Siege of Vienna
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege signalled the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empires power and the extent of Ottoman expansion in central Europe. Thereafter,150 years of military tension and reciprocal attacks ensued, culminating in the Battle of Vienna of 1683. The inability of the Ottomans to capture Vienna in 1529 turned the tide against almost a century of conquest throughout eastern, the Ottoman Empire had previously annexed Central Hungary and established a vassal state in Transylvania in the wake of the Battle of Mohács. According to Arnold J. Toynbee, The failure of the first brought to a standstill the tide of Ottoman conquest which had been flooding up the Danube Valley for a century past. There is speculation by historians that Suleimans main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary. The decision to attack Vienna after such an interval in Suleimans European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary.
Other scholars theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a and his brother-in-law, Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, claimed the vacant Hungarian throne. Thus Hungary became divided into Royal Hungary and Ottoman Hungary up until 1700, Ferdinand set out to enforce his claim on Hungary and captured Buda in 1527, only to relinquish his hold on it in 1529 when an Ottoman counter-attack stripped Ferdinand of all his territorial gains. Estimates of Suleimans army vary widely from 120,000 to more than 300,000 men mentioned by various chroniclers, Suleiman launched his campaign on 10 May 1529 and faced numerous obstacles from the onset. Sickness and poor health became common among the janissaries, claiming many lives along the perilous journey, Suleiman arrived in Osijek on 6 August. The only resistance came at Pozsony, where the Turkish fleet was bombarded as it sailed up the Danube, as the Ottomans advanced towards Vienna, the citys population organised an ad-hoc resistance formed from local farmers and civilians determined to repel the inevitable attack.
The Ottoman army that arrived in late September had been depleted during the long advance into Austrian territory, leaving Suleiman short of camels. Many of his troops arrived at Vienna in a state of health after the tribulations of a long march through the thick of the European wet season. Of those fit to fight, a third were light cavalry, or Sipahis, three richly-dressed Austrian prisoners were dispatched as emissaries by the Sultan to negotiate the citys surrender, Salm sent three richly-dressed Muslims back without a response. More rain fell on 11 October, and with the Ottomans failing to make any breaches in the walls, in addition, Suleiman was facing critical shortages of supplies such as food and water, while casualties and desertions began taking a toll on his armys ranks. The janissaries began voicing their displeasure at the progression of events, the Sultan convened an official council on 12 October to deliberate the matter. It was decided to attempt one final, major assault on Vienna, extra rewards were offered to the troops
Lancaster, is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvanias Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvanias cities, the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the US and 2nd largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than such as Boston or San Francisco. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nations 15th president, originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster, Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penns Woods Charter of William Penn, and was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734. It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818, the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania.
Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg, in 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England. The prison remains in use, and was used for public hangings until 1912 and it replaced a 1737 structure on a different site. The first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, and was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word macadam in lieu of pavement or asphalt and this name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancasters most popular attractions, Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney.
Stevens gained notoriety as a Radical Republican and for his abolitionism, the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center, two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster, the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle. The Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River, which runs through the city, the innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U. S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott, during his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful five and dime store in the city of Lancaster, Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000
Pope Urban VII
Pope Urban VII, born Giovanni Battista Castagna, was Pope from 15 to 27 September 1590. His twelve-day papacy was the shortest in history, Giovanni Battista Castagna was born in Rome in 1521 to a noble family as the son of Cosimo Castagna and Costanza Ricci Giacobazzi. He was of Genoese origin, although born in Rome, Castagna studied in universities all across Italy and obtained a doctorate in civil law and canon law when he finished his studies at the University of Bologna. He served as a lawyer and entered the Roman Curia during the pontificate of Pope Julius III as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. He received episcopal consecration a month after at the home of Cardinal Girolamo Veralli and he served as the Governor of Fano from 1555 to 1559 and served as the Governor of Perugia and Umbria from 1559 to 1560. Castagna would participate in the Council of Trent from 1562 to 1563 and he was appointed as the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain in 1565 and served there until 1572, resigning his post from his archdiocese a year later.
He served as the Governor of Bologna from 1576 to 1577, among other positions, he was the Apostolic Nuncio to Venice from 1573 to 1577 and served as the Papal Legate to Flanders and Cologne from 1578 to 1580. Pope Gregory XIII elevated him to the cardinalate on 12 December 1583, after the death of Pope Sixtus V a conclave was convoked to elect a successor. Castagna was elected as pope on 15 September 1590 and his election was brought due to the backing of the Spanish factions. He selected the name of Urban VII. Urban VII was known for his charity to the poor and he subsidized Roman bakers so they could sell bread under cost, and restricted the spending on luxury items for members of his court. He subsidized public works throughout the Papal States. Urban VII was strictly against nepotism and he forbade it within the Roman Curia, Urban VII died on 27 September 1590, shortly before midnight, of malaria in Rome. He was buried in the Vatican, the funeral oration was delivered by Pompeo Ugonio. His remains were transferred to the church of S.
