by the Huns, but after their defeat, in the 6th century, the territory was included in another Germanic state, the Kingdom of the Lombards.
However, the Lombards subsequently left towards Italy and the area came under the control of the Avars, briefly in the 7th century, the area was part of the Slavic State of Samo, but was subsequently returned to Avar control. After the Avar defeat at the end of the 8th century, after the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, new Germanic settlers came to the area. On 20 September 1058 Agnes of Poitou and Andrew I of Hungary, whose son married a daughter of Agnes of Poitou
Agnes of Poitou
Agnes of Poitou, called Agnes of Aquitaine or Empress Agnes, a member of the House of Poitiers, was German queen from 1043 and Holy Roman Empress from 1046 until 1056. From 1056 to 1061 she acted as regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son Henry IV and she was the daughter of the Ramnulfid duke William V of Aquitaine and Agnes of Burgundy. She thereby was the sister of Duke William VI of Aquitaine, Duke Odo of Gascony, Duke William VII and her maternal grandparents were Count Otto-William of Burgundy and Ermentrude of Rheims, daughter of Renaud of Roucy. Agnes married King Henry III of Germany in November 1043 at the Imperial Palace Ingelheim and she was his second wife after Gunhilda of Denmark, who had died from malaria in 1038. This marriage helped to solidify the Empires relationships with the houses in the west. King Henry was able to improve his position versus the French royal dynasty, like her husband, was of profound piety, her family had founded Cluny Abbey and Abbot Hugh the Great was godfather of her son Henry IV.
Henry III had secured the election of his son as King of the Romans on his deathbed, aided by Hugh of Cluny and Pope Victor II, Bishop of Eichstätt, tried to continue her husbands politics and to reinforce the rule of the Salian dynasty. However, despite being related to kings of Italy and Burgundy, the next year she enfeoffed Rudolf of Rheinfelden with Swabia, appointed him administrator of Burgundy and offered him the hand of her daughter Matilda. However, late Henry III had promised the Swabian duchy to Berthold of Zähringen, at the same time, while German forces interfered in the fratricidal struggle of King Andrew I and Béla I of Hungary, Agnes ceded the Duchy of Bavaria to Count Otto of Nordheim. He reached a settlement with Hungary by enforcing the coronation of Andrews son Solomon, though initially a follower of the Cluniac Reforms, Agnes opposed the contemporary papal reform movement, and took the side of Italian dissidents who did as well. However, on Easter 1059 Nicholas issued the papal bull In nomine Domini establishing the cardinals as the electors of the pope.
When Pope Alexander II was elected on 30 September 1061, Agnes refused to him and had Antipope Honorius II elected. The empress candidate could not prevail against the Roman Curia, in consequence, Agnes retired from politics, the fact that the heir to the throne was raised by common ministeriales led to anger with the princes. Henry was brought to Cologne, and despite jumping overboard from a board to escape, Agnes resigned, as ransom, from the throne, and Anno together with the archbishops Siegfried of Mainz and Adalbert of Bremen took her place. According to Frutolf of Michelsberg she retired to Fruttuaria Abbey after the dethroning, and when Henry IV reached majority moved to Rome, Agnes went on to act as a mediator and peacemaker between her son and the papacy. She died in Rome on 14 December 1077 and is buried at St. Peters Basilica, Agnes is a featured figure on Judy Chicagos installation piece The Dinner Party, being represented as one of the 999 names on the Heritage Floor. The Dinner Party, From Creation to Preservation