Maria sopra Minerva on 21 September 1606. His estate was valued at 30,000 scudi and it was bequeathed to the Archconfraternity of the Annunciation to use as dowries for poor young girls, Papal conclave, September 1590 Ott, Michael. Media related to Urbanus VII at Wikimedia Commons
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus Latin, Societas Iesu, S. J. SJ or SI) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in Spain. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents, Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice, Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, ignatiuss plan of the orders organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the Formula of the Institute. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world. The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council, the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General.
The Society of Jesus on October 3,2016 announced that Superior General Adolfo Nicolás resignation was officially accepted, on October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus elected Father Arturo Sosa as its thirty-first Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome, the historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, the Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. As of 1 January 2015, Jesuits numbered 16,740,11,986 clerics regular,2,733 scholastics,1,268 brothers and 753 novices. In 2012, Mark Raper S. J. wrote, Our numbers have been in decline for the last 40 years—from over 30,000 in the 1960s to fewer than 18,000 today. The steep declines in Europe and North America and consistent decline in Latin America have not been offset by the significant increase in South Asia, the Society is divided into 83 Provinces with six Independent Regions and ten Dependent Regions.
On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and their average age was 57.3 years,63.4 years for priests,29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa, the Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines. In the United States it maintains 28 colleges and universities and 58 high schools and he ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life and apostolate of the new religious order, the meeting is now commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre
Treaty of Melno
The Treaty of Melno or Treaty of Lake Melno was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War. It was signed on 27 September 1422, between the Teutonic Knights and an alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at Lake Melno, east of Graudenz. A portion of the original border partially survives as the border between the Republic of Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast, making it one of the most stable national borders in Europe. The First Peace of Thorn of 1411 did not resolve long-standing territorial disputes between the Teutonic Knights and the Polish–Lithuanian union, the peace transferred Samogitia to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but only for the lifetimes of Polish King Jogaila and Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas. At the time both rulers were aged men, soon disagreements arose as to the Samogitian borders, Vytautas claimed that the entire northern bank of the Neman River, including the port of Memel, was Samogitian territory. The dispute was mediated at the Council of Constance and by Sigismund, when Sigismund delivered an unfavorable judgment to the Lithuanians and Vytautas invaded the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights in July 1422, starting the Gollub War.
The Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Paul von Rusdorf, were unable to mount a suitable defense, however Poland–Lithuania decided to end the conflict before reinforcements from the Holy Roman Empire could arrive through Farther Pomerania. A truce was signed on 17 September 1422, each side named eight representatives, gave them full authority to negotiate, and sent them to the Polish Army camp near Lake Melno. The Treaty of Melno was concluded ten days later, on 27 September, according to the terms of the treaty, the Teutonic Knights for the first time renounced all territorial and missionary claims against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Samogitia was permanently ceded to Lithuania, the Prussian–Lithuanian border ran from sparsely inhabited wilderness in Suvalkija, through the triangle north of the Neman River, to Nemirseta on the Baltic Sea. Thus the Knights still controlled Nemans lower reaches and Memel, an important seaport, Lithuania retained access to the Baltic Sea between the towns of Palanga and Šventoji – a distance of about 15 kilometres.
However, Lithuania failed to develop harbors in Palanga or Šventoji as there were competition with the nearby established ports Memel and Libau. Thus it could not be considered a real access to the sea, for the Knights this short coastline strip was a major sacrifice as it separated the Teutonic Knights in Prussia from their branch in Livonia. The treaty is often described as a mutual Prussian–Lithuanian compromise and these results were described as a disappointment for Poland. At the time of the treaty, the parties did not have their official seals, Grand Master Rusdorf attempted to exploit the recess and renegotiate the treaty because his subjects were not satisfied with the terms. He hoped to wage a war with assistance from the Holy Roman Emperor and this meant that Vytautas had to abandon his interventions in Bohemia. The agreement was signed on 30 March 1423, the Treaty of Melno was subsequently ratified on 9–18 May in Veliuona and approved by Pope Martin V on 10 July 1423. Poland–Lithuania affixed some 120 official seals to the treaty, the first Lithuanian signatories were voivode of Vilnius Albertas Manvydas, starosta of Vilnius Kristinas Astikas, voivode of Trakai Jonas Jaunius, elder of Samogitia Mykolas Skirgaila
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
History of the Jews in France
The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France. There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages, France was a center of Jewish learning in the Middle Ages, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on, including multiple expulsions and returns. During the late 18th century French Revolution, France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population, Antisemitism has persisted despite legal equality, as expressed in the Dreyfus affair of the late 19th century. During World War II, the Vichy government collaborated with Nazi occupiers to deport numerous French, 75% of the Jewish population in France survived the Holocaust. In the 21st century, France has the largest Jewish population in Europe, the Jewish community in France is estimated to be 480, 000-500,000 but depends on the adopted definition. They migrated to France beginning in the late 20th century, since 2010 or so, more have been making aliyah there because of attacks on Jewish institutions and individuals in France.
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure, there is evidence of Jews in Rome. In the year 6 C. E. there were Jews at Vienne and Gallia Celtica, an early account praised Hilary of Poitiers for having fled from the Jewish society. At the funeral of Hilary, Bishop of Arles, in 449, Jews and Christians mingled in crowds and wept, from the year 465 the Church took official cognizance of the Jews. In the sixth century, Jews were documented in Marseilles, Arles, Uzès, Clermont-Ferrand, Orléans and these places were generally centers of Roman administration, and located on the great commercial routes. The Jews built synagogues in these centers, in harmony with the Theodosian code, and according to an edict of 331 aby the emperor Constantine, the Jews were organized for religious purposes as they were in the Roman empire. They appear to have had priests, patersynagogues, the Jews worked principally as merchants, as they were prohibited from owning land, they served as tax-collectors and physicians.
They probably remained under the Roman law until the triumph of Christianity, with the established by Caracalla. The emperor Constantius compelled the Jews to share in the curia and their association with fellow citizens was generally amicable, even after the establishment of Christianity in Gaul. The Christian clergy participated in some Jewish feasts, intermarriage between Jews and Christians sometimes occurred, and the Jews made proselytes, in the 6th century, a Jewish community thrived in Paris. They built a synagogue was on the Île de la Cité, but it was torn down by Christians. In 629, King Dagobert proposed to expel all Jews who would not accept Christianity, no mention of the Jews was found from his reign to that of Pepin the Short. But in the south of France, known as Septimania and a dependency of the Visigothic kings of Spain, from this epoch dates the earliest known Jewish inscription relating to France, that of Narbonne
Norman conquest of England
Williams claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged Williams hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north, Harolds army confronted Williams invaders on 14 October at the Battle of Hastings, Williams force defeated Harold, who was killed in the engagement. Although Williams main rivals were gone, he faced rebellions over the following years and was not secure on his throne until after 1072. The lands of the resisting English elite were confiscated, some of the elite fled into exile, to control his new kingdom, William granted lands to his followers and built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land. More gradual changes affected the classes and village life, the main change appears to have been the formal elimination of slavery.
There was little alteration in the structure of government, as the new Norman administrators took over many of the forms of Anglo-Saxon government. In 911 the Carolingian French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders and their settlement proved successful, and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen from which Normandy and Normans are derived. The Normans quickly adopted the culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They adopted the langue doïl of their new home and added features from their own Norse language, in 1002 King Æthelred the Unready married Emma of Normandy, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, Edward may have encouraged Duke William of Normandys ambitions for the English throne.
When King Edward died at the beginning of 1066, the lack of a clear heir led to a succession in which several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. Edwards immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, Harold was immediately challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. William and Harald at once set about assembling troops and ships to invade England, in early 1066, Harolds exiled brother, Tostig Godwinson, raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders, joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harolds fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, but he was back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, King Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying perhaps 15,000 men. Haralds army was augmented by the forces of Tostig, who threw his support behind the Norwegian kings bid for the throne
Siege of Candia
The Siege of Candia was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. In the 17th century, Venices power in the Mediterranean was waning, the Venetian Republic believed that the Ottomans would use any excuse to pursue further hostilities. In 1644, the Knights of Malta attacked an Ottoman convoy on its way from Alexandria to Constantinople and they landed at Candia with the loot, which included part of the Sultans harem, returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca. In response,60,000 Ottoman troops led by Yussuf Pasha disembarked on Venetian Crete and occupied La Canea, both of these cities took two months each to conquer. Between 1645 and 1648, the Ottomans occupied the rest of the island and prepared to take the capital, the siege of Candia began in May 1648. The Ottomans spent three months laying siege to the city, cutting off the supply, and disrupting Venices sea lanes to the city. For the next 16 years, they would bombard the city to little effect, the Venetians, in turn, sought to blockade the Ottoman-held Dardanelles to prevent the resupply of the Ottoman expeditionary force on Crete.
This effort led to a series of naval actions, on 21 June 1655 and 26 August 1656, the Venetians were victorious, although the Venetian commander, Lorenzo Marcello, was killed in the latter engagement. However, on 17–19 July 1657, the Ottoman navy soundly defeated the Venetians, Venice received more aid from other western European states after the 7 November 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees and the consequent peace between France and Spain. However, the Peace of Vasvár released additional Ottoman forces for action against the Venetians in Candia, in 1666, a Venetian attempt to recapture La Canea failed. The following year, Colonel Andrea Barozzi, a Venetian military engineer, defected to the Ottomans and this dual disaster was devastating to the morale of the citys defenders. He, accepted terms and surrendered to Ahmed Köprülü, his surrender without first receiving authorization to do so from the Venetian Senate made Morosini a controversial figure in Venice for some years afterward. After Candias fall, the Venetians somewhat offset their defeat by expanding their holdings in Dalmatia, although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out.
According to a scholar from the National Defense University, this attack was unknown to historians of biological warfare until published in December 2015. Naval battles of the Cretan Wars History of the Republic of Venice Ottoman Navy Ottoman wars in Europe The War for Candia, Venice Republic, Renaissance, 1645-69 The war of Candia, by Marco Antonio Bragadin. The Cretan War -1645 -1669 by Chrysoula Tzompanaki